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plan, test, and begin manufacturing the perfect machine gun; There have, indeed, been numerous uncles both in prose and ficbut in the meantime adopt and manufacture and use the best tion (not to say in black and white), but somehow, as the vague available machine gun in existence. And this is exactly what procession of their forms passes through the mind's eye, it seems our Government ought to do with regard to the airplane as though the title before their names had served rather to

If the Liberty motor is discovered by the hard test of warfare detach than to connect them with those to whom they owed the to be better than the available motors of established reputation, right to use the plumèd designation “ Uncle." then it should be built exclusively. But the Liberty motor has It is entirely probable that such a sweeping judgment as this never been tested by hard usage in warfare; and there are is based more on mood than on fact, but the possibility of its motors that have been so tested. Are we using, or planning to being at least a defensible judgment is increased when we use, such motors in the meantime? The Hispano-Suize is reflect upon the status of uncles in real-not reel-life. reputed to be the best airplane motor that France has evolved. The general application of the title in question to those soliThe Rolls-Royce airplane engine is regarded by many aviators tary males who have no blood nieces and nephews of their own, as the best in the world. Both have been tested by the relent- but who move through their solitary orbits, tangent only at less conditions of warfare. Are we going to ignore airplane widely scattered intervals with those well-ordered households motors such as these, wait until our Liberty motor is tested in where children dwell, might incline one at first thought to the warfare, discover that it needs certain improvements which it belief that uncles were classed as the equals in privilege of the will require time to install, and then wait again? It seems whole tribe of aunts. But is this belief justified ? inconceivable that our War Department has any such idea as Does there not exist a nice distinction between the use of the that; and yet this seems to have been the idea as to ordnance. titles "aunt” and “uncle” in this honorific sense, which often

And what is true of airplane motors is true of other phases escapes those married folk who are wont to endow their children of our airplane situation. There is, for example, the question of with a host of relatives honoris causa? If parents were frank airplane guns. The world is moving quickly these days in this with themselves in the explanation of their use of the words new science of the fourth arm in warfare. New guns and new "uncle” and “aunt," would they not define these words someways of mounting and firing them are the product of the what as follows: experiences of airmen along the front. Is America taking her Aunt: A predestined mother who, lacking offspring of her part in this advancement of aviation ?

own, is entitled to share, on occasion, in the affection which is Another phase of aviation is the protection provided for the the peculiar prerogative of those who wear the purple mantle aviator. Armored airplanes that protect the pilot from machine of motherhood. gun fire at only a hundred feet elevation have been used, we are Uncle: An unattached man whose awkward efforts to appear informed, by German fliers. Parachutes are now installed in in sympathy with the aims and aspirations of childhood should some airplanes, and new devices for lessening the danger of be received with becoming tolerance; a visitor from Mars fire. Is America waiting to get some American device in each within the four walls of the nursery who is expected and perof these respects, or is America profiting by European experi- mitted to feel only such detached interest as might be the ence and ordering the manufacture of the newest gun, the newest portion of a scientific observer from a remote world and a armor, the newest safety devices, wherever they may be found foreign civilization. .

In asking these questions we are not seeking to cast any So marked in some households is the distinction drawn beaspersion upon any man or group of men. Some of the men tween the respective rights of aunts and uncles that an impartial who have been and still are active in the Government's work observer can easily note in the victims of this unfair discriminaof aircraft production have been among the most far-seeing of tion an immediately responsive concealment of their real and Americans. Great credit is due, undoubtedly, to the Aircraft natural emotions—a concealment which at least injures their Production Board. But hard work, the best of intentions, and reputation for intelligence even if it does not go deep enough the most discerning foresight cannot alone win the war. There to raise hob with their spiritual development. must be what in business parlance is called “the goods." Rising to the demands of the situation in which they find Is the country getting “the goods ” ? If so, the fact is being themselves, they frequently manifest a superficial indifference to kept very secret.

