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want to be fair and friendly. And, above all, it declares that the other hand is extended in welcome, and the breast is bared China must not be partitioned, as I have contended all along. in kindness and love for all good influences. Japan is stern and

“ By the Ishii-Lansing Agreement the Far East ceases to be chaste--as America is. Our Samurai spirit is matched by your a center of suspicion. The convention gives Japan her just Puritan spirit. So may Japan and America work in harmony dues—and nothing more which is all she wants.

for good. “No one need worry about the question of the future inter- “ Please remember, though, all friends of Japan-as you pretation of the clause which recognizes Japan's special in- Americans —when men speak against Japan you must always terests in China. What Japan wants in China is the right of wait to hear her side. Some say that the United States was aggrescommercial expansion under equal opportunity. She has no sive and determined on conquest in the war with Spain because desire to push other nations out."

she came out of that war with Porto Rico and the Philippines. Dr. Shiozawa stopped speaking. I asked a question about Some say that England was unjust and selfish in her war with Okuma's understanding of the last clause in the Ishii-Lansing African tribes because she emerged with Egypt in her possesAgreement, in which the two Powers“ mutually declare” that sion. But intelligent Japanese know that such charges are they are opposed to any infringement of China's integrity. I absurd. So do we hope you will recognize that it is absurd when put the question as follows:

it is said that Japan has gone into her wars for conquest.” “Some men say that this last clause of the Agreement means While all this was being interpreted Okuma kept smiling and that if terrible disorder should break out in China, endangering nodding his head. When he turned his profile as he lit a cigaforeign interests and lives, Japan, in view of her "special" rette he silhouetted against the window his jutting eyebrows, relation to China, would be justified in sending in an army to his prognathic mouth, the upper lip slightly prehensile, like a proteet foreign interests and restore order just as she did at fute player's. These features and something quizzical and boythe time of the Boxer Rebellion, and just as America sent Gen. ish in his expression kept suggesting an Irishman rather than eral Pershing into Mexico. And, moreover, that in the event of a Japanese. He looked a little like old Mike Donovan, once such an occurrence America's pledge as now given to Japan famous pugilist and later famous as the boxing instructor and means that, being too far away to act as policeman in China friend of many well-known Americans, including Theodore herself, she will support Japanese police intervention in China, Roosevelt. He seemed democratic, un-selfconscious, full of pure perhaps financially, morally at any rate-vouching to the other enjoyment in his talk, altogether the sort of man you would Powers for Japan's disinterestedness and sincerity, and guaran- call behind his back “ a fine old boy." teeing that Japan is only acting as policeman, and will not per Lately the Japanese press has been full of editorials and manently occupy any part of China. Do you understand that interviews purporting to prove how impossible it is for Japan this last clause of the Ishii-Lansing Agreement means that ?” to do more in the war than she is doing, and especially that it

“Yes," was Okuma's reply, “I understand it means just is out of the question to consider sending Japanese troops to any something like that. Japan is not anxious to do any active con- European front. All this seems to be called forth by the belief stabulary work within China-it would be very difficult. Besides, that there is danger that the Allies will ask Japan to make the same old suspicious groups would raise the cry that Japan greater sacrifices. The intimations from Washington that the was intending to take something for herself, just as some people Ishii mission had arranged with the American State Departsaid the Pershing expedition was sent into Mexico for conquest. ment for an enlargement of Japan's share in the war have been Naturally, while China is unsettled a policeman may be needed. the cause of much discussion and speculation in Japan. So I Japan, through propinquity, is the natural one to fill the posi- asked Marquis Okuma if he thought Japan would do anything tion. The Ishii-Lansing Agreement is Japan's pledge that she more in the war than she has been doing. Said he: will act in good faith in case she is called on to do police work “It cannot be said that Japan will not do more, because couin China, and it is America's indorsement of the validity of ditions may change. At present it can only be said that public Japan's pledge and America's guarantee to other Powers that opinion is all against sending Japanese soldiers to Europe. The Japan will keep her word.

people feel that Japan has done her part, and they don't see why * So the Agreement will defeat the attempts of all those who she should do more. We have swept the Germans from the Far are trying to separate Japan and the United States and who East, which was our field. Our people feel that the other fronts seek to create bad feeling and suspicion out of Far Eastern are very remote. The Allies must not be unfair to Japan be issnes generally.”

