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and seldom affords distress more than guineas for a few days, as he just then transitory assistance : with some it scarcely had an occasion for money. lasts from the first impulse till the hand Mr. Spindle,” replied the scrivener,“ do can be put into the pocket; with others it you want all this money?”-“Want it, may continue for twice that space, and on sir,” says the other; “if I did not want some of extraordinary sensibility I have it, I should not have asked it." _“I am seen it operate for half an hour. But, sorry for that,” says the friend; "for however, last as it will, it generally pro- those who want money when they come duces but beggarly, effects; and where, to borrow, will want money when they from this motive, we give a halfpenny, should come to pay. To say the truth, Mr. from others we give always pounds. In Spindle, money is money now-a-days. I great distress we sometimes, it is true, believe it is all sunk in the bottom of the feel the influence of tenderness strongly ; sea, for my part; and he that has got a when the same distress solicits a second little is a fool if he does not keep what time, we then feel with diminished sensi. he has got.” bility ; but, like the repetition of an echo, Not quite disconcerted by this refusal, every new impulse becomes weaker, till our adventurer was resolved to apply to at last our sensations lose every mixture another, whom he knew to be the very of sorrow, and degenerate into downright best friend he had in the world. The contempt.
gentleman whom he now addressed reJack Spindle and I were old acquaint- ceived his proposal with all the affability ance; but he's gone. Jack was bred in that could be expected from generous a compting-house, and his father dying friendship. “Let me see, -you want an just as he was out of his time, left him a hundred guineas; and pray, dear Jack, handsome fortune, and many friends to would not fifty answer ?”—“If you have advise with. The restraint in which he but fifty to spare, sir, I must be contented.” had been brought up had thrown a gloom –“Fifty to spare! I do not say that, for upon his temper, which some regarded as I believe I have but twenty about me.”. habitual prudence, and from such con- “Then I must borrow the other thirty siderations he had every day repeated from some other friend.”—“ And pray, offers of friendship. Those who had replied the friend, “would it not be the money were ready to offer him their best way to borrow the whole money from assistance that way; and they who had that other friend? then one note will serve daughters frequently, in the warmth of for all, you know? Lord, Mr. Spindle, affection, advised him to marry. Jack, make no ceremony with me at any time; however, was in good circumstances; you know I'm your friend, when you he wanted neither money, friends, nor choose a bit of dinner or so. You, Tom, a wife, and therefore modestly declined see the gentleman down. You won't fortheir proposals.
get to dine with us now and then ? Your Some errors in the management of his very humble servant.” affairs and several losses in trade soon Distressed, but not discouraged at this brought Jack to a different way of think- treatment, he was at last resolved to find ing; and he at last thought it his best' that assistance from love which he could way to let his friends know, that their not have from friendship. Miss Jenny offers were at length acceptable. His Dismal had a fortune in her own hands, first address was, therefore, to a scrivener and she had already made all the advances who had formerly made him frequent offers that her sex's modesty would permit. He of money and friendship at a time when, made his proposal, therefore, with confi. perhaps, he knew those offers would have dence, but soon perceived “No bankrupt been refused.
ever found the fair one kind.” Miss Jenny Jack, therefore, thought he might use and Master Billy Galoon were lately fallen his old friend without any ceremony; deeply in love with each other, and the and, as a man confident of not being whole neighbourhood thought it would refused, requested the use of an hundred soon be a match.
Every day now began to strip Jack of repast. You may observe that Dr. Cheyne his former finery: his clothes few piece has prescribed pease broth for the gravel; by piece to the pawnbrokers; and he hint that you are not one of those who are seemed at length equipped in the genuine always making a god of your belly. If mourning of antiquity. But still he thought you are obliged to wear a Aimsy stuff in himself secure from starving; the number the midst of winter, be the first to remark less invitations he had received to dine, that stuffs are very much worn at Paris. even after his losses, were yet unanswered: If there be found some irreparable defects he was, therefore, now resolved to accept in any part of your equipage, which canof a dinner, because he wanted one; and not be concealed by all the arts of sitting in this manner he actually lived among cross-legged, coaxing, or darning, say that his friends a whole week without being neither you nor Sampson Gideon were openly affronted.
