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don't show the sharp worsening trend the MILITARY ASSISTANCE TO LATIN AMERICA IS no less a dangerous program and should other methods do because they compare with
be stopped. $3.6 billion for all last year.
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, the I am not alone in perceiving the danThe desirability of clearing away the fog amendment No. 235 to H.R. 7885, the
ger to our entire Alliance for Progress isn't unappreciated in Washington, and the foreign assistance amendments—which program,
program. On September 28, 1963, our Government economists to try to iron out the I introduced for myself and Mr. ERVIN,
I introduced for myself and Mr. ERVIN, able and distinguished majority whip, disconcerting creases in balance-of-payments Mr. NELSON, Mr. PROXMIRE, Mr. CANNON, Mr. HUMPHREY, stated: statistics. A report is due next spring, and, Mr. MCGOVERN, Mr. MORSE, and Mr. The whole matter of arms assistance to depending on what the committee concludes, SMATHERS, would halt further military Latin America requires scrutiny. * * We the dollar flow could take a sharp turn for assistance to Latin America.
must arrive at a hemisphere agreement on the better or worse as the simple result of
Recent events in both the Dominican this matter and quickly. We will weaken an alteration in the figure flow. Republic and Honduras give added em
and possibly cause the failure of the Alliance Mr. ROBERTSON. Mr. President, I phasis to remarks I made
last year about for Progress unless something is done to imsuggest the absence of a quorum.
plement an effective arms control agreement the dangers we were running in con
in this area. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The tinuing
tinuing to supply weapons to Latin clerk will call the roll. America.
And, indeed, only yesterday the distinThe legislative clerk called the roll,
A year ago those supporting military guished senior Senator from Minnesota and the following Senators answered to assistance to Latin America claimed the [Mr. HUMPHREY), the majority whip, their names: following five objectives of their pro
said: [No. 201 Leg.]
gram: First, hemispheric defense; sec- I thoroughly agree with the Senator from Aiken Hart Nelson
ond, standardization of weapons; third, Alaska and other Senators that in most Latin Allott Hayden Neuberger modernization of weapons; fourth, re
American countries there is a waste of money Beall Hickenlooper Pastore duction of forces; fifth, indoctrinization
in the procurement of military equipment. Bennett Hill Pearson
If it is desired to reduce expenditures in Boggs Holland Pell of the military as to their role in a
the bill, that is a good place to start. Brewster Humphrey Prouty
That was last year before I showed on Indeed it is. Hence my amendment Byrd, Va. Javits
Randolph Byrd, W. Va. Johnston Ribicoff
the floor of the Senate on August 2, 1962, No. 235 to the foreign assistance bill. Cannon
Jordan, N.C. Robertson that not only were none of the objectives I propose to do something right now. Carlson Jordan, Idaho Russell
achieved, but, as to some, the exact It is overdue.
contrary was the result of our efforts. It is not some third power that is sup-
So this year there is a "new look” to plying tanks and planes to the Latin Curtis Lausche Sparkman
the presentation of the military assis- American countries—a third country Dirksen
Long, Mo. Symington Dodd
perhaps whose actions we cannot control. Magnuson Talmadge
tance program for Latin America. Dominick Mansfield Thurmond
The objectives of the program which I
No. It is the United States that is Douglas McCarthy Tower
have just enumerated have been aban- dispensing these fatal weapons-and we Edmondson McGee
Walters Ellender McGovern Williams, N.J. doned.
should be able to control our own efErvin
McIntyre Williams, Del. Now witnesses for the military assis- forts.
tance program for Latin America have Since the inception of the Latin AmerFulbright Monroney Young, Ohio
stressed the danger of insurgency moveGore Morse
ican military assistance program in 1951, Gruening Muskie
ments in Latin America. They have also we have poured over half a billion dolMr. HUMPHREY. I announce that stressed the civil action aspects of the lars into Latin America. Next year's the Senator from New Mexico [Mr. An- work of the military forces in Latin program is at the level of $77 million di
America. DERSON), the Senator from Alaska[ Mr.
vided as follows: BARTLETT], the Senator from Indiana
Certainly the emergence of a Commu- Internal security: $38 million, of [Mr. Bayh), the Senator from Nevada nist government in this hemisphere has which $29.2 million is for equipment and [Mr. BIBLE], the Senator from Idaho been a shock. We are legitimately con- $8.6 million for training; [Mr. CHURCĦ], the Senator from Missis- cerned about
the possibility of other
Civic action: $11.6 million, of which sippi [Mr. EASTLAND], the Senator from tions in the Western Hemisphere follow- $10.7 million is for equipment and $0.9 Indiana (Mr. HARTKE), the Senator from ing Cuba's path. Everyone is anxious to million is for training; Washington [Mr. JACKSON), the Senator take whatever steps are necessary to re
Antisubmarine warfare: $15 million, of from Louisiana [Mr. LONG], the Senator
duce the possibilities of new Communist which $13.5 million is for equipment and from Arkansas [Mr. MCCLELLAN], the takeovers in the region.