cause of this feeling of our people. We recognize that it is a While Dr. Shiozawa had been interpreting, the venerable war for democracy, that it is a war for international justice. It statesman had pressed a button somewhere and given instruc- isn't that we don't sympathize with our allies, but that we doubt tions to the summoned servant, who now returned carrying a the need of helping them with men, now. bronze Buddha, about eight inches high and sitting cross-legged “Remember, it took two and a half years for American public on a lotus flower, as Buddhas like to do. The right breast of opinion to be roused to the point of wanting to fight. In a sense the image was bare, the right hand thrust downward against the you are nearer the war than we—at least you have suffered more right knee, while the left hand lay open and relaxed on the left from German submarine attacks. It is quite possible that Japaknee. With his boyish Celtic smile Okuma hitched his chair nese public opinion on this question will change. The capture of close to the table and pointed to the figure, speaking as follows, Petrograd by the Germans might make a change in Japanese in short, emphatic sentences :

feeling. Any likelihood of a German advance east through "Let us take this whole figure as a symbol of Japan. The right Russia, either now or as a result of victories later, would alarm fist, pushing downward, is repressing evil, pushing all bad spir- the Japanese people. Other things, too, might change public its away. The left hand is open and ready to be extended in opinion here. Anyway, Japanese officers are in France studywelcome. It signifies generosity and love. The right breast, ing the military problems there closely, and our army is keepwhich is open to the air, also means love, friendship, and sym- ing up to date-in case it should be needed." pathy for the world.

Do you mean to say that the Japanese are more vitally " That is the spirit of Japan. That is Bushido—that is the interested in the French front than in any other?" I asked. spirit and attitude of the Samurai. Japan fights evil when it is “What front do you think the Japanese would probably go to necessary. She is prepared to fight. But, like her old Samurai, in case their troops should be sent abroad?” she prides herself on drawing the sword as rarely as possible. “That,” he replied, “ would be determined largely by our (Of course she has her militarists, but so has every country, public opinion. You know we Japanese are much moved by and it is not fair to judge Japan by these few men alone. They matters of sentiment. I should imagine that public opinion are not in control in Japan, and will not be.) So, you see, Japan would favor the western front, for it is part of the Samurai draws the sword only in defense. But she is an island Empire, spirit to choose the hardest tasks. We would perhaps send half with a growing population. She is dependent on outside com a million men, perhaps more, but we would be ready to sacrifice merce and industry, and she must be ready to defend herself that many men at once, anyway. We would hope to be given against aggression, especially such aggression from Asia as Rus- twenty to fifty miles of the western front, and we would pray to sia brought against her in the past. But she has no aggressive be given Hindenburg, Mackensen, or the Crown Prince as our designs. She represses evil with one hand, as this Buddha does; opponent. Then we would drive in, ready to lose half of our five hundred thousand men or all of them, but confident that we Shiozawa took his left arm and I twok his right. It was as big could strike the Germans such a blow that, with the pressure of our as a shot-putter's and as hard as iron. allies on each side, the Germans would fall back to the Rhine. Okuna's views have far more weight than those of an ordi

- That is the Samurai spirit, and Japan would fight in that nary statesman out of office. The man who has fought a lifelong spirit or not at all. Lenser tasks on weaker fronts do not appeal fight for liberty and democracy in the autocratic Empire wields to our national sentiment.

a vast, quiet influence in Japan. He is almost alone among the * You can sympathize with that feeling, you Americans, who old men of Japan in his liberalism. It is true that bis liberalcan match the hardihood which our people have inherited from ism seems to shrink when he holds office, but this is true of our Samurai with the stern courage which you have inherited other Japanese statesmen, and influences which work secretly from your Puritans."

back of the Government may be the cause. Okuma is the friend Okuma had spoken in a full, vigorous voice. With his alert, of the young men of his country in whose hands lies the cause unhesitating manner, he looked more like a man of sixty than of Japanese democracy. He has always been a young man's a man of eighty. The first sign of infirmity was when he rose, man. He has always looked forward. His Japan is the new for he stood quite unsteadily on the artificial leg which he has Japan which the world will know in the years that are ahead. used ever since the attempt to assassinate him in 1888. Dr. Tokyo, December 3, 1917.

