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iron flattens it, and thus makes a head. If you want to know how hard a blow that must be, take a piece of iron and try to pound a head on it yourself.
7. The instant the head is made, the jaws open and the nail drops out, finished. Of course it is done much quicker than I have been telling you, for a machine can make brads (which I need not tell the boys are small nails without heads) at the rate of three thousand a minute.
8. It is said that " figures won't lie,” and I hope they will not; but I must admit that it is hard to believe that story. After the tacks come out of the machine they are “blued," as it is called. This is done by heating them in an oven or on an iron plate. Then they go to the packing room, where one girl can weigh and put up two thousand papers of tacks in a day.
9. How many kinds of nails can you name? You will probably be surprised to hear that two hundred kinds of nails are made in one factory, beginning with spikes which weigh nearly half a pound each, and ending with the tiniest kind of tacks, not a quarter of an inch long.
10. Men did not always have machines to make nails for them, and of course they had to make them by hand. That was not an easy thing to do, for they could not make them of cold iron, but had to heat every one.
11. In some parts of England they were very slow to get machinery, for the ignorant people, thinking their trade would be spoiled, often broke up and destroyed machinery that was brought there. Many in England still work at nail making as their grandfathers did.
12. Every man has a little forge — such as you have seen in a blacksmith's shop if you live in a village — and a small anvil. Every child is put to work to make nails at eight or nine years of age, because they earn so little that every one of the family must help to earn bread. Of
course these children have no time to learn to read, and many grown men and women can not read or write.
13. This is the way they make the nails: They buy iron rods just the right size for the nails they make — for one family always makes the same size of nail. They take one of these rods, heat it red-hot at the forge, lay it on the anvil, and cut it off the length of a nail; then, laying away the rest of the rod, they take the piece they have cut off, pound it out to a point at one end, and pound on a head at the other.
14. A very slow operation, you will say, when you think how fast the machines snap them off. A whole family scarcely ever earns more than five dollars a week, and a part of that has to go for the coal it uses.
15. One of the nail factories in our country, that I have read about, uses one hundred and fifty tons of iron in a week, all of which is bitten up into nails. .
LV.-"READ THAT AGAIN, JACK.” 1. Around in Chester Alley lived Mr. Hall. The world outside spoke well of him, and many envied “ Joe Hall's luck,” for his hands were always full of work, and his pocket always had a musical ring of silver about it. He had three children, two bright little girls; but James, his oldest child, was blind.
2. Mr. Hall was a good father, a good husband, a good neighbor, a good workman; but yet he had one great fault — he would treat himself to a glass of gin after a hard day's work.
3. It was a great benefit to him, he thought. If he was tired, it rested him; if inclined to be lazy, it stirred him
up; if hot, it cooled him; if cold, it heated him; if sick, it made him well; if well, it made him still better; so altogether it was a good thing.
4. True, it sometimes made him a little sleepy, but he never took it except at night, and surely that was the time for a hard working man to be sleepy. He had tried often to persuade his blind boy to take a little, for he was very pale and delicate, but the boy said, “No, thank
you, sir,” very firmly, and closed his lips very tightly after he had said it.
5. In the same alley lived Jack Parson's father, and Jack and James were fast friends. One day a lady, who
. was passing with tracts, gave Jack a small book, as she found that he could read. When night came, and Jack could leave his wood-sawing, he ran up to Mr. Hall's to read his new book to James. Down they sat by the fire, and Jack read in a low tone; but presently Mr. Hall called out:
“Eh! what is that? Read that again, Jack.” 6. So Jack read louder:
“A gentleman declares that where he lives there is a dreadful worm which infests his country. It is of a dark color, and generally lives near a spring, and bites the unfortunate people who are in the habit of going there to drink. The symptoms of its bite are terrible. The eyes of the patient become red and fiery, the tongue swells to an immoderate size, and obstructs utterance, and delirium of the most horrid character ensues."
7. The Lord keep me out of that country forever! said Mr. Hall. “Read on, Jack; any thing more?” And he rested his glass on his knee, and leaned eagerly forward.
8. Jack continued : “ This worm never touches the brute creation, but, strange to say, it seizes only man, and where it once leaves its poison, farewell to health, farewell to life!”
9. “How strange,” said Mr. Hall. “And does it tell the name of the terrible worm?”
10. Jack's voice trembled a little, but he read on: “The name of this poisonous creature is · The Worm of the Still.'»
11. Mr. Hall set the tumbler down hard on the table, threw himself back in his chair and went to thinking. The boys hushed — they knew that the long pipe that wound round and round in the distilleries, through which the whisky ran, was called "the worm," and as the truth of what they had been reading flashed upon them, they went to thinking too. The silence lasted so long, and became so oppressive, that Jack crept out.
12. “Father,” said the blind boy, putting out his thin hands and feeling about till he touched him,—“Father, fling it away, it has not got a tight grip yet; but O!”—
13. James could say no more; but, sinking down, he laid his head on his father's shoulder and burst into tears. Not a word was said, but James felt a tear strike his forehead, then another and another, and he knew that the coil was loosened and its power broken forever. So it was, for from that night Mr. Hall drank no more.
MRS. M. J. MALLARY,
LVI.-SMILE WHENEVER YOU CAN.
1. When things don't go to suit you,
And the world seems upside down,
But drive away that frown;
'Tis much the wisest plan
And smile whene'er you can.
2. Why should you dread to-morrow,
And thus despoil today?
You always have to pay.
Which should be often preached :
Until the stream is reached.”
If you would keep in mind
Are always here combined.
And though you roll in wealth,
That precious jewel — health.
You may have an empty purse
Which I consider worse);
Fill up your mortal span,
To smile whene'er you can.
A loving heart and a cheerful countenance are commodities which children should never fail to keep on hand. They will best season their food and soften their pillows. Sour faces and cross words make every thing go wrong. Keep in the sunshine of God's love, and do not give the frowns a chance to deepen into wrinkles.
Half the unhappiness of this life springs from looking back to griefs that are past, and forward with fear to the future.