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Another, Mr. A. B., please pay to Mr. H. P. or bearer, dollars, and charge the same to my account, M Oct, -, 18mm

N.O. Another. Mr. A. B., please deliver to Mr. N.B., or bearer, such goods as he wants at this time, amount not to exceed dollars, and charge the same to B Ост. 18

J. B.

Insolvent Law of Massachusetts. A debtor owing $200, or a creditor having a claim of $100 not more than ninety days due, may apply for process to a judge of probate or master in chancery.

When the assets do not pay 50 per cent of the debts, creditors holding more than half the claims may object to the debtor's discharge. In case of a second insolvency creditors holding two-thirds of the claims must consent in writing to the discharge. No discharge, in case of a third insolvency, nor if a debtor, within six months, having just cause to believe himself insolvent, has paid or secured the payment of any bor. rowed money. Debts due for labor within sixty-five days before insol. vency to the amount of $25, have priority over all others, except those of the U. S.-A debtor is allowed one dollar a day for attendance upon the judge or assignees, and a sum not exceeding three dollars a week for two months, in the discretion of the judge or master.

Debtors paying a dividend of 50 per cent are allowed five per cent on the produce of all the estate received by the assignees.

Assignees must give written notice, by mail or otherwise, of all meet. ings of creditors, and of dividends, in cases pending before them, to all known creditors of such insolvent debtors.

1

Insolvent Law of New York. An Insolvent debtor may be discharged from his debts, on executing an assignment of all his estate, for the benefit of his creditors. The petition for his discharge must be signed by him, and by as many of his creditors residing within the United States as have debts, in good faith, ow, ing to them by such debtor, and amounting, at least, to two-thirds of all debts owing by him to creditors residing within the United States. This petition must be accompanied by an affidavit stating the sum specified therein, and annexed to the name of the petitioner subscribed to such petition, is justly due to him or will become due to him at some future time, to be specified therein; and also the nature of the demand, and that he nor any person to his use, has received payment of any part of the said sum; and also, by a schedule containing a particular account of the condition of his property: and upon such insolvent's producing a certificate, under the hands and seals of ihe assignees, that such assignment has been made and duly recorded, he shall be granted a discharge from his debts and from imprisonment.

Property exempt from Execution in New York. The following property, when owned by any person being a househola er, is exempt from levy and sale under an execution; and such articles thereof as are moveable shall continue so exempt while the family of such person, or any of them, may be removing from one place of residence to another. All spinning-wheels, weaving looms, and stoves, put up or kept for use in any dwelling-house. The family bible, family pictures, and

Receipt for Money due on a Bond. B-, Nov. 18—. Received of A. B., the sum of - dol. lars, due to me the day of last , on bond by the said A. B., to be endorsed thereon. $

C. D.

BORROWED MONEY DUE BILLS, OR MEMORANDUM CHECK.

IS, SEPT. –, 18Borrowed and received of A. B., dollars, which I promise to pay on demand with interest.

C. D.

Another. J_, Oct. -, 18—. Borrowed and received of A. B. lars, payable on demand.

dol.

C.F.

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No 56. Ex. $

D-, MAY —, 18. Thirty days after sight, of this my First Bill of Exchange, (second and third of the same tenor and date not paid,) pay to C. D. & Co., without further advice from me, dollars, value received, and charge the same to account of

Your Ob’t Servant. To Messrs. E. F. & Sons,

A. B. } No. 56. Ex. $

D-, MAY –, 18—. Thirty days after sight, of this my Second Bill Exchange, (first and third of the same tenor and date not paid,) pay to, &c.

No. 56. Ex. $

D, MAY -, 18Thirty days after sight, of this my Third Bill of Exchange, (first and second of the same tenor and date not paid,) pay to, &c.

B

INLAND DRAFTS FOR MONEY, WITH ACCEPTANCE.

Nov., 184, months (or days] after date, pay to the order of A, B.dollars, value received, and place the same to account of C. D.

To E. F. Merchant, N. Y. [Accepted, E. F.]

dollars in mer

ORDERS.
Mr. A. B. will please pay to X. Y. or bearer,
chandize, and charge the same to the account of
M-

Oct. --, 18

N 0.

