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Art. V, Sec. 9

Art. X, Sec. 7

Local Ordinances and Administrative Regulations

Art. III, Sec. 27

Art. III, Sec. 18


Art. VI, Sec. 21

Art. VI, Sec. 21

Art. XII, Sec. 2

Expenses of
Art. VII, Sec. 9

Art. XIII, Sec. 6

Regulation of

Art. VIII, Sec. 6

Art. VIII, Sec. 4

Prison Labor
Art. III, Sec. 29

(10) [Providing for making appointments and promotions in the civil service of the state, and to all civil divisions thereof, including cities and villages, according to merit and fitness].

(11) [Providing for the removals set forth in article III, section 10, paragraph 8].

(1846, X, 7)

(12) [Conferring by general laws] upon the boards of supervisors of the several counties of the state further powers of local legislation and administration as [it] may from time to time deem expedient, and in counties which now have, or may hereafter have, county auditors or other fiscal officers, authorized to audit bills, accounts, charges, claims or demands against the county, [it] may confer such powers upon said auditors, or fiscal officers, as [it] may, from time to time, deem expedient.

(1846, III, 23; as amended 1874 and 1909; see 1846, III, 17)

(13) [Providing by general laws] for the cases enumerated in [article IV, section 28] and for all other cases which in its judgment may be provided for by general laws.


(1846, III, 18; added 1874)

(14) [Providing] for the speedy publication of all stat

(1846, VI, 22; 1869, VI, 23)

(15) [Regulating] the reporting of decisions of the courts. (1846, VI, 22; 1869, VI, 23)

(16) [Providing] for a public notice and opportunity for a hearing concerning any [bills submitted to the mayor or council of the city according to the provisions of article IV, section 19.]

(17) [Providing] annually, by equitable taxes * * * for the expenses of the superintendence and repairs of the canals.

(See 1846, VII, 1)

(18) [Providing for payment by the state for] expenses which shall be incurred by any county in investigating and prosecuting any charge of bribery or attempting to bribe any person holding office under the laws of this state, in any county thereof, or of receiving bribes by any such person in said county, said expenses to be a charge against the state. (1846, XV, 4; added 1874)


[Providing] for the registry of all bills or notes issued or put in circulation as money, and [requiring] ample security for the redemption of the same in specie.

(1846, VIII, 6)

(20) [Conforming, by general laws] all charters of savings banks, or institutions for savings, to a uniformity of powers, rights and liabilities.

(1846, VIII, 4; as amended 1874)

(21) [Providing] for the occupation and employment of prisoners sentenced to the several state prisons, penitentiaries, jails and reformatories of the state, and [that] no person in any such prison, penitentiary, jail or reformatory shall be required or allowed to work, while under sentence thereto, at

Violation of
Art. I, Sec. 9
Common Schools
Art. IX, Sec. 1

Art. IX, Sec. 3

Art. XI, Sec. 3

Art. XIV, Sec. 1

Art. VIII, Sec. 10

Art. VII, Sec. 4

Freedom of Speech
and Press
Art. I, Sec. 8

Right to Assemble and Petition

Art. I, Sec. 9

Damages for Injuries
Causing Death
Art. I, Sec. 18

Suspension of
Specie Payments
Art. VIII, Sec. 5

any trade, industry or occupation wherein or whereby his work, or the product or profit of his work, shall be farmed out, contracted, given or sold to any person, firm or association, or corporation [but] this [paragraph] shall not be construed to prevent the legislature from providing that convicts may work for, and that the products of the labor may be disposed of to the state or any political division thereof, or for or to any public institution owned, managed and controlled by the state, or any political division thereof.

(22) [Preventing] offenses against any of the provisions. of [article IV, sections 26 and 27.]

(23) [Providing] for the maintenance and support of a system of free common schools, wherein all the children of this state may be educated.

(24) [Appropriating] the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars of the revenues of the United States deposit fund each year * * * to * * * the capital of the


common school fund.

(1846, IX, 1)

(25) [Making] at each session

* sufficient ap

propriation for the maintenance [of the militia].

(26) [Submitting to the people for approval such amendments to the constitution as are mentioned in article XII, section 1.]

