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cous animals are subdivided into three classes : 1. Univalves; that is, animals armed with a shell, or valve, forming one continuous piece; such as snails. 2. Bivalves, or those having two shells united by a hinge; such as oysters and clams. 3. Multivalves, or those having more than two shells; of which the common barnacle is an example.
6. The third division is assigned to what are called articulated animals; these having a peculiar structure called articulations, from articulus, Latin for a little joint. It is subdivided into four classes: 1. Annelides, or those having a ringed structure, from annulus, Latin for ring; leeches and earth-worms are examples. 2. Crustacea, or those which have their soft bodies and limbs protected by a hard coating, or crust, which in common language we call shell also; such as lobsters, crabs and prawns. 3. Spiders, which form a class by themselves. 4. Insects, such as flies, beetles, bees and butterflies.
7. The fourth division comprehends a great variety of animals which have a structure like an assemblage of rays diverging from a common point like the spokes of a carriage wheel ; and on this account they are called radiated animals, from radius, the Latin for ray. It contains five classes; but as three of these are animals without hard parts, we may pass them by.
8. Of the remaining two, one contains the echini, or sea-urchins; the other, the very numerous tribe called zoophytes, from two Greek words signifying animal and plant; because the animal is fixed to the ground and builds its strong habitation in the form of a shrub, or branch, or leafy plant. Corals and sponges belong to this class; and among all the different animal remains that are found, there is no class which bears any proportion in point either of frequency of occurrence, or in quantity, to this last.
1. Never speak any thing for a truth which you know or believe to be false. Lying is a great sin against God, who gave us a tongue to speak truths, and not falsehoods. It is a great offense against humanity itself; for where there is no regard to truth, there can be no safe society between man and man.
2. And it is an injury to the speaker; for, besides the disgrace which it brings upon him, it occasions so much baseness of mind that he can scarcely tell truth, or avoid lying even when he has no color of necessity for it; and, in time, he comes to such a pass that, as other people can not believe he speaks truth, so he himself scarcely knows when he tells a falsehood.
3. You must not equivocate, nor speak any thing positively for which you have no authority but report, or conjecture, or opinion. Let your words be few, especially when your súperiors or strangers are present, lest you betray your own weakness, and rob yourself of the opportunity which you might otherwise have had to gain knowledge, wisdom and experience, by hearing those whom you silence by your impertinent talking.
4. Be not too earnest, loud, or violent in your conversation. Silence your opponent with reason, not with noise. Be careful not to interrupt another when he is speaking. Hear him cut, and you will understand hin the better, and be able to give him the better answer.
5. Consider before you speak, especially when the business is of moment; weigh the sense of what you mean to utter, and the expressions you intend to use, that they may be significant, to the point, and inoffensive. Inconsiderate persons do not think till they speak; or they speak, and then think.
6. Some men excel in one thing, some in another. In conversation learn, as near as you can, where the skill or excellence of any person lies; put him upon talking on that subject ; observe what he says, keep it in your memory, or commit to writing. By this means you will glean knowledge from every one with whom you converse, and at an easy rate acquire what may be of use to you on many occasions.
7. When you are in company with light, vain, impertinent persons, let the observing of their failings make you the more cautious both in your conversation with them and in your general behavior, that you may avoid their errors.
8. If any one whom you do not know to be a person of truth, sobriety, and weight, relates strange stories, be not too ready to believe or report them; and yet, unless he is one of your familiar acquaintances, be not too forward to contradict him.
9. If the occasion requires you to declare your opinion, do it modestly and gently, not bluntly nor coarsely. By this means you will avoid giving offense, or being abused for too much credulity.
SIR MATTHEW HALE.
LIII.-THE SOLITARY REAPER,
1. Behold her single in the field,
Yon solitary Highland lass !
2. No nightingale did ever chant
More welcome notes to weary bands
3. Will no one tell me what she sings?
Perhaps the plaintive numbers flow
4. Whate'er the theme, the maiden sang
As if her song could have no ending;
1. A young man once picked up a sovereign lying in the road. Ever afterward, as he walked along, he kept his eye steadily fixed on the ground, in the hope of finding another.
2. And, in the course of a long life, he did pick up, at different times, a large amount of gold and silver. But all these days, as he was looking for them, he saw not that heaven was bright above him and nature was beautiful around. 3. He never once allowed his
from the mud and filth in which he sought the treasure; and when he died, a rich old man, he only knew this fair earth of ours as a dirty road in which to pick up money as you walk along
1. It is not enough for the preservation of health that our bodies are properly nourished, that we are fitly clothed, that we take exercise and enjoy rest, that we are cleanly in our persons and live in open and airy situations. All these things are useless if our temper and passions be not properly regulated and controlled.
2. It is useless to make a good meal of fit and nourishing diet, unless the mind is quiet and composed after it. A sally of passion, or a fit of sulkiness, spoils the digestion, and it would be better to go without food; because this not only prevents food undergoing its usual changes, but it may lay the foundation of lingering disease.
3. But it is not alone after we have taken food that passions and bad temper may injure us. We can not even eat if we yield to them. We lose our appetites, the stomach gets disordered, and the most delicate meal is rejected. Unless the temper be serene and cheerful we eat without an appetite, what we eat we can not digest, and food rather does us harm than good.
4. A happy-minded and amiable child is one of the