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perfection will find himself amply rewarded for every exertion he may think proper to make.
5. To give rules for the management of the voice in reading, by which the necessary pauses, emphasis and tones may be discovered and put in practice, is not possible. After all the directions that can be offered on these points, much will remain to be taught by the living instructor; much will be attainable by no other means than the force of example influencing the imitative powers of the learner.
II.-EMPHASIS IN READING.
1. In order to read with proper emphasis, the reader must study to attain a just conception of the force and spirit of the sentiments which he is to pronounce; for to lay the emphasis with exact propriety, is a constant exercise of good sense and attention.
2. It is far from being an inconsiderable attainment. It is one of the most decisive trials of a true and just taste, and must arise from feeling delicately, ourselves, and from judging accurately of what is fittest to strike the feelings of others.
3. There is one error, against which it is particularly proper to caution the learner, namely, that of making too many emphatic words, and using the emphasis indiscriminately.
4. It is only by a prudent reserve and distinction in their use that we can give them proper weight. If they occur too often,- if the reader attempts to render every thing he expresses of high importance by a multitude of strong emphases, we soon learn to pay little regard to them.
5. To crowd every sentence with emphatical words is like crowding all the pages of a book with italic characters; which, as to the effect, is just the same as to use no such distinction at all.
III.-POSITION IN READING.
1. However well the reader may comprehend his subject, and lay his emphasis, a graceful manner and position must be added to produce the best effect.
2. The manner of delivery is quite as important an agent in producing the desired result as the matter delivered. So important is it, that it has always been considered, by the greatest orators, as the essential element in oratory, and it is equally essential in reading, for reading is speaking at sight.
3. The position of the reader is quite as important as his manner. The above cuts will sufficiently illustrate
this. A represents a position often seen. It is wrong for several reasons. It is awkward, offensive, obstructive
4. That it is awkward, any one can see. That it is offensive, our feelings bear witness whenever we are compelled to behold it. That it is obstructive, the ear ever will declare, as long as it is treated to half-stifled guttural sounds. That it is unhealthy, the experience of old practitioners, physical laws, and common sense alike assert.
5. B represents the correct position. It is in every respect the reverse of A. It is a commanding position, and never fails to secure the attention and create pleasing emotions. It allows free exercise of the muscles of the chest; a full and natural inflation of the lungs; easy modification of the voice by the organs of speech; and, of course, a full, distinct articulation and modulation. This position (B) should always be taken in reading at school. The right hand hangs gracefully at the side, and is free to gesticulate, and turn pages, if necessary.
IV. SHORT EXTRACTS TO ILLUSTRATE VARIETY OF EXPRESSION.
1. Few and short were the prayers we said,
But steadfastly gazed on the face of the dead,
2. What is't?-a spirit?
See! how it looks about! Believe me, sir,
A thing divine; for nothing natural
3. O, save me, Hubert, save me: my eyes are out,
I will not stir, nor wince, nor speak a word,
Thrust but these men away and I'll forgive you,
4. Painting, poetry, eloquence, and every other art on which the genius of mankind has exercised itself, may be abused and prove dangerous in the hands of bad men; but it were ridiculous to contend that, on this account, they ought be abolished.
5. I could a tale unfold whose lightest word
Would harrow up thy soul, freeze thy young blood,
6. The world recedes, it disappears!
Heaven opens on my eyes! My ears
Lend, lend your wings! I mount! I fly!
O Death! where is thy sting?
7. He hath disgraced me, and hindered me of half a million; laughed at my losses, mocked at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine enemies. And what's his reason?--I am a Jew.
8. Hath not a Jew eyes, hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions?-fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer as a Christian is?
V. THE NATURE OF TRUE ELOQUENCE.
1. When public bodies are to be addressed on momentous occasions, when great interests are at stake and very strong passions excited, nothing is valuable in speech further than it is connected with high intellectual and moral endowments. Clearness, force and earnestness are the qualities which produce conviction.
2. True eloquence, indeed, does not consist in speech; it can not be brought from far. Labor and learning may toil for it, but they will toil for it in vain; words and phrases may be marshaled in every way, but they can not compass it. It must exist in the man, in the subject,
and in the occasion.
3. Affected passion, intense expression, the pomp of declamation,— all may aspire after it; they can not reach it. It comes, if it comes at all, like the outbreaking of a fountain from the earth, or the bursting forth of volcanic fires with spontaneous, original, native force.
4. The graces taught in the schools, the costly ornaments, and studied contrivances of speech, shock and disgust men, when their own lives and the fate of their wives, their children and their country, hang on the decision of the hour.
5. Then, words have lost their power; rhetoric is vain : and all elaborate oratory contemptible. Even genius itself, then, feels rebuked and subdued, as in the presence