the wiles (and wails) of childhood, which is nothing more than If we are really doing what we have promised ourselves and sheer, downright, brazen bravado of the most shameless brand. our allies and threatened Germany that we should do, the infor If you doubt this statement, watch the next youth confronted mation is of the sort that might well be made public. It is true, with the heir to some household on the momentous occasion information concerning the details of military preparation of when he (the youth, not the heir) is first greeted as an “ Uncle." which the enemy could take advantage ought to be kept secret. Does he blush? He does. Is it because he does not like it? It But good news for our side can do our enemy only harm. If it is is not. He blushes because he knows that those responsible for bad news, the evil will not be likely to be corrected unless the bestowing upon him that proud appellation have done so, not public learns it. The ordnance situation is a case in point out of respect for his personal and intimate ambitions, but be

What is the duty of the American public, whose fighting cause they are inclined to consider him as a variety of overgrown sons, brothers, and husbands are awaiting the weapons with cub trying to make himself at home in a queer world of strange which to win our victory? The unpardonable sin is indolence

The unpardonable sin is indolence shapes and unfamiliar dreams. and lassitude, or the paralysis of official red tape hidden under Swimming placidly in the waters of their domestic lake, the the plea of military secrecy; and it is the sin of the public if it fond—to use the word in both its Elizabethan and its Victorian permits inaction. In the light of the rifle and machine-gun senses—and forgetful parents observe his struggles much as revelations, it seems necessary that the public should demand a pair of ducks secure in their own familiar knowledge of the the truth concerning our airplane situation.

water might observe and misinterpret the struggles and protests of a strange duckling proceeding through the high grasses along

the shore under the unsympathetic chaperonage of some elderly IN DEFENSE OF AMATEUR UNCLES hen. From the pond the squawking efforts of such a duckling

to evade his escort might be ascribed to his innate aversion to We are wondering whether aunts have not had a larger water, when in reality they were caused by his frustrated desires place than they have deserved in the annals of vicarious parent- to get into the element in which he naturally belonged. hood. There are aunts and aunts, of course, and doubtless the Whether or not there is a moral of any particular value to be majority of them deserve all the praises and the privileges which drawn from this somewhat rambling dissertation on the rights they have received ; but we see no reason why aunts, as a class, and emotions of amateur uncles is a matter to be gravely should be allowed completely to monopolize, to the exclusion of doubted. The premises on which it is based may not be wholly their masculine colleagues, the choicest rights in the land of sound. Its conclusion, we admit, is at best vague and uncertain. near-parenthood.

Perhaps the moral may be that uncles, as well as aunts, have Even literature has not been particularly kind to uncles, a right to certain emotions even in the face of the indifference, though it is true that all writers have not assumed the attitude if not the laughter, of a hard and cruel world. (to borrow a phrase from Shakespeare) of “Uncle mne no uncle.” The next time, () parents, you meet with an uncle of the being.

amateur and peripatetic variety in his travels, treat him not as with their fathers and with their companions ; they have an alien within the walls of your home, no matter how stammer- learned-insensibly, it is true, but still really—something reingly he consents to the placing of your eldest upon his knee specting these political problems and the duties which citizenor how unconvincingly he jangles a: rattle in your baby's ear. ship lays upon them. The naturalized citizens have been, in a An uncle may not be an aunt, but at least he is a human different way, also considering the duties of political citizenship

and making some preparation to fulfill those duties, partly by

informal discussions with their comrades, partly through the TO THE WOMEN VOTERS political or industrial or social groups to which they belong.

These new voters will be added to the polling lists in their In certain States of the Union the duty has recently been laid respective communities in scores, in hundreds, and in a few of upon you of sharing with your husbands, brothers, and sons in the great cities in thousands. But it is estimated that in the the responsibility for the government of five distinct political State of New York over a million and three-quarters of women communities :

will be added to the polling lists. Some of you regard this as a The school district.

privilege which you have been eager to obtain; some of you The town or city.

have regarded it as a duty from which you were glad to be The county.

exempt. But those of you who have been eager have generally The State.

been so busy in trying to get the vote that you have had no The United States.

time to study carefully what that vote means or how it should To fulfill this new duty requires an intelligent understanding be exercised; while those of you who have hoped still to be of the respective political powers of these five communities. exempt from political duty have naturally not studied the subRoughly speaking, it may be said that,

ject at all. For the reasons which The Outlook has already stated The education of the youth depends upon the school district we urge you, certainly in the States where woman's suffrage authorities.

has been adopted, to accept the decision and prepare yourself Local order, peace, and sanitation depend upon the town or to fulfill the duties which that decision lays upon you. city authorities.