(1821, VIII, 1; 1846, XIII, 1)

(27) [Prescribing] the method by which and the terms and conditions under which the amount of any debt [of New York city to be excluded] in ascertaining the power of said city to become otherwise indebted shall be determined.

(Added 1909)

(28) [Reducing the direct tax to an amount equal to the accruing interest on the debt provided for in article IV, section 40, when any sinking fund created under article IV, section 17, shall equal in amount the debt for which it was created].

(Added 1909)

Specific Restraints on Legislation

Section 22. No law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press.

(1821, VII, 8; 1846, I, 8)

Section 23. No law shall be passed abridging the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the government, or any department thereof.

(1846, I, 10)

Section 24. The right of action now existing to recover damages for injuries resulting in death, shall never be abrogated; and the amount recoverable shall not be subject to any statutory limitations.

Section 25. The legislature shall have no power to pass any law sanctioning in any manner, directly or indirectly, the suspension of specie payments by any person, association or corporation, issuing bank notes of any description.

(1846, VIII, 5)


Art. I, Sec. 9

Art. I, Sec. 9

Private and Local

Art. III, Sec. 18


Art. VIII, Sec. 1

Section 26. [No] divorce [shall be] granted otherwise than by due judicial proceedings.

(1846, I, 10)

Section 27. [No] lottery [nor] sale of lottery tickets, poolselling, book-making, or any other kind of gambling hereafter [shall] be authorized or allowed within this state.

(1821, VII, 11; 1846, I, 10)

Section 28. The legislature shall not pass a private or local bill in any of the following cases:

1. Changing the names of persons.

2. Laying out, opening, altering, working or discontinuing roads, highways or alleys, or for draining swamp or other low lands.

3. Locating or changing county seats.

4. Providing for changes of venue in civil or criminal


5. Incorporating villages.

6. Providing for election of members of boards of supervisors.

7. Selecting, drawing, summoning or impaneling grand or petit jurors.

8. Regulating the rate of interest on money.

9. The opening and conducting of elections or designating places of voting.

10. Creating, increasing or decreasing fees, percentages or allowances of public officers, during the term for which said officers are elected or appointed.

11. Granting to any corporation, association or individual the right to lay down railroad tracks.

12. Granting to any private corporation, association or individual any exclusive privilege, immunity or franchise whatever.

(As amended 1901)

13. Granting to any person, association, firm or corporation, an exemption from taxation on real or personal property.

14. Providing for building bridges, and chartering companies for such purposes, except on the Hudson river below Waterford, and on the East river, or over the waters forming a part of the boundaries of the state.

(1846), III, 18; added 1874)

Section 29. Corporations may be formed under general laws; but shall not be created by special act, except for municipal purposes, and in cases where, in the judgment of the legislature, the objects of the corporation cannot be attained under general laws.

(1846, VIII, 1)

2. All general laws and special acts passed pursuant to this section may be altered from time to time or repealed.

(1846, VIII, 1)


Art. VIII, Sec. 4

Drainage of
Agricultural Lands
Art. I, Sec. 7

Street Railroads

Art. III, Sec. 18

Private Claims
Art. III, Sec. 19

Claims Barred by
Statute of Limitation
Art. VII, Sec. 6

Extra Compensation
Art. III, Sec. 28


Art. VII, Sec. 2

Section 30. The legislature shall have no power to pass any act granting any special charter for banking purposes, but corporations or associations may be formed for such purposes under general laws.

(1846, VIII, 1)

Section 31. General laws may be passed permitting the owners or occupants of agricultural lands to construct and maintain for the drainage thereof, necessary drains, ditches and dykes upon the lands of others, under proper restrictions and with just compensation, but no special laws shall be enacted for such purposes.

Section 32. No law shall authorize the construction or operation of a street railroad except upon the condition that the consent of the owners of one-half in value of the property bounded on, and the consent also of the local authorities having the control of, that portion of a street or highway upon which it is proposed to construct or operate such railroad be first obtained, or in case the consent of such property owners cannot be obtained, the appellate division of the supreme court in the department in which it is proposed to be constructed, may, upon application, appoint three commissioners who shall determine, after a hearing of all parties interested, whether such railroad ought to be constructed or operated, and their determination, confirmed by the court, may be taken in lieu of the consent of the property owners. (1846, III, 18; added 1874)

Section 33. The legislature shall neither audit nor allow any private claim or account against the state, but may appropriate money to pay such claims as shall have been audited and allowed according to law.