$1.6 million for training; Senator from Montana [Mr. METCALF],
However, we can seriously question
Why on earth should be furnish antithe Senator from Utah (Mr. Moss], the whether a policy of helping Latin Ameri, submarine warfare equipment to those Senator from Florida [Mr. SMATHERS), can countries strengthen their internal countries? Bolivia, for example, is a the Senator from Mississippi (Mr. STEN- security forces is any real answer to the long way from the ocean. Indeed, why NIS), and the Senator from Texas (Mr. threat to that region. I am convinced should we furnish antisubmarine' warYARBOROUGH) are absent on official busi- that such a policy is inherently danger- fare equipment to any of these coun
ous to the long-run objectives of U.S. tries? It is ridiculous. ness. I further announce that the Senator rather be the creation of representative policy in Latin America, but should
Packing, crating, and transportation: from California [Mr. ENGLE] is absent
$5 million. due to illness.
governments which are responsive to the
General training: $7.5 million.
In other words, some $53.5 million is Senators from Kentucky [Mr. COOPER
ate Appropriations Committee on August and Mr. MORTON], the Senator from Ari
for equipment, $18.6 million is training, zona (Mr. GOLDWATER), the Senator from the program-by Brig. Gen. 31, 1962-shortly after my criticisms of
and $5 million for packing, crating, and
so forth. Nebraska [Mr. HRUSKA), the Senator Enemark in these terms:
In addition it is my understanding from New Mexico [Mr. MECHEM), the
It is charged that a threat of direct agSenator from Iowa [Mr. MILLER), and the
that it proposed to give the Latin Ameri
can countries $8 million in excess equipSenator from Pennsylvania [Mr. Scott]
gression to the hemisphere is not realistic.
ment and another $25 million in sales are necessarily absent.
that the primary emphasis of our military credit assistance. The Senator from South Dakota [Mr. assistance program for Latin America was In terms of the billions of dollars ConMUNDT] is absent because of illness. changed from hemisphere defense to inter
gress appropriates each year, and the The PRESIDING OFFICER. A quo
nal security in the fiscal year 1962 program. real danger of Communist subversion in rum is present.
But, Mr. President, the thorns on a Latin America, $110 million may appear The question is on agreeing to the rose are just as sharp no matter what to be not worth quibbling about. My amendments offered by the Senator from new name we give to the rose. So it is concern does not center around the exMontana [Mr. MANSFIELD], for himself with the military assistance program for penditure of that sum-although a savand other Senators, to the committee Latin America under the guise of inter- ing to the American taxpayers of over amendment.
nal security and civil action. It is still $100 million is not to be taken lightly.
Let us examine the assumptions upon or the Mutual Defense Assistance Control parts or of the U.S. Caribbean-area comwhich the new look in U.S. military as
Act of 1951 (22 U.S.C. 1611 et seq.), in fur- manders, with whom they are on a firstsistance is based and the arguments with
therance of any of the purposes of such Acts, name basis."
when the President determines that such au- I ask unanimous consent that the entire which its supporters advocate the pro
thorization is important to the security of article be printed in the CONGRESSIONAL RECgram. But-and more important-let us
the United States. Not more than $50,000,000 ORD at the conclusion of my remarks. judge the program on the basis of its
of the funds available under this subsection Last week, in commenting on the unhapperformance. The record of perform may be allocated to any one country in any py events transpiring in Peru, I compliance is not good. In fact it is bad. fiscal year.
mented President Kennedy on the prompt Can we point with pride to Peru where
action taken to withhold foreign aid funds In the third place there is section 510
from Peru until that Government was staa year ago August military hardware
of the Mutual Assistance Act which gives bilized. supplied by the United States was used
I recommended at that time that the President power to transfer up to our Government take a second look at our by the military forces there to take over
$300 million in military stocks. Section Alliance for Progress programs in such counfrom the civilian rulers of that country? 510 provides as follows:
tries as Argentina and Brazil whose governMany of the officers leading that coup
During the fiscal year 1964 the President
ments have likewise given evidence of inhad been trained in the United States may, if he determines it to be vital to the
stability, where there is no certainty that under our military assistance program. security of the United States, order defense
the rulers of today will be there tomorrow, The tank that rammed through the iron articles from the stocks of the Department
and consequently no assurance that comgates of the Pizarro Palace to seize and of Defense and defense services for the pur
mitments made today will be honored todepose President Manuel Prado was an poses of part II, subject to subsequent reim
morrow—and withhold further economic aid bursement therefor from subsequent appro
to those countries until their governments American-built Sherman tank.
are stabilized. Can we point with pride to the Do- priations available for military assistance. The value of such orders under this subsec
I commend the President again for holdminican Republic where recently a miltion in the fiscal year 1964 shall not exceed
ing firm with respect to Peru and ask unaniitary junta overthrew a constitution$300,000,000. Prompt notice of action taken
mous consent that the President's comments ally elected civilian government and inunder this subsection shall be given to the
on this topic at his press conference on stalled a civilian facade in an effort to Committees on Foreign Relations, Appropria
July 24, 1962, be printed in the CONGRESobtain U.S. recognition and assistance? tions, and Armed Services of the Senate and
SIONAL RECORD at the conclusion of my re
marks. American tanks and other arms made the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
The military coup in Peru gives us good that application of brute force to overthrow the democratically elected regime not in any way binding the hands of the
Mr. President, I submit that we are reason to review our military assistance pro
gram for Latin America: why it was instiof Juan Bosch, to abolish the legislature President. If my amendment passes, the
tuted; is it fulfilling its purpose? What, and the constitution, possible.
