« ПретходнаНастави »
msurgents is a recognition of their belligerency. Any attempt to violate a blockade subjects a ship to capture, provided that the blockade is actual-that is, that there is sufficient naval force present to maintain it; that the offending neutral had knowledge that a blockade existed; and that there was an attempt to "run the blockade."
Visit and Search. In order to make the rules as to con traband of war and blockade effective, a belligerent possesses the right of visit and search, by which its cruisers are authorized to stop and examine ships on the high seas for the purpose of ascertaining their nationality, destination and the character of their cargoes. And to this right neutrals must submit.
Conduct of Hostilities on Land:
Employment of savages.
Massacre and pillage.
Inhumanity to prisoners.
Use of poison.
Definitions.-Municipal Law consists of those rules of conduct prescribed by the supreme power of a state to regulate the relations between the state and its citizens, or between the citizens themselves. It is either written or unwritten. The unwritten law of this country comprises Common Law and Equity (see page 162). The written law of the United States consists of the Federal Constitution, the Acts of Congress and Treaties. The written law of a State consists of its constitution and statutes. A statute is a law established by the legislature of a State. Object. The object of Municipal Law is to protect rights and punish wrongs. Rights are of two kinds— political and civil (see page So, also, wrongs are of two kinds-public, or crimes, and private, or torts.
1. CIVIL RIGHTS.
1. ABSOLUTE Rights.
Personal Security.-This includes the right of life, the violation of which is one of the gravest of crimes; and the right of reputation—that is, the favorable opinion of others-defamation of which, if oral, is slander, and if by writing or printing, libel.