The last place I saw ever very fond of dress. Or if you be a poor Jack was at the Reverend Dr. Gos philosopher, hint that Plato and Seneca ling's. He had, as he fancied, just nicked are the tailors you choose to employ; the time, for he came in just as the cloth assure the company, that men ought to be was laying. He took a chair without content with a bare covering, since what being desired, and talked for some time is now so much the pride of some, was without being attended to. He assured formerly our shame. Horace will give the company, that nothing procured so you a Latin sentence fit for the occasion,good an appetite as a walk to White Con
Toga defendere frigus, duit House, where he had been that Quamvis crassa, queat. morning. He looked at the tablecloth, In short, however caught, do not give and praised the figure of the damask; up, but ascribe to the frugality of your talked of a feast where he had been the disposition what others might be apt to day before, but that the venison was over- attribute to the narrowness of your cirdone. All this, however, procured the cumstances, and appear rather to be a poor creature no invitation, and he was miser than a beggar. To be poor, and to not yet sufficiently hardened to stay with- seem poor, is a certain method never to out being asked; wherefore, finding the rise. Pride in the great is hateful, in the gentleman of the house insensible to all wise it is ridiculous; beggarly pride is the his fetches, he thought proper at last to only sort of vanity I can excuse. retire, and mend his appetite by a walk in the Park.
THE HISTORY OF HYPATIA. You then, Oye beggars of my acquaint. MAN, when secluded from society, is not ance, whether in rags or lace-whether a more solitary being than the woman in Kent Street or the Mall --whether at who leaves the duties of her own sex to Smyrna or St. Giles's, -might I advise you invade the privileges of ours. She seems, as a friend, never seem in want of the in such circumstances, like one in banishfavour which you solicit. Apply to every ment; she appears like a neutral being passion but pity for redress. You may between the sexes; and, though she may find relief from vanity, from self-interest, have the admiration of both, she finds or from avarice, but seldom from compas- true happiness from neither. sion. The very eloquence of a poor man Of all the ladies of antiquity I have read is disgusting; and that mouth which is of, none was ever more justly celebrated opened, even for flattery, is seldom expected than the beautiful Hypatia, the daughter to close without a petition.
of Theon the philosopher. This most If, then, you would ward off the gripe accomplished of women was born at of poverty, pretend to be a stranger to her, Alexandria, in the reign of Theodosius and she will at least use you with ceremony. the Younger. Nature was never more Hear not my advice, but that of Ofellus. lavish of its gifts than it had been to her, If you be caught dining upon a halfpenny endued as she was with the most exalted porringer of pease soup and potatoes, understanding and the happiest turn to praise the wholesomeness of your frugal | science. Education completed what nature had begun, and made her the prodigy not harmony reigns in their accounts of this only of her age, but the glory of her sex. prodigy of perfection, that, in spite of the
From her father she learned geometry opposition of their faith, we should never and astronomy; she collected from the have been able to judge of what religion conversation and schools of the other was Hypatia, were we not informed, philosophers, for which Alexandria was from other circumstances, that she was an at that time famous, the principles of the heathen. Providence had taken so much rest of the sciences.
pains in forming her, that we are almost What cannot be conquered by natural induced to complain of its not having penetration and a passion of study? The endeavoured to make her a Christian; but boundless knowledge which, at that period from this complaint we are deterred by of time, was required to form the charac- a thousand contrary observations, which ter of a philosopher no way discouraged lead us to reverence its inscrutable mys. her; she delivered herself up to the study teries. of Aristotle and Plato, and soon not one This great reputation, of which she so in all Alexandria understood so perfectly justly was possessed, was, at last, however, as she all the difficulties of these two the occasion of her ruin. philosophers.