Ост. -,

Another, Mr. A. B., please pay to Mr. H. P. or bearer, dollars, and charge the saine to my account. M 18

N. 0. Another. Mr. A. B., please deliver to Mr. N.B., or bearer, such goods as he wants at this time, amount not to exceed dollars, and charge the same to B Oct. —, 18-o.

J. B.

Insolvent Law of Massachusetts. A debtor owing $200, or a creditor having a claim of $100 not more than ninety days due, may apply for process to a judge of probate or master in chancery.

When the assets do not pay 50 per cent of the debts, creditors holding more than half the claims may object to the debtor's discharge. In case of a second insolvency creditors holding two-thirds of the claims must consent in writing to the discharge. No discharge, in case of a third insolvency, nor if a debtor, within six months, having just cause to believe himself insolvent, has paid or secured the payment of any borrowed money. Debts due for labor within sixty-five days before insol. vency to the amount of $25, have priority over all others, except those of the U. S.-A debtor is allowed one dollar a day for attendance upon the judge or assignees, and a sum not exceeding three dollars a week for two months, in the discretion of the judge or master.

Debtors paying a dividend of 50 per cent are allowed five per cent on the produce of all the estate received by the assignees.

Assignees must give written notice, by mail or otherwise, of all meetings of creditors, and of dividends, in cases pending before them, to all known creditors of such insolvent debtors.

Insolvent Law of New York. An Insolvent debtor may be discharged from his debts, on executing an assignment of all his estate, for the benefit of his creditors. The petition for his discharge must be signed by him, and by as many of his creditors residing within the United States as have debts, in good faith, ow ing to them by such debtor, and amounting, at least, to two-thirds of all debts owing by him to creditors residing within the United States. This petition must be accompanied by an affidavit stating the sum specified therein, and annexed to the name of the petitioner subscribed to such petition, is justly due to him or will become due to him at some future time, to be specified therein; and also the nature of the demand, and that he nor any person to his use, has received payment of any part of the said sum; and also, by a schedule containing a particular account of the condition of his property: and upon such insolvent's producing a certificate, under the hands and seals of ihe assignees, that such assignment has been made and duly recorded, he shall be granted a discharge from his debts and from imprisonment.

Property exempt from Execution in New York. The following property, when owned by any person being a househola er, is exempt from levy and sale under an execution; and such articles thereof as are moveable shall continue so exempt while the family of such person, or any of them, may be removing from one place of residence to another. All spinning-wheels, weaving looms, and stoves, put up or kept for use in any dwelling-house. The family bible, family pictures, and

76

PROPERTY EXEMPT FROM EXECUTION.

school-books used in the family of such person, and books not exceeding the value of fifty dollars, which are kept and used as a part of the family library. A seat or pew occupied by such person or his family in any house of public worship. All sheep, to the number of ten, with iheir feeces, and ihe yarn or eloth manufactured from the same. One cow, two swine, and the necessary food for them. All necessary pork, beef, fish, flour, and vegetables, actually provided for family use, and necessary for the use of the family for sixty days. All necessary wearing apparel, beds, bedsteads, and bedding, for such person and his family. Arms and accoutrements, required by law to be kept by such person. Necessary cooking utensils, one table, six chairs, six knives and forks, six plates, six tea-cups and saucers, one' sugar-dish, one milk-pot, one tea-pot and six spoons, one crane and its appendages, one pair of andirons and a shovel and tongs, the tools and implements of any mechanic necessary to the carrying on of his trade, pot exceeding twenty-five dollars in value.

Property exempt from Execution in Massachusetts. The necessary wearing apparel of the debtor, and of his wife and children; one bedstead and bed, and the necessary bedding for every two in the family; an iron stove, (cooking stove,] used for warming dwelling houses ; provisions not exceeding in value fifty dollars; fuel not exceeding the value of ten dollars, and household furniture necessary for the debtor and his famiiy, not exceeding fifty dollars in value. The bibles and school books used in the family: One cow, six sheep, one swine, two tons of hay. The tools and implements of the debtor necessary for carrying on his trade or business not exceeding fifty dollars in value. The uniform of an officer, non.commissioned officer, or private, and the arms, &c., required by law to be kept by him. The rights of burial, and tombs while in use as repositories of the dead.