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HEROES OF AVIATION

BY LAURENCE LA TOURETTE DRIGGS

AUTHOR OF THE ARNOLD ADAIR STORIES RECENTLY CONCLUDED IN THE OUTLOOK THE most frightful death that can be feared in war avia-. ness and judgment as an example to other aviatois now training

tion is perhaps that of burning alive in mid-fight far, in France.

above the possibility of succor or escape. A shot in the On September 10, 1915, a French reconnaissance biplane, * fuel tank or a back-fire of an overheated engine may ignite the piloted by Lieutenant Le Gall and occupied by Captain Sollier petrol. The unfortunate pilot has but two courses open-to. as observer, was circling disdainfully over the German guns at descend while his very motion fans 'the flames into redoubled a low elevation and plainly within the sight of the admiring fury, or to jump from his machine to certain death without the poilus from their trenches. Captain Sollier was correcting his torture of burning.

: map of the enemy's position and was jotting down in his noteAirplane parachutes are now perfected whereby a fair chance book frequent items of interest as the enemy strongholds were for escape is given to an unhappy pilot thus driven over the revealed to his survey. side of his doomed machine. A comparatively safe fuel tank Le Gall, the pilot, amused himself with watching the futile has recently been devised which will quite adequately protect bursts of anti-aircraft shells as they dotted the air behind him. the petrol from ignition by bullets or shell. Thus necessity con- Far overhead sat a trio of scouting machines guarding them tinues to be the mother of invention, and thus gigantic strides from attack by enemy airmen. for the safety of aircraft are impelled by these uncivilized perils Suddenly a German shell burst directly beneath them. The of warfare-to the eternal benefit of this fascinating sport. explosion hurled the biplane violently upwards. The machine

German airplanes of late 1917 design are equipped with a turned upside down, and as the two comrades looked at each device whereby a flaming fuel tank can be discarded by the other they saw a burst of flame gush from the ruptured fuel pilot with one stroke of a lever. A small additional tank pro- tank behind them. vides essence enough to take the airplane home.

The wind was blowing towards the French lines. As the airOur first contingent of American-trained Aiers to arrive at plane dropped, swooping this way and that, the hot flames the front contained a finished pilot and a charming gentleman alternately licked their faces, paused there for an instant, tben in the person of the debonair Ned Post, of New York and swept away from them with the breeze, only to return to their Harvard. To the thousands of his friends who have delightedly torture with the following swoop. Their clothing was ablaze, witnessed his daring flights at Governor's Island and Garden and a landing-place was still hundreds of feet distant. They City his latest exploit in France will be of interest. ' . could not hope to reach it. The blazing machine must crash

On September 25, 1917, Lieutenant Post went aloft in a new inside the German lines; the shock of landing might extinguish type of airplane, the swiftest and fastest-climbing machine the flames, and in this case their papers would be left unconknown to aviation. He attained a height of twenty-two thousand sumed in the hands of the enemy. feet in the frigid air before he discovered that he was numb with Captain Sollier, who sat nearest the blaze, reached forward cold. It was the first trial of his new machine, and he had left and handed his pilot some of his maps and his note-book. Both the ground simply for the purpose of testing its capacities. began rapidly tearing the papers into tiny squares. No matter

Volplaning steeply down towards his airdrome, Post strained whether the fire consumed them or not, no information should his now craft to the utmost with every variety of twist and turn be saved for the enemy! : that could possibly be experienced in the throes of actual aerial The breeze" carried the fluttering fragments across the combat. Arriving at some two or three thousand feet above trenches into the French lines, and as the white-faced poilus saw ground, the lieutenant moderated his contortions and looked them falling they uncovered their heads and bowed low in their carefully over his wires and supports to see that all had with reverence for this last act of devotion to their beloved France. wtood the strain he had given them. To his horror he discovered Lieutenant Flock and Sergeant Rodde were flying above that his fuel tank was ablaze and that flames were spreading Mülhausen on March 18, 1916, in a slow-going observing machine, rapidly back along the length of the tail of his machine. when suddenly out of a' floating cloud above them darted a

With his customary sang-froid, Post cut off his motor and German Fokker which had been concealed from their view cused his blazing airplane down to the nearest landing-place, within the cloud. They turned and dived for safety, but the unfastening his tools and throwing them out as he fell, and de- swifter fighting machine had them at its mercy. The German taching as many of the instruments from the dashboard as could outmaneuvered them on every turn, and, despite all their arti be loosened in such a perilous descent. As the airplane rubbed fices, the Hun kept safely outside their zone of fire. . along the ground Post dropped the control-stick, climbed out A running fight of many minutes ensued, and as the French to the forward step, and before the roaring flames had time to lines drew closer the French airmen were beginning to hope for swoop over him he jumped.

