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9. It is good to have them, good to encourage them, good to honor them, good to commemorate them; and whatever tends to cherish, animate and strengthen such feelings, does as much downright practical good as filling low grounds and building railroads.



1. The wisdom of the Creator has provided animals with stomachs of different kinds, suited to their food and habits of life. Some chew their victuals and then swallow it, while others swallow it first and then chew it over at leisure.

2. As the Almighty never acts without reason, and always proportions the means to the end, we are led naturally to conclude that each of these methods is that most fitted to the animal's necessities, and best adapted to the circumstances under which it is placed in the great plan of nature; and so we shall find it on consideration.

3. Sheep, for instance, being naturally a timid and very defenseless order of animals, are provided with a stomach divided into four parts. By means of this they are enabled, when they meet with a good piece of pasture, to crop it hastily, and swallow it almost whole; it then passes into the first division of the stomach.

4. When the feeding is completed, a portion of this substance is passed from the first to the second division of the stomach; here it is rolled into the form of a ball, and returned to the mouth to be ground finer. After this process, it is once more swallowed, and it passes

into the third division of the stomach, and from that to the fourth.

5. By this arrangement these timid animals are enabled to gather and swallow their food whenever they have an opportunity, and to chew it over at their leisure.


6. But the horse is adapted to be the servant and friend of man, and another organization and arrangement has been wisely provided for him.

7. His stomach is small in proportion to his size – considerably less than man's; he is consequently unable to take much food at a time. He requires to be more frequently fed; but by this means he is almost always able to be at his master's service, as we shall presently show.

8. To explain our present subject, it will be sufficient to say that the front of the horse's chest contains his lungs, by which he breathes. Behind them, separated only by a thin kind of skin, is the stomach, destined to receive and digest the food.

9. Each of these organs becomes larger when in use; the lungs occupying more room when the animal is moving about and breathing more quickly. The space they occupy is then so filled that only one of them can be safely distended at a time.

10. The horse can swell out his lungs, and breathe hard, trot, or gallop fast, provided his stomach be empty; he can fill it with safety if he remains at rest, or nearly so, till the food is digested. But if they are both full, the greatest danger is to be apprehended; the horse is sure to be “ blown” almost immediately, because he has no room to breathe, and apoplexy may cause the animal to suddenly drop dead.

11. We have mentioned that the horse's stomach is small compared with his size; and from this we may learn that he is not able to eat much at a time without injury to himself; but he is apt to do this, especially when he has been kept long at work without being supplied with food.


12. When brought home his small stomach is crammed full before any part of it is turned into healthy nourishment to recruit his exhausted frame; he continues eating on, and the diseases called the staggers, megrims or apoplexy are the dangerous and generally fatal result.

13. We may take a hint from this, and see that no horse is allowed to get at an unlimited supply of food. A proper quantity should be given, and no more enough to satisfy his requirements, and then proper time should be allowed for him to digest it.

14. Many a horse has been killed from a fit brought on by the corn-bin having been left open at night, thus giving him an opportunity to gorge himself to death with the tempting food. Recollect this rhyme, which may perhaps serve to recall an important principle to mind:

“Full feed, then rest;

Often feed does best.” 15. Horses that are obliged to be at work constantly for a long time, should never leave the stable without a nose-bag, and a liberal supply of feed. When the horse stops for awhile, the bag should be put on, and he be allowed to chew a few mouthfuls — enough to prevent his becoming exhausted.

16. His strength is kept up; he is not able to eat too much, so as to hinder his capacity for work; and the danger of his over-gorging himself in the stable is greatly lessened. This useful implement (the nose-bag) has saved the lives of hundreds, nay, thousands of horses.

The principle I wish to inculcate is this: If we treat animals kindly they will give us love; if we teach them kindly and wisely, they will give us obedience and service; and that such treatment is necessary for the comfort and perfection of both man and beast.


Every one, however humble, is daily and hourly altering and moulding the character of all with whom he mingles, and exerting a power that will reproduce itself through countless generations.





An Arabian Legend. 1. The site occupied by the temple of Solomon was formerly a cultivated field, possessed in common by two brothers. One of them was married and had several children; the other was unmarried. They lived together, however, cultivating, in the greatest harmony possible, the property they had inherited from their father.

2. The harvest soon arrived. The two brothers bound up their sheaves, and made two equal stacks of them, and laid them on the field. During the night the unmarried brother was struck with an excellent thought. “My brother,” said he to himself, “ has a wife and children to support; it is not just that my share of the harvest should be as large as his."

3. Upon this he arose, and took from his stack several sheaves, which he added to those of his brother; and this he did with as much secrecy as though he had been committing an evil action, so that his brotherly offering might not be refused.

4. On the same night the other brother awoke, and said to his wife, “My brother lives alone without a companion; he has no one to assist him in his labor, nor to reward him for his toils, while God has bestowed on me a wife and children; it is not right that we should take from our common field as many sheaves as he, since we have already more than he has — domestic happiness.

5. “If you consent, we shall, by adding secretly a certain number of sheaves to his stack, by way

stack, by way of compensation, and without his knowledge, see his portion of the harvest increase." The project was approved and immediately put into execution.

6. In the morning .each of the brothers went to the field, and were much surprised at seeing the stacks equal.

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