How shall this be done? There is no one way which is best The maintenance of good roads and bridges, the proper parti- in all communities or for all individuals. In some localities where tion of taxes between the different towns, and much of the enforce- there has been both a suffrage and an anti-suffrage organization, ment of criminal laws, depend upon the county authorities. .. the two could profitably unite in making woman's suffrage of

The school district, the town or city, and the county are all practical value to the community. In other localities where there subject to the control of the State authorities, upon whom is a woman's club, that club might profitably take up politics also depend many other questions, local or quasi-local in their as a suitable topic for non-partisan study. In other localities the character,

school district might be urged to organize a series of meetings, All those interests which concern the welfare of the entire to be held in the school-house or the assembly hall of the high Nation, such as foreign and inter-State transportation and com- · school, in which lectures should be given on the framework of merce, the tariff, the currency, the National defense, the mails, our Government and on the duties and responsibilities which the regulation of the railways and the telegraph, and all inter- participation in that Government involves. Whether this sysnational relations, depend upon the National authorities. tematic instruction is afforded by voluntary clubs or by the

To become acquainted with the various questions involved in school district in its official capacity, there ought to be an opporthe government of these several political organizations and the tunity for questioning by the auditors. The meeting should parduties which that government imposes upon the citizens will take of the nature of a class and, in whatever way this instrucrequire no inconsiderable amount both of information and of tion is afforded, it should be in gatherings to which all voters thoughtful and studious reflection. We urge you, therefore, in would be equally welcome. Those who attempt to initiate such your respective communities to organize plans for acquiring a campaign of political instruction should not forget that the this information, imparting it to others, and inspiring both in maid has just as much political power as the mistress; that the yourself and in others the study of these problems, that you may vote of one counts for just as much as the vote of the other; and contribute to their wise solution.

that one no less than the other needs both political instruction You may ask if such study is not as necessary for the male and the inspiration to a practical working patriotism. as for the female voter. Yes. Nevertheless there is a difference. We should be glad to get brief accounts of any attempt to The boys who will vote in the next election have been for some carry out these suggestions as to preparations for the new duties years looking forward to this duty. They have talked politics of the new day.

MR. GOMPERS ON GOVERNMENT OPERATION OF THE

RAILWAYS

TN reply to a request of The Outlook for a statement con “Answering your question as to what the attitude of organ

cerning the attitude of the trade unions toward the transfer ized labor would be upon the President's proclamation taking 1 of the railway systems of the United States from private to over the control of the railroads and other transportation agenpublic operation, Mr. Samuel Gompers, President of the Amer- cies, I would say that, in my judgment, there will be whole ican Federation of Labor, has sent us the following message, hearted support of his position and his action. Last week we printed statements of opinion of this revolutionary . “The separate ownership of the various railroads and their change from a representative Socialist organ, from railway competitive existence has shown that they cannot afford the best operators, from newspapers and individuals who have the point adaptability to do the essential work of the Government during of view of the capitalist, and from representative newspapers of the tremendous needs in this war. I know that the representathe North, the South, and the West. No statement on behalf tives of the railroad companies did their level best to afford of organized labor was included because no such statement from fullest possible service to meet the needs of the Government, an authorized source had been, so far as we were able to ascer- but, due to the causes I have mentioned and because of their tain, issued at that time. In spite of prompt and courteous separate interests and the laws which hedge them about, they compliance with our request, Mr. Gompers's statement did not were not capable of giving that united and comprehensive reach us until after The Outlook for last week had gone to support and service so essential now and which the President's press. It is so specific, however, and so authoritative and order will accomplish. In addition to its effectiveness for important, that we do not regret the circumstances which have military purposes it will be time-saving, give the opportunity l-l to its publication separately, and therefore more conspicu- for concentration of effort, and in the long run prove expedi. on-ly. Mr. Gompers's statement follows.

tious and economical.

SAMUEL GOMPERS."