Property exempt from Execution in Connecticut. The law of this state permits the attachment of all the property of the defendant, both on the original writ and execution, with the exception of the following articles : - necessary apparel, bedding, and household fur. niture required for supporting life, arms, military equipments, implements of the debtor's trade; one cow, sheep under ten, two swine, wood not over two cords, hay not over two tons, beef and pork not over two hundred pounds, potatoes or turnips not over five bushels, Indian corn or rye not over ten bushels, and the meal and flour therefrom, wool or flas not over twenty pounds' weight, or the yarn or cloth made therefrom, one stove and pipe, the property of any person having a wife or family, the horse, saddle, and bridle of any practising physician or surgeon, of the value not exceeding one hundred dollars, charcoal not over iwenty-five bushels, coal not over two tons, wheat flour not exceeding two hundred pounds' weight, the property of any person having a wife and family, can. not be laken on warrant or execution.

Property exempt from Execution in New Hampshire.

The articles exempted by law from attachment in New Hampshire are the arms, equipmenis, and uniforms of officers, musicians, and privates in the militia ; the wearing apparel necessary for the immediate use of a family; household furniture to the value of twenty dollars ; iwo comfortable beds, bedsteads, and bedding necessary for the same; Bibles and school books in actual family use; one pew in the church where the debtor usually worships; one cow; one ton of hay; one hog, and one pig not over six months old; six sheep, and the fleeces of the same sheep, while in possession of the owner; and in case the debtor be a mechanic or farmer, tools of his trade or occupation, to the value of twenty dollars.

LIABILITIES OF COMMON CARRIERS, AND MINORS.

77

LIABILITIES OF COMMON CARRIERS.

A common carrier is a person who undertakes for hire, to transport goods from one place to another. Bank bills are considered goods.

Captains of ships and owners of steamboats, railroads, wagons, canal boats, &c., conveying freight and parcels for hire, are common carriers, and are liable for all losses and damages which such freight may sustain, whether by robbers, fire, or in any other way, unless it occur by inevitable accident or by enemies.

Where a person specially undertakes to carry goods, although he is not absolutely a common carrier; and they be lost or injured by his neglect or mismanagement, it will give sufficient cause for action. For the pretence of care was what induced the owner to trust hiin. But if he perform his commission to the best of his ability, and in good faith, he is not liable for damages.

Where there are intermediate carriers, the first one is liable until the goods are delivered at the place for which they are directed, unless there is a special agreement to the contrary.

When the baggage consists of a travelling trunk, containing a large sum of money, or other articles of great value, the carrier is not respon. sible unless he be made acquainted with their character when delivered to him, in order that he may bestow additional care in protecting and transporting them. The carrier, however, is liable for money in the trunk, if the amount does not exceed that which is usually carried for travelling expenses.

Carriers may regulate their terins according to the extent of their responsibility.

Steamboats, Stage-offices, Cars, &c., often put up notices, that all “baggage is at the risk of the owners,” this, however, does not excuse the company from the payment for any damage which may happen to such baggage from a defect in the vehicles, &c., used in its convey.

A carrier is liable for any loss which happens through a defect in the vessel or carriage, no matter what public or particular notice he may give, notwithstanding there is a special agreement that he shall not be liable for losses.

Every carrier has a lien upon goods entrusted to his care, and may retain them until the freight is paid; he is also responsible for all acts of his servants while in his employment.

A master of a vessel 'may detain goods, or the baggage of a passenger, until the freight or passage money is paid.

A carrier must deliver at the place to which the goods are directed and within the specified time.

LIABILITIES OF MINORS.
Persons under twenty-one years of age, are called minors.

If a person pretend to be of age, and obtain credit for goods (not necessaries) and then refuse payment on account of his non-age, the person injured cannot recover the value of the goods, but may indict him

Minors cannot bind themselves by contract for any thing but necessaries for their subsistence, clothing or education.

If a minor contract for other things than necessàries, his contract is void or voidable at his election, but if he choose to affirm it, the other party cannot avoid it. A minor whose parent may have released his claim for his labor, or his wages, is not thereby enabled to bind himself by his contracts, nor can a parent or guardian authorize him to make contracts by which he will be bound, if he choose to disaffirm them.

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as a cheat.

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