President still retains sufficient author- if any, safeguards are imposed on it? Should Can we point with pride to Honduras ity to continue military assistance to
it continue? where even more recently a similar Latin America whether under the second
Although during the twenties and the overthrow of the civilian government by proviso of my amendment or under sec
thirties the United States sent military misthe military took place? There again, tion 614(a) or section 510 of the Mutual
sions to Latin America, it was not until the U.S. arms made possible the coup by Assistance Act.
passage of the Mutual Security Act of 1951
that military assistance was authorized and Col. Lopez Arellano and his fellow offi
I hope my amendment No. 235 is sent. cers. They had been trained in the adopted, and I also hope that the Presi- The original purpose of U.S. military aid United States. dent-with or without my amendment in
was to strengthen the defense of this hemiOf what avail is our military assist- H.R. 7885—phases out our military as
sphere by encouraging the Latin American ance program in Latin America? sistance program in Latin America.
nations to participate in their own defense In the minds of the people of Peru,
against outside aggression.
Mr. President, I ask unanimous conthe Dominican Republic and Honduras, sent that my speech on the subject of thorizing military assistance to Latin Amer
The Mutual Security Act of 1951, in auare we not aligned with the military the failure of our military program in ica stated that "military assistance may be cliques who have thrown out the gov- Latin America delivered on the floor of furnished to the other American Republics ernments selected by the people them- the Senate on August 2, 1962, be re
only in accordance with defense plans which selves? printed at this point in my remarks.
* * require the recipient nations to parMr. President, the argument has been
There being no objection, the text of
ticipate in missions important to the defense made that there must be at least a token the address was ordered to be printed
of the Western Hemisphere." military assistance program for Latin
The question of the use of our military in the RECORD, as follows: America to take care of emergencies and
aid for the recipient nation's internal secuthat the way to do it is to include Latin
MILITARY AID TO LATIN AMERICA IS DEFEATING rity was the subject of congressional con
THE ALIANZA PARA PROGRESO America in the program for the rest of
cern during the consideration of the Mutual the world.
Mr. President, I was greatly disturbed to
Security Act of 1958. That act required the read in a special dispatch to the New York
President to review annually a Latin AmerThose who hold these views are mis
Times from Juan de Onis in Lima, Peru, that ican recipient's participation in a hemitaken.
military hardware supplied by the United spheric defense plan to determine whether In the first place, my amendment pro- States was used by the military forces in Peru
military assistance from the United States vides an exception whenever the Pres- to take over from the civilian rulers of that was necessary to enable that participation. ident "finds, with respect to any Latin country. Many of the military officers com- The act also stated that internal security American country, that the furnishing manding that coup were trained here under requirements of the countries concerned of military assistance under this act is our military assistance program. The dis- would not normally be the basis for extend
ing military aid. necessary to safeguard the security of patch states in part: the United States, and so informs the
“The U.S. military assistance program in
In 1959, the word "normally" in this rePeru provided the Sherman tank that striction was eliminated. The conference Congress."
rammed through the iron gates of the Pizarro report on the Mutual Security Act of 1959 In the second place, there is section Palace when President Manuel Prado y Ugar- stated: 614(a) of the Mutual Assistance Act teche was deposed and taken prisoner “The elimination of the word 'normally' which places in the hands of the PresiWednesday.
from the sentence providing that internal dent 250 million in dollars and $100 mil
“The officer who carried out the capture of security requirements shall not 'normally'
the palace, Col. Gonzalo Briceno, was trained be the basis for military assistance programs lion in foreign currency without regard
at the Ranger School of Fort Benning, Ga. in Latin America makes it clear that it is to the provisions of any other law. Sec
After his instruction, he returned to Peru the intent of the committee of conference tion 614(a) provides:
to develop a crack antiguerrilla commando that internal security requirements shall not, The President may authorize in each fiscal unit that was a showpiece of the U.S. military in the absence of a presidential exception, year the use of funds made available for use mission here.
be the basis for furnishing military assistunder this Act and the furnishing of assist
"A son of former Navy Minister Guillermo ance to Latin America. Rather it is the ance under section 510 in a total amount Tirado Lamb, who spearheaded the armed intent of the committee of conference that not to exceed $250,000,000 and the use of not forces resistance to accepting the results of such military assistance as is furnished shall to exceed $100,000,000 for foreign currencies last month's presidential elections, was grad- be in accordance with hemisphere defense accruing under this Act or any other law, uated from the U.S. Naval Academy in June. planning and should be in furtherance of without regard to the requirements of this “Hundreds of Peruvian officers of the armed hemisphere missions." Act, any law relating to receipts and credits forces who form part of the military junta Under the law, then, U.S. military aid to accruing to the United States, any Act ap- that has taken control of Peru have auto- Latin America was limited strictly to hemipropriating funds for use under this Act graphed photographs of their U.S. counter- sphere defense plans.
It is obvious that the genesis of the pro- “In such countries, the local military is only upon himself but also upon the Army gram of military assistance to Latin Amer- continuing to support the new government of the Republic of Peru, and has enhanced ican countries was the defense of the West- and to provide it with that degree of secu- the cordial and friendly relations which preern Hemisphere from outside aggression. rity from antidemocratic acts of subversion vail between the United States and Peru."
Various reasons were advanced in support and violence which is prerequisite to the Democracy, Mr. President, does not “rub of extending military assistance to Latin functioning of the democratic process. off” by commingling of individuals or by America.
