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In 1676, New Jersey was divided into two provinces, East Jersey and West Jersey; the former continuing under the government of Carteret, and the latter being held, for a time, as a dependency of New York.

In 1682, East Jersey was transferred to William Penn and eleven associates; and Robert Barclay, the celebrated author of the "Apology for the Principles of the Quakers," was appointed governor.

In 1702, East and West Jersey were again united into one province, by the name of New Jersey, under the government of Lord Cornbury, who was also governor of New York; and this connection with New York continued till 1738, when a separate government was instituted, which lasted till the American Revolution. Lewis Morris was the first royal governor; and William Temple Franklin, a son of the celebrated Dr. Franklin, the last.

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Every white male citizen of the United States, 21 years old, resident in the state for one year, and in the county where he claims to vote for five months, next before the election, may vote. Members of the "General Assembly" (the House of Representatives), not exceeding 60 in number, shall be 21 years old, citizens of the state for two years, and of the county one year next before the election, shall be apportioned among the counties according to population, allowing not less than one to every county, after every general census of the United States. Senators are chosen for three years, one from every county, and must be 30 years old, citizens of the state for four years, and of the county for one year next before the election. Members of the General Assembly, and one-third of the senators, are chosen on the second Tuesday of every October; and both houses meet on the second

Tuesday of every January. The governor must be 30 years old, a citizen of the United States for twenty years, and a resident of the state for the seven years next before his election, and shall be chosen by a plurality of votes, or, in case of an even vote, by "a majority of the members of both houses in joint-meeting," for the term of three years; but he shall not be eligible for the next three years, or nominate or appoint to any office during the last week of his term. He may veto a bill; but a majority of the members elected to each house may pass it, notwithstanding his veto. He may grant reprieves, except in cases of impeachment, for a time not exceeding 90 days after conviction; and he or his substitute, the chancellor, and the six judges of the court of errors and appeals, or a majority of them, of whom the governor shall be one, may grant pardons in the like cases. In case the office of governor be vacant, it shall be filled by the president of the senate, and, after him, by the speaker of the house. If the governor die, resign, or be removed, more than 30 days before the election of members of the legislature, a successor shall be chosen at that election; if within 30 days, at the next election but one. Members of the legislature shall be paid not more than $3 a day for the first 40 days of the session, and not more than $1.50 a day for the remainder, and ten cents a mile for travel. In extra sessions, they shall receive such sums as shall be fixed, for the first 40 days. The president of the senate and speaker of the house receive one-third additional pay. No member of either house shall, during his term, be nominated or appointed, except by the people, to any office created, or increased in pay, during that term. The credit of the state shall not be lent in any case; neither shall the legislature create any debt, which shall raise the whole state debt above $100,000 (save in case of war, invasion, or insurrection), unless it "be authorized by a law for some single object or work, to be distinctly specified therein; which law shall provide the ways and means, exclusive of loans, to pay the interest of each debt or liability, as it falls due, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt or liability within 35 years from the time of the contracting thereof, and shall be irrepealable, until such debt or liability, and the interest thereon, are fully paid and discharged; and no such law shall take effect, until it shall, at a general election, have been submitted to the people, and have received the sanction of a majority of all the votes cast." No divorce shall be granted, or lottery authorized, by the legis lature; and no lottery ticket shall be sold in the state. Every law shall have but one object, and that one expressed in the title. No special law shall be passed authorizing the sale of land belonging to minors, or other persons under legal disability. Bank charters shall be granted, continued, or amended, only by a vote of three-fifths of the members elected to each house, and for a term not exceeding 20 years. The court of errors and ap peals consists of the chancellor, the justices of the supreme court, and six judges, appointed by the governor and senate, for six years, one every year; and such of the six as attend receive a per diem compensation, to be fixed

by law. The chancellor and supreme court judges, on appeals from themselves, may state the reasons of their judgment, but shall have no vote. The secretary of state is clerk of the court. The chancellor, appointed by the governor and senate for seven years, constitutes the court of chancery, and is the ordinary and judge of the prerogative court. The supreme court consists of a chief justice, and not less than two associates, appointed by the governor and senate for seven years. The circuit court may be held by a judge of the supreme court, or by a distinct judge, and has, within the county, a common-law jurisdiction, except in criminal cases, concurrent with the supreme court; and its final judgments may be docketed in that court. The court of common pleas shall consist of not more than five judges, chosen by joint ballot of the legislature, for five years, one every year. Justices of the peace are chosen for five years by the people in towns. The salaries of the chancellor and supreme court judges shall not be diminished during their term. The attorney-general, clerks of the supreme court, and court of chancery, shall be appointed, for five years, by the governor and senate. Clerks and surrogates of counties are elected by the people therein, for five years; and sheriffs and coroners annually; but they cannot serve more than three consecutive years. All officers, not otherwise provided for, are appointed by the governor and senate. No person shall be imprisoned for debt, except in cases of fraud. In all libel cases, the truth may be given in evidence; and if published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, is a sufficient defence. The jury may determine the law and the facts.


For the year ending January, 1848.

CHAS. C. STRATTON, of Gloucester Co., Governor (term of office ex

Ch. G. M'Chesney,
Stacy A. Paxson,

John C. Smallwood,

of Trenton,

of Trenton,


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of Gloucester Co., President of the Senate, $4.00 a day.

of Burlington Co., Speaker of the Assembly, 4.00 a day.

J. W. C. Evans,
Daniel Dodd, jr.,
Alex. M. Cumming,

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Principal items of Expenditure to Jan. Chief-sources of Income to Jan. 1,

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Pennsylvania was granted by Charles II., by a charter signed on the 4th of March, 1681, to the illustrious William Penn, who was constituted the proprietary of the province. In 1682, William Penn, together with about two thousand settlers, most of whom, like himself, belonged to the society of Friends, or Quakers, arrived in the country; and in the following year he laid out the plan of the city of Philadelphia. He established a friendly intercourse with the Indians, which was not interrupted for more than seventy years.

From the beginning of the 18th century till the commencement of the American Revolution, the government was generally administered by deputies appointed by the proprietaries, who mostly resided in England.


Under the Proprietary Government.

William Penn, Prop. and Gov. 1682 James Logan,




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Patrick Gordon,



Thomas Wharton,

Joseph Reed,

William Moore,

The Proprietary Gov't ended 1776

Presidents under the First Constitution.
elected 1777 John Dickinson,
do. 1778 Benjamin Franklin,
do. 1781 Thomas Mifflin,

elected 1782



do. 1788

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The first constitution of Pennsylvania was adopted in 1776; the second

in 1790; and the present constitution in 1838.

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