N XPRESSED concisely, and chiefly in our own words, the cluding all genuinely Polish elements; justice for Rumania, and

K points of most importance in the different suggestions of some way to remove the distrust felt toward Austria-Hungary D a basis for peace-they should not strictly be regarded as among the peoples of the Near East; Armenia, Arabia, Meso “ terms of peace”—are about as follows :

potamia, Syria, and Palestine to be independent; the Darda

nelles to be neutralized ; Turkey to keep its capital; reparation THE RUSSIAN BOLSHEVIKI

for injuries in violation of international law; an international Germany to evacuate all Russian territory; Poland, Lithu

way of settling disputes after the war. ania, and the Lettish provinces to have autonomy ; Armenia to

PRESIDENT WILSON be free; the Alsace-Lorraine question to be settled by plebiscite, with guarantees of liberty to vote freely ; Belgium to be

So far we have summarized the statements of the war aims restored, damages to be paid from an international fund; the of our allies. We now quote verbatim President Wilson's sumsame for Serbia and Montenegro, but Serbia also to have access mary from his admirable address of January 8 before Congress : to the Adriatic; Bosnia and Herzegovina to be independent;

be independent; “All the peoples of the world are in effect partners in this Rumania to get its territory back, but to promise autonomy to

interest, and for our own part we see very clearly that unless the Dobrudja and to give Jews equal rights; Germany to get

justice be done to others it will not be done to us. back her colonies ; Persia and Greece to be restored ; the Tren

The programme of the world's peace, therefore, is our pro tino and Trieste to have autonomy until their future is left to a plebiscite; the Suez and Panama Canals to be neutralized, as

gramme, and that programme, the only possible programme, as

we see it, is this : well as all maritime straits (such as the Dardanelles); freedom of

I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which the seas to be upheld and the torpedoing of merchant ships for

there shall be no private international understandings of any bidden ; no indemnities; contributions already exacted to be

kind ; but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the returned; no commercial boycott; gradual disarmament; no

public view. standing armies ; no secret treaties; the delegates to the peace

II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas outside tercongress to be chosen by representative national bodies.

ritorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas

may be closed in whole or in part by international action for GERMANY

the enforcement of international covenants. Germany's colonies to be restored to her; Russian terri- III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic bartory to be evacuated except Poland, Lithuania, Courland, etc. riers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions —thus a plebiscite in these places would be positively under among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating German control and influence; no discrimination after the themselves for its maintenance. war against ships or goods of nations now enemies; no pay. IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national ment for damages or repayment of requisitions ; German armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with merchant ships to be returned ; Belgium to be evacuated, but domestic safety. no reparation from Germany; no yielding by Germany as to V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustAlsace-Lorraine ; all the Entente Allies to agree to Germany's ment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of terms before they are granted to Russia ; the nationality of the principle that in determining all such questions of soverthe countries now subject to larger nations to be decided by eignty the interests of the populations concerned must have those nations--this is the only meaning possible in Count equal weight with the equitable claims of the government Czernin's complicated statement, and under it Bohemia and whose title is to be determined. Armenia would remain subject to Austria and Turkey re VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settle spectively; Germany to keep garrisons at Riga and Libau, ment of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and and a few other Russian strongholds.

freest co-operation of the other nations of the world in obtain

ing for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for TURKEY

the independent determination of her own political development

and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the Free passage for Russian ships through the Dardanelles and

society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing ; Bosphorus ; Russia to remove her armies within her own bounds at once, to demobilize her Black Sea navy and her Armenian

and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that forces ; Turkey to retain her present army; frontier lines as

she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded before the war; individual war losses to be refunded ; guaran

Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the

acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs tees for Persian independence.

as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent LLOYD GEORGE

and unselfish sympathy.

VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuBelgium restored, with reparation so far as possible. “We ated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty mean to stand by the French democracy to the death in the de- which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No mand they make for a reconsideration of the great wrong of other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence '71" (i. e., the seizure of Alsace-Lorraine); the German-African among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set colonies to be administered for the benefit of their peoples, not and determined for the government of their relations with one exploited for European capitalists or governments; “ the de- another. Without this healing act the whole structure and struction or disruption of Germany has never been a war aim validity of international law is forever impaired. with us. ... Our wish ... is to turn her aside from schemes VIII. All French territory should be freed and the in vaded of military domination to devote her strength to the beneficent portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in tasks of the world;" Austria-Hungary and Turkey not to be 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the despoiled ; Germany's political Constitution to be left to the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in German people, although a democratic Constitution is desirable; order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest reference to the reply as to war aims made by Great Britain at of all. President Wilson's request when Germany maintained complete IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected silence as to her objects; Czernin's statement described as one along clearly recognizable lines of nationality. under which “any scheme of conquest and annexations could X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the be perpetrated;" “ Democracy in this country will stand to nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be the last by the democracy of France and Italy, ... Russia can accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development. only be saved by her own people ;" an independent Poland, in- XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated : occupied territories restored ; Serbia accorded free and secure the sea, and whose political and economic independence and access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan States territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covto one another determined by friendly counsel along historically enant.'' established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under guarantees of the political and economic independence and ter specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees ritorial integrity of the several Balkan States should be entered of political independence and territorial integrity to great and into.

small states alike. XII. The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire In regard to these essential rectifications of wrong and assershould be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationali- tions of right, we feel ourselves to be intimate partners of all ties which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an the governments and peoples associated together against the undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested oppor imperialists. We cannot be separated in interest or divided in tunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should purpose. We stand together until the end. be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and com. For such arrangements and covenants we are willing to fight, merce of all nations under international guarantees,

and to continue to fight, until they are achieved ; but only XIII. An independent Polish state should be erected which because we wish the right to prevail and desire a just and should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish stable peace, such as can be secured only by removing the chief populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to provocations of war-which this programme does remove.'

through deal witla po more the Shiping the ship

EXPERIMENTS IN REORGANIZATION

BUILDING OVER THE WAR DEPARTMENT MACHINERY M H E disclosures in Congress concerning the inefficient Acting Quartermaster-General, in which office he directs the

organization of the War Department and the methods supply, subsistence, and pay departments of the Army, has now

and customs of the War Department bureaucracy have been added the task of Director of War Department Transresulted in an attempt to place the bureaus responsible for the portation, and Storage. All the bureaus of the War Departpurchase and production of supplies upon a business basis. ment, which have previously been independent of each other How successful the present plan for reorganization will be so far as the transportation and storage of material was conremains to be proved.

cerned, have been directed to co-ordinate their demands for The Secretary of War has announced that the Ordnance De transportation through the new Director. The new Director partment, which has up to this time operated through five sepa will be in a position to deal with power and efficiency, with the rate divisions under the Chief of Ordnance, will be consolidated. Director of Railroads, Mr. McAdoo, or the Shipping Board, or In the future the Chief of Ordnance will be assisted by an any other agency of the Government controlling the shipping administrative and advisory staff, and his Department will be and transportation facilities of the country. divided into four operating divisions, instead of five. The four The Congressional investigations have not only disclosed new divisions are expected to co-operate much more closely serious inefficiency within the several bureaus of the War than did their equivalents under the old form of administra Department, but they have also disclosed an unlooked-for tion.

complication in regard to the functions of the Council of It is announced that these four divisions, which will carry on National Defense and its subordinate committees. The Counthe chief business functions of the Ordnance Department, are cil of National Defense, it was hoped, would provide the War to possess the following functions: (1) Procurement; (2) Pro Department with a means of expediting the purchase and duction ; (3) Inspection ;(4) Supply. In the hands of the Pro distribution of supplies. This it has doubtless done to a very curement Division will be placed the power to carry on negotia- large extent, but it is evident that it has also afforded to certain tions for contracts. The Production Division will follow up, bureaus an opportunity to engage in the very popular Washingsupervise, and stimulate the production of all articles contracted ton game of passing the buck.” Instead of serving to expedite for by the Procurement Division. The title of the Inspection the efforts of the War Department, the Council of National DeDivision is self-explanatory. Upon the Supply Division will be fense has been used as an excuse to pass on to some one else the placed responsibility for the distribution and transportation of responsibility for the failure of the War Department to provide all supplies procured, produced, and inspected by the three our new Army with the needed supplies and equipment. Howpreceding divisions. It is expected that civilian heads will be ever much members of the sub-committees of the Council of placed in charge of these four new divisions.