“These developments in constitutional grants of military assistance. Those advocating the program pointed to democracy in Latin America tend to refute Nor is Peru unique in this respect. Among the fact that during World War II the Unit- the allegation that our military program has other military officers who have rubbed eled States had to station more than 100,000 impeded the growth of free political institu- bows with U.S. officers to no avail are the inArmy, Navy, and Air Force personnel in Latin tions in the area.
famous "Ramfis” Trujillo, of the Dominican America. Therefore, they urged that Latin “U.S. military personnel assigned to Latin Republic; Gen. Anastasio “Tachito” Somoza, Americans should be assisted to build up America scrupulously adhere to the policy of Nicaragua; and Colombia's Gen. Rojas their own forces for participation in hemi- of nonintervention which underlies all U.S. Pinilla, who developed from a brilliant officer sphere defense in order to relieve us of the foreign aid activities.
into a tyrannical dictator and superb stealer responsibility in the event of another con- "Nevertheless, as United States and Latin of his country's public funds. flict.
American military personnel are brought What of the claims that military assistance It was argued that military aid must be into close professional association through would lead to standardization, discourage the provided by the United States in order to our military programs, whether in MAAG's, tendency to buy military equipment from promote standardization of Latin American military schools, training missions or the third countries, and through modernization, arms and equipment. It was predicted that Inter-American Defense Board, they gain not lead to an overall reduction in armed forces? if the United States did not provide the only a better understanding of the problems From a compilation of statistics published necessary arms, the Latin American coun- of hemispheric defense, but also a deeper in London by “Army, Air Force and Naval Air tries would go elsewhere to obtain equip- appreciation of the democratic ideals which Statistical Record,” I have gathered together ment, resulting in a conglomeration of arma- we and Latin American nations share in a listing of the armaments possessed by the ments, ships, and plans which would greatly freedom from Soviet domination.
various armed forces in Latin America. I complicate both training and logistics and “As a result of these contacts, we believe ask unanimous consent that this list be invite the danger of military missions to that there is increasing emulation in Latin printed at the conclusion of my remarks. Latin America from other countries.
American military circles of the nonpolitical This list discloses that much obsolete It was further argued that modernization role played by the U.S. soldier in our national armament is in the arsenals of many of the through military assistance of Latin Amer- life.”
Latin American countries, which lessen their ica's fighting forces would enable the Latin After more than 10 years of U.S. military military effectiveness while still necessitating American countries to discard their old aid to Latin America, recent events have a huge expenditure of funds for maintenance equipment and reduce the overall size of demonstrated beyond peradventure that in and repair. their forces.
many of the countries U.S. influence in The list also shows that weapons have in Another argument advanced for institut- inculcating an ideology of civilian authority fact been acquired from other nations, vitiating a program of military assistance to Latin over the military is not a reality in the ing the argument that the grant of military America was that in many countries the reaction of the Latin American army, navy, assistance would lead to standardization of military exert a dominant role so that con- and air force officers and men to events in
weapons of U.S. manufacture in the Western tacts among United States and Latin Amer- their own countries.
Hemisphere. ican officers and men would result in the Most of the Latin American military lead- Consider the case of Peru. I single out U.S. officers and men being able to shape the ers will continue to react to power struggles Peru as an example only because that nation Latin American attitude toward and support in their own countries in accordance with
is in the spotlight of the news these days of democratic institutions, ideas, and ideals. their own estimates of the situation, their
and our arms have contributed to the presHow have these arguments for U.S. mili- own ambitions, their vested privileges, and
tige and power of the Peruvian military. tary assistance stood up in practice? their own heritage. Where military profes
Efforts to standardize equipment and perThe claim that the United States would sionalism has really taken root in Latin
suade Peru to limit its purchases to items be relieved of a share of responsibility for America, the military's new concept of its
essential to hemisphere defense have been the defense of the Western Hemisphere from role has developed from circumstances with
futile. The Peruvian Air Force, for example, outside aggression has proven unrealistic. in the framework of their own institutions,
has a mixed bag of United States, British, It is based on World War II concepts of mili- not from the minute and transitory influence
Canadian and French planes. Many of the tary warfare. encountered in rubbing shoulders with U.S.
planes are no longer operable because parts The hard fact is that such strategy is ob- military people.
are not obtainable. solete in today's world. In the unhappy Consider the case of Peru. Three of the
We made available to the Peruvian Air event of a world conflict, the Western Hemi- four military commanders who staged the Force 12 F-86's, the planes which proved to sphere will be defended by intercontinental Peruvian coup had tours of duty in the
be excellent fighters in Korea. I am told weapons wielded by the United States. The United States, one graduating from the Comfeeble, obsolescent equipment which the
that before delivery some of the planes were mand and General Staff School at Fort Latin American nations possess can play no
modified slightly to reduce their speed to Leavenworth and another from the U.S.
make for easier control in landing. The meaningful role in modern intercontinental Armored Tank School at Fort Knox as well
Peruvians insisted that the planes be rewarfare. as the CGS at Leavenworth. Four of the
modified to their original extremely fast and Moreover, the tragic events in Cuba since present 13-man military cabinet were even
tricky configuration. In the first month, the military program was initiated show given the Legion of Merit by the United
sadly, three of the planes cracked up. conclusively that the enemy works through States. I ask unanimous consent that the
Seeking high-powered planes, the Peruvian subversion, pulling the strings of his puppets names of these officers, together with their
Air Force turned to Britain to purchase a within the Nation being subverted. citations, be printed at the conclusion of
squadron of 16 British Hawker Hunters, jets The military assistance which we have my remarks.