The person who then possessed the But not their systems alone, but those patriarchate of Alexandria was equally of every other sect, were quite familiar to remarkable for his violence, cruelty, and her; and to this knowledge she added pride. Conducted by an ill-grounded zeal that of polite learning and the art of for the Christian religion, or, perhaps, oratory. All the learning which it was desirous of augmenting his authority in possible for the human mind to contain, the city, he had long meditated the banishbeing joined to a most enchanting elo- ment of the Jews. A difference arising quence, rendered this lady the wonder between them and the Christians, with not only of the populace, who easily ad- respect to some public games, seemed to mire, but of philosophers themselves, who him a proper juncture for putting his are seldom fond of admiration.
ambitious designs into execution. He The city of Alexandria was every day found no difficulty in exciting the people, crowded with strangers, who came from all naturally disposed to revolt. The prefect parts of Greece and Asia to see and hear who at that time commanded the city her. As for the charms of her person, they interposed on this occasion, and thought might not probably have been mentioned, it just to put one of the chief creatures of did she not join to a beauty the most strik- the patriarch to the torture, in order to ing a virtue that might repress the most discover the first promoter of the conspiassuming: and though in the whole capital, racy. The patriarch, enraged at the famed for charms, there was not one who injustice he thought offered to his cha. could equal her in beauty; though in a city, racter and dignity, and piqued at the the resort of all the learning then existing protection which was offered to the Jews, in the world, there was not one who could sent for the chiefs of the synagogue, and equal her in knowledge; yet, with such enjoined them to renounce their designs, accomplishments, Hypatia was the most upon pain of incurring his highest dismodest of her sex. Her reputation for pleasure. virtue was not less than her virtues; and, The Jews, far from fearing his menaces, though in a city divided between two fac- excited new tumults, in which several tions, though visited by the wits and the citizens had the misfortune to fall. The philosophers of the age, calumny never patriarch could no longer contain : the dared to suspect her morals, or attempt head of a numerous body of Christians, her character. Both the Christians and the he flew to the synagogues, which he deHeathens who have transmitted her his molished, and drove the Jews from a city tory and her misfortunes have but one of which they had been possessed since voice, when they speak of her beauty, her the times of Alexander the Great. It knowledge, and her virtue. Nay, so much I may be easily imagined that the prefect could not behold, without pain, his juris- churches called Cesarea, where, stripping diction thus insulted, and the city de her in a most inhuman manner, they exerprived of a number of its most industrious cised the most horrible cruelties upon inhabitants.
her, cut her into pieces, and burnt her The affair was, therefore, brought before remains to ashes. Such was the end of the emperor. The patriarch complained Hypatia, the glory of her own sex, and of the excesses of the Jews, and the prefect the astonishment of ours. of the outrages of the patriarch. At this very juncture five hundred monks of ON JUSTICE AND GENEROSITY. Mount Nitria, imagining the life of their LYSIPPUS is a man whose greatness of chief to be in danger, and that their soul the whole world admires. His genereligion was threatened in his fall, flew rosity is such that it prevents a demand, into the city with ungovernable rage, and saves the receiver the trouble and the attacked the prefect in the streets, and, confusion of a request. His liberality also not content with loading him with re- does not oblige more by its greatness than proaches, wounded him in several places. by his inimitable grace in giving. Some
The citizens had by this time notice of times he even distributes his bounties to the fury of the monks; they therefore strangers, and has been known to do good assembled in a body, put the monks to offices to those who professed themselves Aight, seized on him who had been found his enemies. All the world are unanimous throwing a stone, and delivered him to the in the praise of his generosity: there is prefect, who caused him to be put to death only one sort of people who complain of without farther delay.
