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Samuel Church,

William L. Storrs,

Henry M. Waite,
Joel Hinman,

William W. Ellsworth, of Hartford,
of Hartford,

Thomas Day,

Counties.

JUDICIARY.

Supreme and Superior Court.

of Litchfield,
of Middletown,

of Lyme,

of New Haven,

Hartford,
New Haven,
New London,
Fairfield,
Windham,
Litchfield,
Middlesex,

Tolland,

Judges.

Francis Parsons,
Edward Hinman,
Chs. J. M'Curdy,
Thos. B. Osborne,
Thomas Backus,
Holbr'k Curtiss,
Chas. C. Tyler,
Hiram Rider,

Repórter,

A term of the Superior Court is held by one judge semi-annually, in each county of the state; and the Supreme Court, constituted of the five judges, meets annually in each county. The judges of this court hold their offices until seventy years of age. This court has jurisdiction in all cases where the damages, or matter in dispute, exceeds $70.

County Courts.

Residence.

Chief Justice,
Associate Justice,

Hartford.
Southbury.
Lyme.
Fairfield.

Killingly.
Watertown.
Middletown.

Willington.

Principal Items of Expenditure.

Salaries of officers,

General Assembly,

Contingent expenses,
Judicial expenses,
Support of state paupers,
Directors of state prison,
Common schools, and management

FINANCES FOR 1846-'47.

Attorneys.

R. D. Hubbard,
Dennis Kimberly,
John T. Wait,
William H. Noble,
Jona. A. Welch,
Leman Church,
Chas. Whittlesey,
Loren P. Waldo,

of school fund,

960.85

Public buildings and institutions, 12,111.75
Interest on money borrowed from
school fund,

do.

do

do.

A County Court is held by one judge three times each year, in the several counties. The judges of this court are appointed annually by the legislature. They have jurisdiction in all civil actions where the damages, or matter in dispute, exceed $35. In civil cases, appeals lie in all cases from the County to the Superior Court, where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum of $70.

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$12,596.50
23,849.70

Miscellaneous,
$7,414.19
Purchase and exch. of bank stock, 49,946.10
Chief Sources of Income.

15,934.20 Balance in treasury, April 1, 1846, $14,704.73

34,761.34 Received from forfeited bonds,

66

1,500.00

66

avails of courts,

(6

66

300.00

state prison,

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Salary. $1,300

1,250

1,250

1,250

1,250

550

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1,115.79

1,099.39

4,000.00

taxes,

45,161.42

sales of bank stock, 49,871.88 dividends on do., 32,219.50 miscellaneous, 483.95 847.66 Am't borrowed from school fund, 11,565.68

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Residence.

Hartford.
New Haven.
Norwich.
Bridgeport.
Brooklyn.

Salisbury.
Middletown.
Tolland.

The whole amount of state debt (borrowed from school fund) is $11,565.68. The permanent fund of the state, on the 1st day of April, 1847, consisting of

bank stock not transferable, or subscriptions to the capital of sundry banks, which may be withdrawn on giving six months' notice, amounted to $406,000. Valuation in 1846 of real estate, $88,963,321.08; personal estate, $15,888,483.933. Aggregate, $104,851,805.02.

Common Schools. - No. of school societies, 215; school districts, 1,663. The capital of school fund in September, 1845,* was $2,070,055.01. Amount of dividends to school societies, year ending March, 1847, $125,710.65. Rate for each child, between ages of 4 and 16, in 1847, $1.45.

VII. NEW YORK.

The settlement of this state was commenced by the Dutch, in 1614, who named the country New Netherlands, and established a colonial government in 1629. In 1664, Charles II. of England granted to his brother, the Duke of York, a patent for a large tract of country, forming the present states of New York and New Jersey; and, during the same year, Colonel Nicolls with a considerable force, in the service of the Duke, made a conquest of the country; and the name of New Netherlands was afterwards changed to New York. In 1673, the colony was recaptured by the Dutch, and held by them a few months; but, with the exception of this short period, it was in the possession of the English from 1664 till the American Revolution, in 1775.

DUTCH GOVERNORS.