which are even faster than the F-86's. provided Latin America does not save the Let us consider just one of these citations taxpayers of the United States from the bur
The Peruvians also bought eight British for a moment in detail. Maj. Gen. Nicolas Canberra jet bombers which, I understand, den of providing for an adequate defensive Lindley Lopez, commander of the Peruvian missile system.
are already obsolete. I mention the CanArmy, participated with fellow military offiWhat of the claim that association with
berras' purchase because there is an interestcers in the overthrow of Peru's civilian gov
ing sidelight to that story. When the U.S. military personnel teaches their Latin ernment. Eight and one-half months before, Ecuadorians, with whom the Peruvians have American counterparts the role and mission he was awarded the Legion of Merit by Sec
a violent border dispute, heard of the Peruof the military in a democratic, constitu- retary of Defense McNamara. Maj. Gen.
vian deal, they rushed to buy six Canberras tional government? Lindley Lopez attended the Command and
from the British. I understand that within Here is how Roy R. Rubottom, Assistant General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth
days after delivery they cracked up two on Secretary of State for Inter-American Af- during 1946 and 1947. He also visited Fort
the ground in Quito. fairs, testified before the Foreign Relations Bragg, Fort Sill, Fort Bliss, and Fort Benning These planes cost about $1.4 million each. Committee on the Mutual Security Act of in November 1961. Secretary McNamara's
Thus, not only have efforts to modernize, 1960: citation to the Peruvian general reads, in
standardize, and reduce forces failed, but the “During this period of extensive U.S. mili- part, as follows:
military aid program has had some disastary relations with Latin American countries, "His outstanding professional competence, trous results not intended by its advocates. there has been a notable increase in the consistent support of democratic principles, It is quite appropriate to refer to Ecuador number of constitutional regimes in the area. and sincere and imaginative cooperation with at this point and in the context of my reIn the majority of countries in which demo- military representatives of the Department of
marks on the dangers of continued military cratic governments have replaced dictatorial the Army have produced important and ef- assistance to Latin America for a number of regimes, the local military has presided dur- fective military results in the creation of a reasons. In the first place, both Ecuador ing the difficult period of transition immedi- Western Hemisphere defense program. * * * and Peru, neighbors, have long been in an ately preceding the establishment of orderly, His support of common democratic principles arms race. In the second place, the Governconstitutional government.
and objectives has reflected great credit not ments of both nations are controlled by the military. And, finally, it is an illustration precipitate in our aid to Ecuador. Let us loan to Argentina will be used to bail out of how the arms race can affect the economic wait until the Government has been stabi- Argentina from a fiscal crisis. aid program.
lized and we can be certain that the self-help "It will be used in Argentina to meet Ecuador has received from the United measures of the Alliance for Progress have a short-term obligations, bolster her currency States $21,700,000 in military aid. It has also chance of being carried out.
and foreign payments, and maintain essenreceived $39 million in economic aid. There It has become painfully clear that hemi- tial programs, including housing," so says is in the country at present a delegation from sphere defense considerations play a minor the Times news story, Ecuador seeking additional aid to bail out role in the determination of what equipment The list of arms which I have asked to its shaky economic structure. While con- the Latin Americans acquire.
be printed at the conclusion of my remarks tinuing to spend money to purchase more One nation will acquire some hardware
indicates that Argentina has been obtaining arms to keep up with arms purchases by only because a neighboring country has sim- planes from Britain, Italy, Canada, and GerPeru, Ecuador comes to the United States to
ilar equipment. I have already mentioned many. This, in addition to the $4.9 million have us make its budget whole.
Ecuador's attempt to keep pace with Peru's received from us in military assistance. It The National Observer recently had a air strength. Argentina rushed to buy an seems clear to me, Mr. President, that part thoughtful piece on this subject. Part of it
aircraft carrier after Brazil bought one from of Argentina's financial woes stems from her was as follows:
England. Similarly, Ecuador protested long arms buying, and the costly maintenance "The Malecon, the riverside drive in Guaya- and loud in 1958 when it became apparent which follows. quil, Ecuador, is one of the filthiest streets that the U.S. Congress was considering pro
It is clear that excessive arms buying in in Christendom. The gutters are full of rot- viding one of our excess destroyers to Peru. Latin America is a drain on the region's ting orange peels, and the sidewalks are lit- Finally in 1959, despite the Pentagon's judg- meager national resources and an obstacle tered with fish heads. During the day it ment that Ecuador did not need a destroyer
to economic development. In more ways crawls with beggars, fruit vendors, drunks,
to fulfill its role in hemisphere defense, and than one it is a definite impediment to the sellers of contraband, and half-naked steve- the State Department's concern that the up- successful functioning of the Alianza Para dores loading cargo from riverboats to the keep of the ship would strain Ecuador's
hard- Progreso. army of ancient trucks that jam the piers. ' pressed treasury, we bowed to the political
If the Latin American governments feel At night it crawls with rats.
considerations and furnished Ecuador the they must sacrifice their precious, meager "Yet the natives of Guayaquil hardly no- destroyer.
resources for the maintenance of oversized tice the rats. They have other things to
Frequently, the questions of prestige vis
and obsolete military establishments, I sayworry about. The current mayor, for ina-vis another branch of the military forces
let them. But let us not contribute to their stance, has three times had to flee for his
within the same country is the determining folly from our own hard-pressed Treasury, life from city employees on strike for over- factor. A navy gets a destroyer; the air force and our own mounting debt and our undue wages. The previous mayor bowed out wants supersonic jets.
