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the Constitution, but also all others which could be reasonably implied. The other party, called the Anti-Federalists (the conservatives), contended that the government was limited to the exercise of those powers which were particularly named in the Constitution, and that it could do nothing beyond them. Under different names these two parties have continued ever since the first administration of Washington, though other great questions, such as the extension and abolition of slavery and, at the present time, national currency and territorial expansion, have given rise to other divisions or re-divisions of the two great parties.

Use of Parties.-Parties, then, grow out of the differences of opinion upon questions of state or national importance, and are useful in uniting into one body all those who possess the same belief, thus presenting concise and definite views upon public questions, and proposing for election men who favor the application of these views in the administration of their office. Theoretically, a voter is at liberty to vote for any person for any office, but in practice the ballots are cast for those persons who have been nominated by the political parties, each of which selects a candidate for every office which it to be filled at election.

Primaries. The nomination of officers is regulated by the custom of parties and the laws of the State, the general outline of which in New York is as follows: In each town and city ward there is held before each election a meeting of the voters of each political party, which is known as a "caucus" or "primary." At this meeting persons are nominated for the various town or ward

offices, and delegates are selected to attend county, district and school commissioner district conventions. At ward primaries, in years when city officers are to be elected, delegates are also chosen to attend the city convention of the party. These primaries are the most important of all party meetings, because here the whole nominating machinery is set in motion, and here only do the individuals of the party have the opportunity of discussing the questions at issue, or determining upon the views which the party will take upon these questions.

Conventions. At city conventions the delegates from the various wards nominate persons for the city offices. At county conventions the delegates from the various towns and city wards nominate persons for the county offices. In every assembly district there is held each year a district convention composed of the delegates from the towns and wards of the district, which nominates a person for member of assembly, and if it is a year when state officers, or a state senator or representative or justice of the supreme court is to be elected, chooses separate sets of delegates to the state, congressional, senatorial and judicial conventions. In school commissioner districts the chief business of the convention is the nomination of a school commissioner. In counties, however, which are entitled to but one member of assembly or one school commissioner, the county convention performs the duties of the district convention or school commissioner convention. In each senatorial district there is held, whenever a senator is to be elected, a senatorial convention, composed of delegates from the assembly districts in such district, at which a person is nominated for

the office of state senator. But in a county which is entitled to one senator, such officer is nominated in the county convention. In like manner in each congressional district and judicial district, whenever such offices are to be filled, conventions composed of delegates from the assembly districts within such districts nominate persons for the offices of representative and justice of the supreme court. Each year in which the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Comptroller, State Treasurer, Attorney General, State Surveyor and Engineer, and Judges of the Court of Appeals or any of them is to be elected, there is held a state convention, composed of delegates from the assembly districts of the State, at which persons are nominated for the offices to be filled.

General Regulations. To prevent abuses the statutes provide definite rules to govern the conduct of these various party meetings, and also a method by which a specified number of persons can make independent nominations for offices in the State or any of its subdivisions. For the sake of regularity and publicity, it is also required that certificates of the nomination of candidates for offices to be filled by vote of the whole State shall be filed in the office of the Secretary of State; of districts larger than a county in the offices of the Secretary of State and of the clerk of each county composing the district; of town and village officers in the offices of their respective clerks; and of all other officers in the office of the county clerk, a certain time before election, and that notice of such nominations be published for a specified period.

Presidential Nominations. In every presidential year there are held party meetings distinct from those which

have been mentioned. In each town and ward of a city a primary is held to select delegates to an assembly district convention. Each district convention selects delegates to attend a congressional convention and a state convention. Each congressional convention selects two delegates to the national convention, and the state convention nominates the party's presidential electors and also chooses four "delegates-at-large," who are also sent to the national convention. At the national convention, delegates from all the states meet and nominate persons for President and Vice-President and prepare the party platform, which is a statement of the party's views upon national questions, and promises of action in case of success at election.

Qualifications of Voter. While the machinery of nominations is left largely in the hands of the political parties, the State assumes entire control of elections. For the purpose of defining who has the right to vote the Constitution declares that:

Every male citizen of the age of twenty-one years, who shall have been a citizen for ninety days, and an inhabitant of this State one year next preceding an election, and for the last four months a resident of the county, and for the last thirty days a resident of the election district in which he may offer his vote, shall be entitled to vote at such election in the election district of which he shall at the time be a resident, and not elsewhere, for all officers that now are or hereafter may be elective by the people; and upon all questions which may be submitted to the vote of the people, provided that in time of war no elector in the actual military service of the State, or of the United States, in the army or navy thereof, shall be deprived of his vote by reason of his absence from such election district; and the Legislature shall have power to provide the manner in which and the time and place at which such absent electors may vote, and for

the return and canvass of their votes in the election districts in which they respectively reside. (Art. II., Sec. 1.)

But in city and village elections resident taxpayers of both sexes are entitled to vote on questions of special expenditures of public moneys, and generally for school officers.

Election Districts; Residence. For the sake of convenience in the conduct of elections and to prevent illegal practices every town or city ward which contains less than four hundred voters constitutes an election district, but towns and wards which contain more than that number are divided into sections containing, as near as may be, four hundred voters, and each such section then becomes an election district. What constitutes a residence of a voter within a county or election district is largely a matter of the intention of the voter, and no general definition can be given. It must, however, be continuous during the period required by the Constitution, and if a person within thirty days before election removes from one election district to another, although in the same town or ward, he loses his right to vote at that election, not only for the officers of the town or ward, but of the county, the district, the State and the nation. In the case of persons engaged in military or naval service, the Constitution removes this requirement of residence, and directs the Legislature to provide means for their voting, and another section contains the further exception that:

For the purpose of voting, no person shall be deemed to have gained or lost a residence, by reason of his presence or absence, while employed in the service of the United States; nor while engaged in the navigation of the waters of this State, or of the United States, or of the high seas; nor while a student of any seminary of learning; nor while kept at any almshouse, or other asylum, or institution wholly or partly supported at public ex

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