a safe escape from the unequal combat, when suddenly their This cool escape from an apparently certain death, together antagonist darted beneath them and, coming upright on his tail. with his forethought in saving his tools from destruction, was poured a stream of lead into them from below. Their fuel tank rewarded by a recent citation from his general, praising his was punctured, and immediately their airplane was ablaze. skill and deportment as an airman, and recommending his cool. Without an instant's hesitation, Flock lowered his elevators

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and his blazing machine nosed down. Before the exulting Boche They suspected the usual ruse which is practiced by an antago could recover his control the French biplane crashed into him, nist to gain a little time and position when unexpectedly attacked. and the two machines, crushed into one blazing funeral pyre, Sliding swiftly down alongside the whirling enemy, they witsped swiftly downwards into the woods of Alsace.

nessed a remarkable proceeding. On August 24, 1915, two airplanes left a French airdrome The German observer had left his seat and was leaning back, at Châlons and passed over the German lines. One machine striking savagely with his fists at the face of his pilot. The contained the veteran Adjutant Boyer and an officer observer; machine was descending, unpiloted and uncontrolled, faster and the other was piloted by Sergeant Bertin, who accompanied the faster to a certain smash. adjutant as an escort and protector.

Suddenly the pilot stood up in his cockpit, and, seizing his At a height of eleven thousand feet they were dodging the officer by the throat, lifted him up bodily and threw him headnemy shells, which were exploding on all sides of the two air- long overboard into space. The rapid revolving of his machine planes, when immediately in front of Adjutant Boyer's machine aided him in the struggle and his antagonist offered slight a black burst filled the air with flying missiles, and Bertin, resistance. from above, saw his companion's airplane falling out of control The pilot gazed after the falling figure of his companion a straight down into the Hailly woods.

moment, then grasped his controls-and just in time! At less He cut off his engine and dived after his friend, braving the than a thousand feet above the trees he brought his airplane out increasing hailstorm of lead as he drew nearer the ground. No of the spin and managed to pancake it adroitly into the tree landing-place appeared among the trees below. The crippled tops. The machine slid backwards through the branches, hurl. airplane fell heavily into the tree-tops and lodged there. Re- ing the pilot forward as it fell. passing the spot at a low level, Bertin saw his two friends Landing as quickly as possible, Casale and his companion has scrambling out of their wrecked machine, apparently uninjured. tened to the wreckage. To their astonishment, they found the He saw the officer observer quickly descend to the ground, German pilot safe and sound. The officer observer was killed where he destroyed his maps and papers, and then set off at a by the fall and was picked up some distance away. Upon invesrun to hide from pursuit. At the same moment a mass of flamestigation, it was discovered that he had been severely wounded in appeared in the tree-tops. Boyer had set fire to the wreckage the first attack, several bullets having passed through his body. before descending the tree.

Upon being questioned about the quarrel with his officer, the German soldiers were running through the woods from sev. captured pilot told Casale that he was Corporal Haspel and his eral directions towards the wrecked airplane to make certain of observer was Lieutenant Schultz. He stated that his engine the capture of the two Frenchmen.

had been struck by Casale's shots and the motor stopped. He Bertin, with instant decision, cut off his motor, and, quickly discovered that his officer had been severely wounded, though he choosing the most favorable spot in the vicinity, dropped down himself was unhurt. He turned and attempted to volplane back through the trees and landed amid the bushes on the rough to the German lines, which could easily have been reached, be ground. He shouted to Boyer to come to him. Boyer answered, said, from his high elevation. But Lieutenant Schultz, his and came running through the forest with a score of German superior officer, insisted that they surrender without further riflemen shooting at his heels. Restarting the engine with one risk of attack. Haspel refused to obey. The officer, severely swing on the propeller, Boyer jumped into his friend's airplane wounded as he was, reached back and struck the pilot several amid a shower of bullets, and coolly turned and pointed the times with his fist. The pilot felt the officer's fingers around his machine gun on his pursuers. Gradually the airplane accu- throat and the airplane fell into a spin. Then, in sudden anger, mulated speed, lurched through the rough brush until it Haspel seized the lieutenant, and, aided by the rapid whirling rose from the ground, and, guided by the heroic Bertin, glided of the downward spin, Aung him from the cockpit. Before he between the branches of the overhanging trees and soared nobly could restore complete control of his machine it crashed into the away into the free air. The two friends passed safely through trees and was lost. Then, so incredible was it that he could not the enemy's fire and ultimately regained their own lines, where yet believe it, he found himself thrown clear of the wreck of his both pilots were welcomed by their comrades with kisses and airplane, and, picking himself up, discovered that he was withcheers. Each of these intrepid airmen subsequently received out a scratch! decorations and generous citations in official reports for this But Casale, looking at the still trembling corporal, said ironiremarkable exploit.

cally to himself, “ I wonder, now, if Lieutenant Schultz was An“ incident” said to be unique in the annals of aviation, choking him for trying to escape, or was it for trying to surand adequately substantiated later by official reports, amazed render?” the members of the French Escadrille N-23, who witnessed it No answer was ever found to this riddle. near Charmontois.