National Defense may have been at fault in the advice which It may be captious to remark a superficial similarity between they have given the War Department, it is obvious that the this system and the tale of “ Cock Robin ” or the “House that legal and moral responsibility for the failure to equip our troops Jack Built.” Perhaps in fact it will not prove as roundabout rests with the War Department alone. This responsibility is as it sounds in the teīling.

one which cannot be dodged. General Crozier will remain as the titular head of the Ord. The disclosures of the efforts of War Department officials nance Department, although General Charles B. Wheeler has to pass on the responsibility for failure to the Council of Nabeen designated as Acting Chief of Ordnance. General Crozier, tional Defense and the complementary (but not very compliit will be recalled, was recently detailed for duty with the newly mentary) rejoinders by members of the Council of National created Army War Council. His duties on the Council, so Defense concerning the inadequate organization within the it is announced in Washington, preclude his taking active part War Department, have resulted in a movement to take the in the administration of the Ordnance Department, of which question of conflicting authority between the War Department he is still legally chief.

and the Council of National Defense out of the realm of conThe disclosures in Congress demonstrated clearly that the troversy. Senator Chamberlain has drafted a bill providing for Ordnance Department was not the only bureau in the War the creation of a Secretary of Munitions, with a seat in the Department which needed a drastic shake-up. The Quarter Cabinet, whose function it will be to direct the purchase of all inaster-General's Department under the stress of war proved war materials. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that inadequate to the task assigned to it. Major-General Goethals such a step may have to be taken as the only way to cut the was therefore made Acting Quartermaster-General soon after Gordian knot of red tape. The value of a Secretary of MuniGeneral Sharpe, like General Crozier, was removed upward tions, however, would depend on the competence of the man into the Army War Council. To General Goethals's function as selected for the post.

A VINDICATION OF JAPAN'S FOREIGN POLICY BY MARQUIS OKUMA
AS INTERVIEWED BY GREGORY MASON, OF THE OUTLOOK STAFF

· FEW months ago his opponents were sure that politically Shiozawa. The Marquis understood what I had said, and with

Marquis Okuma was finished. More recently it seemed out waiting for any interpretation launched into a discourse

that in a completer sense he had run his course, when which lasted fully half an hour. He is a great talker. His for several days he balanced on the edge of death. But a knack opponents twit him about his fondness for monologues. But of turning defeat into victory has marked the long life of the without understanding the Japanese language I could tell it was young old man who has five times been a member of the Cabinet eloquent; he hardly paused for breath, and worked himself into and twice Premier of Japan. The other day Marquis Okuma a great earnestness, tapping his knee with his cigarette holder was entertained at dinner by three hundred friends who toasted for emphasis. his return to health. And he is no more dead politically than Dr. Shiozawa put his translation into the first person, speakphysically. He may not hold office again, but while he lives he ing as if he were Okuma. will be a force in politics.

W When I heard of the conclusion of the Ishi-Lansing Marquis Okuma has begun again writing articles and giving Agreement, I shouted for joy. It is a splendid thing, a splendid interviews on political, social, and educational questions of the arrangement for China, for America, and for Japan. I rejoice day-everything from the “open door” in China to the advisa- because it contains just the sort of principles I have been fightbility of the adoption of Roman letters for the written language ing for through long years of my public career. of Japan. This method of expression has long been a favorite “More than twenty years ago Japan had a war with China. one with Okuma, especially when the tiller of Government is Japan did not seek that war. It was forced upon her. But, out of his hand. Okuma is like Roosevelt, you can deprive him since she had to fight, she fought as well as she could, which was of office, but while he lives you cannot deprive him of influence. good enough to win. Seeing that she had exposed China's

Nor while he lives can you deprive him of his wide and deep weakness and that she had gained some pieces of territory by interest in life. That has saved him from death time and again. the war, the Powers began to talk about partitioning China. I You can see this in his eyes—very shrewd but very kind-eyes was Foreign Minister then, and I opposed that suggestion. that have been kept young by their zest for everything they have They wanted to divide up China in much the same way as the seen. What other living eyes have seen more than they? They Powers had divided up Africa. But China is not like Africa. have seen a barbarous feudal state where men wore two swords China has a definite civilization of its own, Africa has nothing at the thigh become a modern nation of factories, limousines, of this sort. Incidentally it would be a difficult labor for any and derby hats. Were there an Englishman or a Frenchman nation to absorb much of China. In the end, like a creeping now living who had lived in the England or the France of the vine, China might choke any nation that tried it. feudal period he would have known no greater changes than “Some of the Powers were much disappointed because of those which Okuma has known. And it is the determination to Japan's opposition to the partition of China. In particular Gersee the outcome of other changes now in evolution which keeps many was disappointed. So the Kaiser spoke up and warned Okuma alive and energetic at eighty.