favorable balance of payments. to the tune of stones showering through the
The military assistance program also has
Mr. President, in the 10 years since the windows of city hall. And the mayor-elect, had a bad psychological impact upon our
inception of the Latin American military who will take office on August 10, arrived
relations with Latin America. Military aid assistance program, we have provided over in Washington last Monday seeking an imand training grants to dictatorial govern
one-half billion dollars in military assistmediate $4 million loan to stave off civic ments in Latin America have done the United
ance to Latin American Governments. collapse States much harm. Despite clear provisions
I ask unanimous consent that tables pre"Accompanying the mayor, Assad Bucarof the Mutual Security Act that aid would
pared by the AID program be printed at am, was President Carlos Arosemena Munroy not be used for internal security purposes,
the conclusion of my remarks showing how and a host of other Ecuadorian officials. a number of Latin American tyrants, when
much was given or loaned to Latin American “Why can't they get the money in Ecua
hard pressed, did not hesitate to use U.S.- countries since fiscal year 1952 for both dor? What about the Banco Descuento, grant military hardware against their own
economic and military assistance. I am askwhich collects (due to liens) most of the people. No matter how long and hard we
ing that both tables be printed, Mr. Presicity's real estate taxes, beer and tobacco
protest our innocence and good intentions, dent, because in some countries there is a taxes, and pier and wharf fees? The city's such acts have helped identify the United
disturbing contrast in the amount of ecoparks are mortgaged to the bank. So, acStates in Latin American public opinion with
nomic aid given or loaned and the amount cording to the present mayor, is city hall the maintenance of dictatorships.
of military assistance given or loaned. itself.
Another question which troubles me deeply "There is, then, money in Ecuador; any
It is interesting to note, Mr. President, one who doubts it has only to walk through chase of weapons from other nations. is where the funds come from for the pur
that when the program of military assist
ance to Latin America was first instituted the upper class residential sections of Guay
All of the Latin American countries suffer
in 1952, total military aid that year totaled aquil or Quito. For that matter, there's
$200,000. It has climbed-indeed soaredenough money in the Banco Descuento alone
from severe shortages of capital and foreign
steadily since that time.
The figures for the intervening years are: zone. "But the bank is getting leery of financing billion a year in order to spur Latin American
Latin America corrupt city administrations. It has made economic and social development. Ironi
military aid one loan after another, each one supposedly countries spend about $1 billion a year for cally, it is estimated that the Latin American 1952--
$200,000 to get the city back on its feet, yet the sit
11, 200,000 the purchase of military materiel and its uation keeps getting worse.
1955_ “The problem has three main roots:
31, 800,000 “Lax enforcement and widespread corrupWhere, Mr. President, did the millions 1956_
30, 400, 000
1957--Peru spent to purchase unnecessary British tion have made a farce of municipal tax col
43, 900,000 Canberra jet bombers come from? Is the 1958_ lections.
47, 900, 000 American taxpayer indirectly paying for the 1959_
54,000,000 “The city government has borrowed so purchase in England of British Canberra 1960_.
53, 700, 000 much money, and got itself into such a jets?
91, 600, 000 maelstrom of compounding interest, that each year a larger percentage of its income
I am concerned, Mr. President, that indirectly through our economic aid, just as
I am informed that it is expected that goes to pay back debts. much as through our military aid, to Latin
$63.6 million will be the total of the mili“The city is so corrupt, so conditioned to America we are enabling those nations to
tary assistance to all Latin American counpoverty, and so ridden with thieves and step up their arms race.
tries in the 1962 fiscal year. For the new gougers in every walk of public and private life that the handful of honest men trying
Take the case of Argentina.
fiscal year, the United States is budgeting an Here is another case of a civilian govern
additional $8 million in military aid. to deal with the problem simply don't know
The record is not without warnings dewhere to begin.” ment having been overthrown by a military
livered on this floor that the program of This article points up a first for foreign junta.
military aid to Latin America must be careaid, as far as I know. Here we have a mayor
Last Saturday's New York Times carried a
fully watched. of a foreign city coming to negotiate a loan story of a $500 million loan to Argentina,
On May 12, 1957, the distinguished senior to bail out the finances of his city. We are $200 million of it from the United States.
Senator from Minnesota, our able majority accustomed in this country to welcoming The same day's Washington Post-Times Her
whip [Mr. HUMPHREY], in his capacity as heads of state to our Nation's Capital who
ald reported that Argentina's cattlemen were chairman of the Subcommittee on Disarmacome seeking bail out funds for the whole receiving tax cuts and government cash
ment of the Senite Committee on Foreign nation. To my knowledge, this is the first subsidies.
Relations, warned: visit also from a mayor of a city to seek
I ask unanimous consent that these two
"The executive branch must be careful financial succor. If it ever gets down to the news stories be printed at the conclusion
that military aid sent to Latin American township level we will be overwhelmed. of my remarks.
nations does not promote an arms race. Nor Can we rely upon the promises of President Whose money is being used to give the should military aid detract from important Carlos Arosemena Munroy any more than we cattlemen of Argentina a tax cut? I am programs of economic development and could have relied upon the promises of the afraid American tax dollars are being used. technical assistance. What we give to one Valesco government last fall? Let us not be As stated by the press, the half-billion-dollar nation for hemispheric defense may provoke demands by another for an equal amount Idea Down." I ask unanimous consent that Trainers, support: 2 Beech AT-11 Kansan, of aid. The danger is particularly acute this editorial be printed at the conclusion of 20 North American AT-6 Texan, 15 Boeing since little appears to have been to integrate my remarks.