Captain Laurens, old chief of Escadrille 101, is famous Two French single-seater machines from Escadrille N-23 throughout aviation circles as an audacious pilot, a king among were patrolling over the French lines at a height of eighteen bombarders in airplanes, and a post-graduate in the arts of night thousand feet very early in the morning of May 10, 1917. These flying. He is probably the most conspicuous creator of nightfighting planes were piloted by Casale, an ace of great reputa- flying precepts in France. His experiments and researches in tion, and Legendre, a less conspicuous pilot of this famous this department of aviation have been carried out with remarkescadrille.

able daring and skill. To rise from a rough field on a foggy Suddenly the Frenchmen perceived under their very noses, night, and, more difficult still, to return and alight there again but some distance below them, a rare type of German airplane, under these adverse circumstances after a flight of a hundred containing pilot and observer, pursuing a leisurely path across miles and more into the enemy's lines, has long been a bugbear the trenches into the French lines. The enemy machine was to aviators. Yet it is precisely these difficulties-that had to be quite safely above rifle fire and appeared to be wholly unpro- overcome by the bomb-dropping squadrons who must depart tected.

each night to carry on the important work of destroying GerNot crediting their senses for a time, the two French scouts man munition factories and railway warehouses located far flew along above the Boche until he had passed so deep into within the German lines. French territory that he could not escape their attack, then they Captain Laurens has led three hundred odd of these middropped closely behind him to get a look into this Hun mystery. night expeditions into the heart of Germany. Extraordinary It was no ordinary occasion to find a Boche airplane, unattended, success is his almost without exception, and he has received flying behind French lines.

from time to time all the honors, decorations, and citations that Casale, who already had a list of seven enemy airplanes in a grateful country can bestow upon its heroes. Twice he was his book, darted onto the stranger's tail and let go a dozen compelled to land at night in an unknown enemy territory by cartridges from his mitrailleuse. It was enough. At a height of the sudden failure of his engine. On both occasions, by sheer thirteen thousand feet the German airplane wavered drunkenly miracles and his own marvelous skill, he came safely to earth, for an instant, then fell over into a tail spin and dropped like a repaired his engine, and returned again placid and unhurt to stone.

his own airdrome. The two French pilots dropped swiftly after the falling Boche. Thus with every conspicuously successful career in aviation

only for

are found certain very human characteristics that usually spell tion dropped into their airdrome from a German airplane. success in every profession.

His conqueror, Wissemann, was shot down in combat three Of George Guynemer, the French ace of aces, who was killed weeks later by René Fonck, a French pilot of Escadrille N-65. in combat on September 11 last, and who had brought down Brindejonc des Moulinais, the beloved, in writing of his airover a hundred of his enemies in single combat, fifty-three of plane gun on July 4, 1916, said: . which were “ officially” witnessed, it is said by his fellows that “I just missed getting a Fokker at a hundred yards to-day, he never ventured aloft until he had spent two hours in his and I swore like a charcoal-burner. I would have had him. cerhangar, minutely examining himself every detail of his engine, tainly, but I ran out of cartridges. These little magazines of airplane, and gun.

only forty-seven cartridges are very tiresome. At the moment Every cartridge was taken out, tested, greased, and carefully one finds himself in a good position and near enough, the bul. replaced. He tested his oil and fuel. Every wire and turn- lets are exhausted, and to reload one must of course lose the buckle on his machine received in turn his undivided attention, Boche in the process.” although his devoted mechanics who had the care of his fight- Again, on August 1, 1916, he writes in his diary: ing machines were the best that France could provide for her “This is amusing—all this chasing of Boches—and I always most precious airman.