the world against what he called the ‘Yellow Peril.' “ About two months ago, when I was very seriously ill,” said “Later, when Russia tried to encroach on parts of China not he when I had congratulated him on his recovery, “the world guaranteed by treaty against aggression, Germany backed her seemed wonderfully interesting. So I determined to postpone up. Germany was playing an underhanded game. Japan's warzmy departure from it for a little while longer.”

ing roused the attention of the other Powers, and Germany and We were sitting in a parlor of Okuma's big, foreign-style Russia backed down. house at Waseda, a suburb of Tokyo, the site of Waseda Uni “Then John Hay came forward with his proposal for the versity, founded by Okuma and still governed by him. The 'open door' in China. Japan welcomed this. It was just the room was very large, and bitter cold. In Japanese fashion, it sort of thing we had been fighting for. It displeased Russia and had been unheated till we entered it, but now gas jets were lighted Germany, but they had to accept. behind the imitation coals in the single fireplace. Twenty feet “But before long Russia began encroaching again, on Korea away from its desirable warmth we huddled around a little and Manchuria. Four times Japan gave in to Russia, when table-Okuma, Dr. Masasada Shiozawa, Dean of the School of some other nations would have fought; but the time came when Economics of Waseda University, and I. As slight auxiliaries Japan could give in no more. Japan fought in self-defense--an against the damp cold of the great room there were the thick island Empire threatened with being pushed into the sea by the flaming red carpet and a pile of igneous and calorific substances Russian landslide. which a servant placed on the table before us at Okuma's order. “ As a result of that war Japan got Korea and part of There were cigars, Japanese and foreign cigarettes, “whisky Saghalien, but she had not gone into the war with any aim of bonbons," crackers, and piping hot tea. This was English tea territorial aggrandizement. Nevertheless people again began served with sugar and “ cream”-as thin milk is courteously talking of the Yellow Peril. called in Japan, where champagne is common and real cream “ When the present war began, Japan had no thought of is a luxury seldom seen and hardly ever tasted. Later, as we aggression or foreign conquest. She was devoting herself to her talked, servants brought in more tea-Japanese tea, fragrant, own peculiar problems, local and internal. But the Allies asked untainted with sugar, and served in daintily colored cups. her to do her part under the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, and she it. Marquis Okuma reads English and understands some of the was glad to do so. England had been a good friend of Japan spoken language, but speaks it little himself. Dr. Shiozawa, a and deserved a friendly return. So Japan swept the Germans distinguished and accomplished gentleman of average Japanese out of the Orient and off the Pacific. Again some enemies

ize, with a huge, handsome mustache drooping like a pirate's, charged that Japan was self-seeking, and raised the cry about had volunteered as interpreter.

the Yellow Peril.' How absurd that is ! No one has ever sug. Except for the luxury of that frigid room we might have gested that Japan was concerned with beginning the war! Then 'been three desperate Arctic explorers conferring over their last why blame her for fulfilling her legal obligations to England. cache of supplies: Okuma-plainly the leader --with high cheek- which is all she has done, and which she has been glad to do? bones and bold head like a Cossack, and an Irish boldness in “But in regard to the Ishii-Lansing Agreement. It is true his voice and eye; Dr. Shiozawa, little, with intelligent, sym- that it's nothing new, as the critics say. But it is good, it will pathetic eyes showing out of his enveloping winter kimono do much good. It is valuable to have these principles reiteratel and from behind his great tusks of mustache, where tiny icicles and in writing. When the news of it was brought to me I was tried to form ; myself, long, bony, cadaverous with cold.

very glad. It means the dawn of a new day in the Far East “I would like to ask Marquis Okuma for his opinion of the and on the Pacific. It gives the lie to the talk of self-seeking. Ishii-Lansing Agreement with regard to China," I said to Dr. on both sides. It is very substantial evidence that both sides

When the news of a new dayik" of self-seekingen

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