BT-17 Kaydet, 18 North American SNJ-6B, the defense functions of the separate coun- The United States and Latin America 8 Vultee BT-13 Valiant. tries. If greater attention were given the would have been much better off if 10 years
BRAZIL coordination of military policy and func- ago we had adopted in our foreign aid protions, it might result in a decrease in the gram the ideas advanced by these two dis
Fighters, interdicters: 60 Gloster Meteor 8, amount Latin American nations need to tinguished Costa Ricans.
Britain; Republic F-47D Thunderbolt, North supply their individual establishments. Mr. President, a reexamination of U.S.
American F-51 Mustang, 36 Lockheed F-80, Such a step might also lessen the possibility military assistance to Latin America is sorely 2 Western Dragonfly, Britain. for arms competition among the several overdue. None of the goals of the program
Bombers, patrollers: 2 Boeing B-29 Supercountries and, in turn, might enable more have been achieved—not hemisphere de- fortress, North American B-25 Mitchell, 28 energy and resources to be channeled into fense; not standardization, not moderniza- Douglas B-26 Invader, 20 North American constructive measures to increase living tion, not a reduction in forces; not even that B-25J Mitchell. standards and develop Latin American much-to-be-desired byproduct, indoctrina- Helicopters: 14 Sikorsky H-19-D (MSA), economies."
tion of the military in their role in a mod- 10 Hiller 360 (ASR), 4 Sikorsky S-51 (ASR), From Latin America came words of cau- ern democracy. Instead, we have witnessed 5 Bell H-13, 3 Bell 47J, 2 Western Widgeon, tion also. Perhaps the most eloquent exsome tragic results.
Britain; 12 Bell 47G-2 Trooper. position was that of Eduardo Santos, a
I am convinced that the evils of the mili- Transports: Beech C–45 Expediter, Curtiss former President of Colombia and then in tary assistance program in Latin America
Commando, Douglas C-47 Dakota, exile from the military dictatorship of Rojas
far outweigh whatever benefits we hoped to Douglas C-54, Lockheed C-60 Lodestar, 12 Pinilla. Dr. Santos said:
achieve when first the program was started. Fairchild C–82 Packet, 10 Beech Super 18, "Against whom are we Latin Americans
I call for an end to this unsuitable and 2 Vickers Viscount (VIP), Britain; 30 Morane
fruitless venture. arming ourselves? Why are our countries
I am suggesting to the Paris, France; Convair Canso, Beech Boruining themselves with costly armaments
Senate Committee on Appropriations that nanza, 6 Avro 74 8-2, Canada; 6 C-119. which they will never be able to use? We
its AID appropriations bill for fiscal year Trainers support: 90 Fokker (Rio) S. 11 1963 shall contain a prohibition against the
(BT), Netherlands; 4 Lockheed T-33 have no reason for fighting one another; we have only reasons for drawing close to expenditure of any funds appropriated for (MSA), Beech AT-11 Kansan, Stinson PT-19
Reliant, 50 N. American T-6G Texas, 10 each other and living together fraternally. military assistance to Latin America either
directly or indirectly through bailout pay- Gloster Meteor T7, Britain; 1 Boeing TB-29, And do we have, perhaps, a military role to play in the great international conflicts?
ments to take the place of funds spent un- Stearman PT-17, 20 Nord Norecrins in civil Never. In this era of the atomic bomb with necessarily on armaments.
reserve, France; 10 Paulistintha 56B, Italy. these incredibly costly armaments, with
Navy planes technical systems backed by billions, why
LIST OF ARMAMENTS
Bombers, patrollers: Convair PBY-5A are our poor countries continuing to ruin
Catalina, 14 Lockheed P2V-5 Nep (MSA) themselves with armaments which at a time of international conflict would represent F-86F Sabre, 40 Gloster Meteor F4, Britain;
Fighters, interceptors: 28 North American
13 Grumman S2F-1 Tracker (MAP).
Transports support: 10 Boeing B-17 absolutely nothing? Then? We shall be few Fiat G 46 (FB), Italy.
(ASR), Grumman JRF-5 (ASR), 14 Grumcreating armies which are insignificant in
man SA-16A (MSA), 4 Kawasaki 47s Navy, international affairs, but devastating to the
Bombers, patrollers: 60 FMA 24 Calquin,
Argentine Republic; 15 Avro Lancaster 1, Japan; 6 Sikorsky HSS-IN (MAP), 3 Western internal economy of each country. Each Canada; 30 Ayro Lincoln, Canada.