maintain such prudence that the risk is nothing, or almost nothAnd this extraordinary attention to detail Guynemer carried ing. I have given much thought to this question, and this is the to his daily combats in the air. In maneuvering, in self-defense, way it appears to me: it is merely a question of profiting by in opening fire, and in retiring from danger he invariably dis- the weak points and the faults of the enemy; and also being a closed this same fastidious care in every movement. When he good shot is important, of course.” brought down an enemy machine, his first care was to examine On August 19, 1916, Brindejonc was killed in the crash of his antagonist's airplane and armament to see if any new device his machine to earth at the edge of Verdun. But whether he on either would improve those of his own service. In what fell in combat or came to his death by accident will never be mauner he finally succumbed, to what detail of his customary known. He left his airdrome alone as usual that morning. caution he was indifferent, will never be known. He was shot An hour later a falling airplane attracted the attention of the through the head on the morning of September 11 over Ypres poilus in the trenches. No enemy was seen, and in the broken by the German pilot Wissemann, and his comrades did not fragments of his machine no evidences of conflict were disknow his fate until apprised some days later by a communica- covered. Thus died this famous hero of aviation.

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“THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LIFE”
A NOTICE OF HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN'S BOOK

BY THEODORE ROOSEVELT

TT is well to be cautious in statement about any contemporary disputable than the law of gravitation; the non-believers in

book ; and yet it is difficult not to speak of Henry Fairfield one of these two great natural laws are of exactly the same 1 Osborn's “ Origin and Evolution of Life”' as one of the stamp as the worthy persons who a century ago still disbelieved great scientific books, as a book that is permanent in the sense in the other. This law of evolution is now inseparably connected that Darwin's and Huxley's books are permanent, and influen- with the name of Darwin ; and in a sense justly so, for Darwin tial in a sense that is not true of the books of writers, like Cope, did more to establish it as one of the fundamentals of human whose profundity of thought is not accompanied by lucidity of knowledge than any of the other learned men who from the days formulation and expression. I believe that the sober judgment of Aristotle to our own time have groped after its significance. of scientific men will confirm this statement. Previous students But Darwin's theory as to the dominant cause of evolution now during the one hundred and fifty years since, with Buffon, the receives less support than it did half a century ago; and neither first serious study of the problem began, have almost invariably the opposing nor the supplementing theories of his antagonists approached the subject from the standpoint of the naturalist. and disciples have received even as much acceptance. The chief Osborn approaches it from the standpoint of the physicist. positive recent addition to our understanding of the forces of He treats of the origin and evolution of life from the stand- evolution is the sharp distinction now universally admitted to point of the action, reaction, and interaction of energy. The exist between the general body organism itself and the repropure naturalists treated the forms of living matter as practically ductive cell or cell group within it-germ plasm, as the latter is the sole subject of study ; Osborn thinks rather of the phe generally called, although Osborn styles it heredity-chromatin. nomena of living energy. Where the most illustrious of his We have, however, made the negative gain of eliminating the predecessors reasoned backward from matter and form towards Darwinian idea of chance selection, which seems to be refuted energy, he and the other students of his type reason from by the palæontological record of many different groups of anienergy onwards towards matter and form. These modern inves- mals--the titanotheres offer an early instance. It seems to be tigators of the stamp of Osborn and Jacques Loeb treat physico- clearly proved that life evolves in an orderly way; and this is cheinical research as vital to the successful handling of the one reason for believing that the energy which keeps the unienergy concept which must lie at the base of every serious verse in order is, in some way which we do not comprehend, attempt to treat of the beginning and development of life. also responsible for the orderly procedure of life.

One of the great merits of Mr. Osbom's book is the entire All of the theories hitherto propounded to account for evoalısence of that confident dogmatism which has completely marred Jution, even if taken together, fail to account for it. It is possithe work of so many otherwise great scientists. He has the open- ble that our intelligence is not such as to enable us to account ness of mind, and the willingness to admit lack of knowledge, for it any more than we can resolve the law of gravitation into which were among the contributing causes of Darwin's great its causes. But Osborn and the other profound scientific invesness. He explicitly states that he does not even pretend to tigators of his school believe that there is at least a chance that offer a clearly developed energy-conception of the origin of life the cause may be found ; and they have taken the indispensable or of all the marvelous facts of evolution, adaptation, and hered first step in this direction by clearly grasping the fact that ity. All that he does is to blaze the path of knowledge a few energy, and not form, lies at the beginning of the evolution of rods forward in the right direction.

life. In other words, the task they set before the scientific inOf course Osborn accepts evolution as a natural law, no more vestigators of the twentieth century is a task primarily for the The Origin and Evolution of Life. By Heury Fairfield Osborn. Charles Serib

biochemist and physicochemist rather than for the natural. rr Sons, New York. $3.

ist. They seek to establish a closer connection betwern the

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