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wheels and mounted on trucks, which constituted the first railroad cars, there have been substituted elegant saloons, where one may eat and sleep in luxury over journeys from ocean to ocean; instead of the slow, wheezing machine, typical of childhood in its fragility and incapacity, now exists the magnificent engine, equally typical of the strength and might of manhood.
13. At first the locomotive crawled along at the rate of four miles an hour, over wooden tracks. Now it vies with the wind and seems like a bird in its swiftest flights, scarcely visible in its wild rushing over the country, on steel rails, at a speed often of more than a mile a minute.
14. The opening of communication between New York and Chicago by means of a “fast mail line,” on the 15th of September, 1875, bringing those two cities, though a thousand miles apart, within twenty-six hours of each other, is a fit closing of the half-century's progress in railroading. Well may we, whose memories cover the whole period, look with wonder on the achievements of the past, and turn toward the future hoping all things, and believing all things with the faith that removes mountains.
It is not so much what you say,
As the manner in which you say
As the tones in which you convey it.
The words may be mild and fair,
And the tones may pierce like a dart;
And the tones may break the heart.
Men of the noblest dispositions think themselves happiest when others share their happiness with them.
LXXXVI.-THE BRIGHT SIDE.
If we only would stop to take it,
If the querulous heart would wake it.
And whose beautiful trust ne'er faileth,
Though the wintry storm prevaileth. 2. Better to hope, though the clouds hang low,
And to keep the eyes still lifted,
When the ominous clouds are rifted.
Or an evening without a morning;
Is the hour before the dawning.
3. There is many a gem in the path of life,
Which we pass in our idle pleasure,
Or the miser's hoarded treasure:
Or a mother's prayer to heaven;
For a cup of water given.
A bright and golden filling,
And hands that are swift and willing,
Of our curious lives asunder,
And sit and grieve and wonder.
LXXXVII.-HOW A FLY WALKS ON THE
1. “Will you explain to us, father, the means by which Aies are enabled to ascend a pane of glass and walk with ease along the ceiling of the room! You know you told us the other day you would do so.”
Well, Harriet, I will try; though I am not sure that I shall be able to make you understand me.”
3. “0, never fear that !” exclaimed Harriet and her two little brothers at the same time; "we can surely understand how a fly walks — it must be very simple.”
4. “Undoubtedly very simple; but it requires some previous knowledge of philosophy.”
5. “O, if the walking of a fly is at all connected with philosophy, I assure you that I shall want to know nothing about it, for I hate philosophy, it is such dry stuff.”
6. “Never mind my sister, father,” said William. “James and I want very much to understand, and Harriet need not stay to hear the explanation, if she does not wish to."
7. “Well, come, my boys, to the library. I have just arranged my solar microscope, to show you the foot and
g of a fly, and some other curious things. I have likewise my air pump ready, which will help to explain what you want to know."
8. Harriet looked a little disappointed, and wished that she had not pronounced so decidedly against philosophy, for she was very fond of seeing, and only disliked the labor of studying.
9. Her father, observing the moody expression of her countenance, said, “I wish, William, that you would try to persuade your sister to go with us to the library.” William had no difficult task to perform. and in a minute
they were all seated in the library, eager to hear what could be said about the little pedestrian.
10. “The fly, my children,” began their father, “every time he moves his foot, performs a philosophical experiment, similar, in every respect, to that which I now show you, by moving the handle of the air pump. ceive that this glass vessel, which is put on this brass plate, now adheres so firmly to it that I am unable to force it away.”
11. “How wonderful !” exclaimed Harriet. “It is as fast to the plate as the friend* of Hercules, that I read about the other day, was to the stone on which he sat, in the drear dominions of Pluto."
12. "How is this done, father it looks like some conjurer's trick. I see nothing pressing upon the glass, to cause it to stick so fast.”
13. “Though you can not see it, I assure you there is something pressing very hard upon and all around it, and
, that something is the air.”
14. “You astonish me. Has the air weight? I never heard of that before."
15. “But you have heard of hurricanes sweeping away forests and houses, and rendering the country over which they passed a wilderness; haven't you? They are almost as much to be dreaded as earthquakes, and a hurricane is only air put in motion.”
16. “I have been very stupid not to find out that air has weight; but how is it that we do not feel it, father? I should think," continued Harriet, “that if it was so heavy it would pin us to the earth, as Prometheus was
# Prometheus; fastened to a rock by order of Jupiter, and after. wards released by Hercules, who was the most celebrated of the mythviogical gods of the Greeks, and noted for his great strength. Pluto was another of their gods. He was king of the shades, and had control of the dead.
fastened to the rock, and then we should be in a pretty condition, I think. How will you answer that, father?” 17. “I have had a more puzzling question to answer,
I assure you. The air is a very subtile fluid, and finds its way into every crevice; and one of its properties is, that it presses equally in all directions, up and down and sideways, and we perceive its weight only when we remove the air from one side of a body, so as to cause the whole weight to be upon the other. In this glass vessel I withdrew the air that was in the inside of it, and which pressed it upwards with a force exactly equal to that with which the air above pressed downwards, and then the whole weight of the atmosphere pressing in one direction kept it firmly attached to the brass plate."
18. “That is a very beautiful arrangement,” cried William ; “I shall never breathe the air again without thinking of its wonderful properties."
19. “I will take off this vessel and put this one on, which is open at both ends; now put your hand, Harriet, on the upper end, and I will cause a slight vacuum to take place, so that you may feel the pressure."
20. “Stop, father, you will crush my hand if you move that handle another time. Do look at my hand, William; the gripe of a giant is nothing to that.”
21. William tried the experiment for himself. “How heavy is the atmosphere, father? Is it very great?" 22. · It
presses upon the surface of all bodies near the level of the ocean with a force equal to fourteen pounds on every square inch. I will now make another experiment to show its pressure.”
23. “I will place on this same glass vessel, which you see is open at both ends, this piece of glass, which so closely fits it as to exclude the air. I now withdraw the air from under it."
24. “What a crash, father!” exclaimed William and