Whirlwind 1, Britain. country is being occupied by its own army." Helicopters: Bell 47, Sikorsky S-51, Sikor
CHILE José Figueres, while President of Costa
sky S-55. Rica, said:
Fighters interdicters: Republic
Republic F-47D Transports: 8 Douglas C–47, 8 Douglas Thunderbolt. "We don't want any military support. C-54, H. Percival Prince, Britain; 15 Bristol We don't want any army. In case of aggres
Bombers patrollers: 32 Douglas B-26 170, Britain; 48 DH Dove, Britain; 24 Vick- Invader, Convair PBY-5A Catalina, Lockheed sion, our army is our moral standing and
ers Viking Airspeed Consul, Britain; 1 Aero P2V Neptune. our faith in the Inter-American Treaty of Commander (VIP), Beech T-34A Mentor, Transports: eight Douglas C-47, eight DH Reciprocal Assistance. The two times that
FMA LA-35, Argentine Republic; 4 Aero 45, we have been invaded our citizens have
L-20 Beaver, Canada; eight DHC Otter (two 12 DC-3 civil airline use, 7 DC-4 civil airline Antarctica), Canada; five Beech L-23B turned immediately into soldiers to defend
use, 2 DH (c) Beaver (Antarctic), Britain. Seminole. democracy while the machinery of the Rio
Trainers, support: 80 FMA DL 22–24 (T-6), Trainers support: 60 FNA Chincol, Chile; Treaty was set into motion. Any assistance
Argentine Republic; 100 Hunting Prentice, few Jet Chincol, Chile; 45 Beech T-34. we receive, we want to be directed toward
Britain; 30 Beech AT-11 Kansan, Stearman education and economic development."
Other types: Boeing B-17G Fortress (ASR), PT-17, Vultee BT-134 Valiant, Fockewolf three Cessna 180, two Beech T-34. The principle expressed by President FW-44J, Germany; Stieglitz (AT), 15 Beech Helicopters: four Bell H-13D (ASR), four Figueres has applied not only for a long T-34A Mentor, 10 Gloster Meteor 7, Britain; Sikorski HRS-1, few Hiller 12E. time in Costa Rica, but in practice as well as North American T-28. in theory. Costa Rica has no standing army,
Navy planes Bombers, patrollers on order: five Sud 1221 no military throwing its weight around at Djinn, France; one Sud Allouette, France.
Transports, support: three Douglas C-47, election time. It is no mere coincidence
Trainers, support on order: 90 (Beech T- three Grumman SA-16 Albatross, C. Vought that Costa Rica happens to be the purest de- 34A Mentor, FMA built T-34A), 48 FMA
OS2V-1 Kingfisher. mocracy in Latin America. built M-S Paris.
Trainers: six Beech D-18 (AT). I visited Costa Rica last January as a
COSTA RICA member of the Public Works Committee of
Navy planes the Senate to inspect the Inter-American
Fighters, strike: 20 Grumman F9F-5 Pan
Fighters, interdicters: four North American Highway, a project largely financed by the ther, 10 Chance Vought F4U-5, 62 Chance
CUBA United States. I was deeply impressed with
Vought F4U-5/5N. the salutary and different atmosphere that Bombers, patrollers: eight Lockheed P2V-5
Fighters, interdicters: 60 Mig-17 Fresco, prevails in Costa Rica. The Costa Ricans are Neptune, Convair PBY-5A Catalina, Martin U.S.S.R.; 15 Hawker Sea Fury (5 left), Brit
ain; few Mig-19 Farmer Planner, U.S.S.R. in every sense the freest, most democratic PBM-5 Mariner. people in Latin America. They have set a Transports, support: Grumman Goose,
Anti-Castro air arm: eight North American shining example, not merely for their sister Douglas C-39, Douglas C-54, Stearman PT
F-51D, 12 B-26 Invader. Latin American States, but one that should 17, Vultee BT-13A, Beech AT-11 Kansan, 4
Bombers, patrollers: five Douglas B-26 Inprovide the United States with a guideline Nord Norecrin (naval police), France; 30
vader. for action. North American ENJ-5C, Vickers Walrus,
Transports: Douglas C-47 Dakota, Beech Costa Rica carried its leadership in this Britain; 2 DH Beavers (operated by Antarctic
C–45, three DH L-20A Beaver, Canada; four
II-14 Coach. field to the Organization of American States. Institute of Argentina). In March 1958, Costa Rica's able and distin
Helicopters: Bell 47 (H-13), three Sikorsky
Trainers, support: 30 Mig-15 UTI, U.S.S.R.; guished Ambassador to the United States, HRS 1 (S-55).
4 Lockheed T-33A (2 left), Beech Bonanza, Dr. Gonzalo Facio—who is again his coun
Vultee BT-13 Valiant, Boeing BT-17 Kaydet, try's emissary-proposed a plan for control Fighters, interdicters: eight North Ameri
North American T-6 Texas, Piper Tri-pacer, of armaments in Latin America. It was can F-51D Mustang (ex Uruguay), few Re
10 North American T-28A, 10 North American shelved by the same forces that perpetuate public F-47D Thunderbolt, two Lockheed
F-51D. militarism in Latin America, with the dis- P-38 Lightning, four C. Vought F4U-4.
Helicopters: one Bell 47 G-2 Trooper, four astrous consequences I am here discussing. Bombers, patrollers: eight Boeing B-17G
Bell 47J, two Western Whirlwind, Britain; At that time the Washington Daily News, Fortress, six North American B-25J Mitchell. four Mil Mi-4, U.S.S.R. edited by John T. O'Rourke who is deeply Transports: two Douglas DC-3, one Doug
Navy planes knowledgeable regarding Latin American af- las C–47 Dakota, seven Beech C_45 Expediter, Bombers, patrollers: six Convair PBY-5A fairs, wrote an appreciative editorial on this one Northrop YC-125B Raider, one Lockheed Catalina. subject entitled "You Cannot Keep a Good 10A Electra.
Transports, support: 10 Grumman Goose.