Wouter Van Twiller, appointed 1629 Peter Stuyvesant, appointed 1647 William Kieft, do.

1638

Richard Nicolls,
Francis Lovelace,
Sir Edmund Andros,
Anthony Brockholst,
Thomas Dongan,
Francis Nicholson,
Jacob Leisler, Lieut.- Gov.

Henry Sloughter,

Richard Ingolsby, Lieut.-Gov.
Benjamin Fletcher,

Earl of Bellamont,

John Nanfan, Lieut.-Gov.

Lord Cornbury,

Lord Lovelace,

ENGLISH GOVERNORS.

Appointed.

Richard Ingolsby, Lieut.- Gov.
Gerardus Beekman, President,
General Hunter,

1664 Peter Schuyler, President,
William Burnet,

1667

1674

John Montgomery,

1681

Rip Van Dam, President,

1683

William Crosby,

1688

George Clark,

1689

George Clinton,

1691

James Delancy, Lieut.- Gov.
Danvers Osborn,

1691

1692

1698

1701

1702

1708

1709

1710

1710

Appointed.

1719

1720

1720

1731

1732

1736

1743

1753

1753

1755

Sir Charles Hardy,

James Delancy, Lieut.-Gov.
Cadwallader Colden, Lt.-Gov.

Robert Moncton,

Henry Moore,

Earl of Dunmore,

William Tryon,

1757

1760

1762

Cadwallader Colden, Lt.-Gov. 1763

1765 1770

1771

*The schedule of the property constituting the capital of the school fund is prepared and audited biennially.

[The colonial government was suspended in May, 1775; from which time to April, 1777, New York was governed by a Provincial Congress, of which Nathaniel Woodhull was President. A Constitution having, at length, been formed and adopted, the government, under this Constitution, went into operation April 20, 1777.]

GOVERNORS ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE.

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ABSTRACT OF THE CONSTITUTION.

Adopted in convention October 9, 1846, and ratified by the people November 2, 1846.

Every male citizen, twenty-one years of age, ten days a citizen, one year next preceding any election an inhabitant of the state, for the last four months a resident of the county where he may offer his vote, and, for thirty days next preceding the election, a resident of the district of his candidate, may vote in the election district of which he shall at the time be a resident, and not elsewhere. No man of color shall vote unless he shall have been for three years a resident of the state, and, for one year next preceding the election, shall have owned a freehold worth $250 above all incumbrances, and shall have paid a tax thereon. And no person of color shall be taxed unless he shall own such real estate. Persons convicted of any infamous crime, and those who have made, or become directly or indirectly interested in any bet upon an election, may by a law be deprived of their vote therein.

The state shall be divided into thirty-two districts, each of which shall choose one senator to serve for two years. A census of the state shall be taken in 1855, and in every ten years afterwards. The legislature, at the next session after such census, shall re-organize the districts on the basis of population, excluding aliens and persons of color not taxed; and the districts shall remain unaltered until the next census. Members of the assembly, one hundred and twenty-eight in number, and apportioned among the several counties according to the population, excluding aliens and persons of color not taxed, shall be elected annually and by single districts. Each county, except Hamilton, shall have at least one member of the assembly; and no new county shall be made unless its population entitle it to a member. The

*Martin Van Buren was governor from January 1 to March, 1829, when he resigned the office, on being appointed Secretary of State for the United States.

pay of the senators and representatives shall not be more than $3 a day, with $1 for every ten miles of travel, nor exceed in the whole $3 per diem allowance. In extra sessions it shall be $3 a day. The speaker shall receive one-third additional to his per diem allowance. No member of the legislature shall, during his term, be appointed to any office; and no one holding office under the United States, and no member of Congress, shall belong to the legislature. The election shall be on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday in November; and the legislature shall assemble on the first Tuesday of the following January. The assembly may impeach by a majority vote of all the members elected.