his conduct,-Lysippus does not pay his The patriarch immediately ordered the debts. dead body, which had been exposed to It is no difficult matter to account for a view, to be taken down, procured for it all conduct so seemingly incompatible with the pomp and rites of burial, and went itself. There is greatness in being geneeven so far as himself to pronounce the rous, and there is only simple justice in funeral oration, in which he classed a satisfying his creditors. Generosity is the seditious monk among the martyrs. This part of a soul raised above the vulgar. conduct was by no means generally There is in it something of what we admire approved of; the most moderate even in heroes, and praise with a degree of rapamong the Christians perceived and blamed ture. Justice, on the contrary, is a mere his indiscretion; but he was now too far mechanic virtue, fit only for tradesmen, advanced to retire. He had made several and what is practised by every broker in overtures towards a reconciliation with the Change Alley. prefect, which not succeeding, he bore all In paying his debts a man barely does those an implacable hatred whom he im his duty, and it is an action attended with agined to have had any hand in traversing no sort of glory. Should Lysippus satisfy his designs;
but Hypatia was particularly his creditors, who would be at the pains destined to ruin. She could not find of telling it to the world? Generosity is pardon, as she was known to have a most a virtue of a very different complexion. refined friendship for the prefect; where. It is raised above duty, and, from its fore the populace were incited against elevation, attracts the attention and the her. Peter, a reader of the principal praises of us little mortals below. church, one of those vile slaves by whom In this manner do men generally reason men in power are too frequently attended upon justice and generosity. The first is ---wretches ever ready to commit any crime despised, though a virtue essential to the which they hope may render them agree- good of society; and the other attracts our able to their employer, – this fellow, I say, esteem, which too frequently proceeds attended by a crowd of villains, waited for from an impetuosity of temper, rather Hypatia, as she was returning from a visit, directed by vanity than reason. Lysippus at her own door, seized her as she was is told that his banker asks a debt of forty going in, and dragged her to one of the pounds, and that a distressed acquaintance petitions for the same sum. He gives it by present benefactions, so as to render us without hesitating to the latter; for he incapable of future ones. demands as a favour what the former Misers are generally characterised as requires as a debt.
men without honour or without humanity, Mankind in general are not sufficiently who live only to accumulate, and to this acquainted with the import of the word passion sacrifice every other happiness. justice: it is commonly believed to consist | They have been described as madmen, only in a performance of those duties to who, in the midst of abundance, banish, which the laws of society can oblige us. every pleasure, and make from imaginary This, I allow, is sometimes the import of wants real necessities. But few, very few, the word, and in this sense justice is dis- correspond to this exaggerated picture ; tinguished from equity; but there is a and perhaps there is not one in whom all justice still more extensive, and which these circumstances are found united. can be shown to embrace all the virtues Instead of this, we find the sober and the united.
industrious branded by the vain and the Justice may be defined to be that virtue idle with this odious appellation; men which impels us to give to every person who, by frugality and labour, raise themwhat is his due. In this extended sense selves above their equals, and contribute of the word, it comprehends the practice their share of industry to the common of every virtue which reason prescribes stock. or society should expect. Oar duty to
Whatever the vain or the ignorant may our Maker, to each other, and to ourselves, say, well were it for society had we more are fully answered, we give them what of this character among us. In general, we owe them. Thus justice, properly these close men are found at last the true speaking, is the only virtue, and all the benefactors of society. With an avaricious rest have their origin in it.
man we seldom lose in our dealings; but The qualities of candour, fortitude, too frequently in our commerce with charity, and generosity, for instance, are prodigality. not, in their own nature, virtues; and if A French priest, whose name was Godiever they deserve the title, it is owing only not, went for a long time by the name of to justice, which impels and directs them. the Griper. He refused to relieve the Without such a moderator candour might most apparent wretchedness, and, by a become indiscretion, fortitude obstinacy, skilful management of his vineyard, had charity imprudence, and generosity mis- the good fortune to acquire immense sums taken profusion.
of money. The inhabitants of Rheims, A disinterested action, if it be not con- who were his fellow-citizens, detested ducted by justice, is at best indifferent in him; and the populace, who seldom love its nature, and not unfrequently even turns a miser, wherever he went received him to vice. The expenses of society, of pre- with contempt. He still, however, consents, of entertainments, and the other tinued his former simplicity of life, his helps to cheerfulness, are actions merely amazing and unremitted frugality. This indifferent, when not repugnant to a better good man had long perceived the wants method of disposing of our superfluities ; ' of the poor in the city, particularly in but they become vicious when they obstruct having no water but what they were obliged or exhaust our abilities from a more vir- to buy at an advanced price; wherefore tuous disposition of our circumstances. that whole fortune which he had been
True generosity is a duty as indispen- amassing he laid out in an aqueduct, by sably necessary as those imposed upon us which he did the poor more useful and by law. It is a rule imposed upon us by lasting service than if he had distributed reason, which should be the sovereign law his whole income in charity every day at of a rational being. But this generosity his door. does not consist in obeying every impulse Among men long conversant with of humanity, in following blind passion for books we too frequently find those misour guide, and impairing our circumstances placed virtues of which I have been now