(1846, III, 19; added 1874)

Section 34. Neither the legislature, canal board, nor any person or persons acting in behalf of the state, shall audit, allow or pay any claim which, as between citizens of the state, would be barred by lapse of time.

(1846, VII, 14; as amended 1874)

2. This provision shall not be construed to repeal any statute fixing the time within which claims shall be presented or allowed, nor shall it extend to any claim duly presented within the time allowed by law, and prosecuted with due diligence from the time of such presentment. But if the claimant shall be under legal disability, the claim may be presented within two years after such disability is removed. (1846, VII, 14; as amended 1874)

Section 35. The legislature shall not * * * grant any extra compensation to any public officer, servant, agent or contractor.

(1846, III, 24; added 1874)

Section 36. The state may, to meet casual deficits or failures in revenues, or for expenses not provided for, contract debts; but such debts, direct or contingent, singly or in the aggregate, shall not at any time exceed one million of dollars; and the money arising from the loans creating such debts shall be applied to the purposes for which they were obtained, or to repay the debts so contracted, and to no other purpose whatever.

(1846, VII, 10)

Debts to Repel

Art. VII, Sec. 3

Payment of Money
Art. III, Sec. 21

Aid to Private

Art. VIII, Sec. 9

Art. VII, Sec. 1

Creating Indebtedness
Art. VII, Sec. 4

Payment of State

Art. VII, Sec. 11

Section 37. In addition to the above limited power to contract debts, the state may contract debts to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or defend the state in war; but the money arising from the contracting of such debts shall be applied to the purpose for which it was raised, or to repay such debts, and to no other purpose whatever.

(1846, VII, 11)

Section 38. No money shall ever be paid out of the treasury of this state, or any of its funds, or any of the funds under its management, except in pursuance of an appropriation by law; nor unless such payment be made within two years next after the passage of such appropriation


(1846, VII, 8)

Section 39. Neither the credit nor the money of the state shall be given or loaned to or in aid of any association, corporation or private undertaking. This section shall not * * * apply to any fund or property now held, or which may hereafter, be held, by the state for educational purposes. (1846, VIII, 10; added 1874)

2. The credit of the state shall not in any manner be given or loaned to or in aid of any individual, association or corporation.

(1846, VII, 9)

Section 40. The legislature may provide for the issue of bonds of the state to run for a period not exceeding fifty years in lieu of the bonds heretofore authorized but not issued and shall impose and provide for the collection of a direct annual tax for the payment of the same as hereinbefore required. When any sinking fund created under [article IV, section 17], shall equal in amount the debt for which it was created, no further direct tax shall be levied on account of said sinking fund and the legislature shall reduce the tax to an amount equal to the accruing interest on such debt. The legislature may from time to time alter the rate of interest to be paid upon any state debt which has been or may be authorized pursuant to the provisions of [article IV, section 17] or upon any part of such debt, provided, however, that the rate of interest shall not be altered upon any part of such debt or upon any bond or other evidence thereof, which has been, or shall be created or issued before such alteration. In case the legislature increase the rate of interest upon any such debt, or part thereof, it shall impose and provide for the collection of a direct annual tax to pay and sufficient to pay the increased or altered interest on such debt as it falls due and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt within fifty years from the time of the contracting thereof, and shall appropriate annually to the sinking fund moneys in amount sufficient to pay such interest and pay and discharge the principal of such debt when it shall become due and payable.

(Added to 1894, VII, 4, in 1905)

Section 41. The legislature may appropriate out of any funds in the treasury, moneys to pay the accruing interest and principal of any debt heretofore or hereafter created, or any part thereof and may set apart in each fiscal year moneys in the state treasury as a sinking fund to pay the interest as it falls due and to pay and discharge the principal of any debt heretofore or hereafter created under section [17] of article [IV] of the constitution until the same be wholly paid, and

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