The governor and lieutenant-governor, chosen by a plurality of votes, shall hold office for two years. In case two persons have an equal and the highest vote, the legislature, at its next session, by joint ballot shall decide between them. They must be thirty years old, citizens of the United States, and have been, for five years next preceding their election, residents in the state. The governor may veto a bill; but two-thirds of both houses may pass it again, notwithstanding his veto. The lieutenant-governor shall be president of the senate, with only a casting vote; and if the office of governor be vacant, he, and, after him, the president of the senate, shall act as governor. The secretary of state, comptroller, treasurer, attorney-general, state-engineer and surveyor, shall be chosen at a general election, and hold office for two years. The treasurer may be suspended from office by the governor, during the recess of the legislature, and until thirty days after the beginning of the next session. At the first election, three canal commissioners and three inspectors of prisons shall be chosen, to hold office one, two, and three years, respectively, as shall be determined by lot; and afterwards one shall be elected annually to hold office for three years. The inspectors shall have charge of the state prisons, and shall appoint all officers therein.

The court of appeals shall consist of eight judges, four to be elected by the people of the state, to serve eight years, and four selected from the justices of the supreme court, having the shortest time to serve. The judges shall be so classified that every two years one shall leave office, and a new judge be elected to serve eight years. The state shall be divided into eight judicial districts, of which New York city shall be one; where the number of judges is to be fixed by law. The other districts shall each elect four justices of the supreme court to serve eight years. The justices shall have general jurisdiction in law and equity, and shall be so classified that every two years one in each district shall go out of office. Each county, except the city and county of New York, shall elect one county judge for four years, who shall act as surrogate and hold the county court. Counties of more than forty thousand inhabitants may elect a separate surrogate. Towns may elect justices of the peace to serve four years. Cities may have inferior local courts of civil and criminal jurisdiction. Tribunals of conciliation may be estab

lished whose judgment shall be binding only upon parties who voluntarily submit their matters in dispute, and agree to abide the result. A clerk of the court of appeals, to be ex-officio clerk of the supreme court, shall be chosen by the people for three years. Sheriffs, county clerks, coroners, and district attorneys, shall be chosen by counties once in three years, and as often as vacancies happen. Sheriffs shall hold no other office, and be ineligible for the next three years after the termination of their office.

From June 1st, 1846, there shall be paid each year out of the net revenues of the state canals, $1,300,000, until June 1st, 1855; and from that time $1,700,000 a year, as a sinking fund for the payment of the canal debt of the state. Afterwards, from the remaining revenues of the canals, there shall be paid from June 1st, 1846, until the canal debt is extinguished, $350,000 a year; and afterwards $1,500,000 a year for the redemption of the general fund and all contingent debts. Of the balance of the canal revenues, a sum not above $200,000 a year (which may, if necessary, after eight years be increased to $350,000 per annum, and which, after the above debts are paid and certain now unfinished canals completed, may be still farther increased to $672,500 a year) shall be devoted to pay the necessary expenses of the state; and the balance shall be expended to complete the still unfinished canals. The principal and income of these sinking funds shall be sacredly applied to the purposes for which they were created; and, if either proves insufficient, its revenues shall be sufficiently increased by taxes to preserve perfectly the public faith. The state canals shall never be sold, leased, or otherwise disposed of.

The state shall never give its credit to any individual or corporation; nor shall it ever contract a debt, except to meet casual deficits in the revenue, or to suppress insurrection, or for defence in war, unless such debt be authorized for some single work by a law which shall provide by a direct annual tax, to be irrepealable until the debt is extinguished, for the payment of the interest annually, and of the principal within eighteen years, and which shall be passed by yeas and nays, and be submitted to the people, and receive a majority of all the votes at a general election, to be held not less than three months after its passage, and at which no other law or any amendment to the constitution is voted for; and, on its final passage by the legislature, the question shall be taken by yeas and nays, and three-fifths of all the members elected shall form a quorum. All moneys arising from such loan shall be applied only to the objects of the loan. No payment shall be made out of the funds of the state, unless by a law distinctly specifying the sum and object of the appropriation. Public moneys or property cannot be appropriated for local or private purposes, except by a two-thirds vote of the members elected to each branch of the legislature.

Corporations, with the individual liability of the corporators, may be formed under general laws which may be altered or repealed. They shall not be created by special act, except for municipal purposes, and when the

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