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consequence compared to similar success. PERSONAL STATEMENT BY Dirksen amendments, is to offer amendful subversions in the rest of Latin


ments to the committee amendment and America.

Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I under- Thus we will put Senators in a position It is estimated that the extraordinary stand that while I was out of the Cham- where they cannot say to their constit

to the Mansfield-Dirksen amendments. costs of the United States during the ber this afternoon, presiding as chairman Cuban missile crisis amounted to $200 of the Senate conferees on the higher uents, when they return home, “But we million, and we are told that Russia is education bill, the Senator from Illinois

did not know.” They may put thempouring $1 million a day into the small{Mr. DIRKSEN) discussed the motion of selves in a position where they will have country of Cuba. In fact, Communists the senior Senator from Oregon to re

to say, "We did not listen" or "we did not in Latin America are now pointing out commit the foreign aid bill to committee read,” because it is obvious that many of with glee that, taking into consideration and, in the opinion of colleagues, paid make the record; and it is obvious that the House cuts on the Alliance, we are his disrespects in sarcasm and ridicule their answer, on the basis of the record making no more available to all Latin to the senior Senator from Oregon. America through our loans than Khru

I judge from what I have heard that they make here—not on the basis of the shchev is making available to Cuba.

record we make-will have to be just the speech of the Senator from Illinois

that. We will shortly be faced with the con

shows that he and I have nothing in sideration of the foreign aid authoriza

So I say we have not “nit-picked” at common. I am glad, if that is true, that tion bill, in which is contained the au

specific projects—but we have shown the thorization for funds for the Alliance for that common. I am delighted to know history of the Aid in many places, and Progress and for the Social Progress that I no longer belong to a political we have shown that it has not accomTrust Fund. Therefore, the following party so bankrupt in leadership that it is

plished its purpose. words from Vision magazine, in speak- dependent upon the alleged leadership

For example, Mr. President, consider ing of the recent cut to the Alliance for of the Senator from Illinois.

the $300 million a year, for 10 years, that Progress program by the House, should

Turkey has received under the AID pro

I understand that the speech was charbe of interest:

gram; yet today Turkey is worse off than acterized by ill manners and bad taste.

she was in 1947. If any persons are laThe program does not deserve such treat- But I am accustomed to that from the

boring under the illusion that Turkey ment. Slow and fumbling in getting off the Senator from Illinois. ground, it is now beginning to show achieve

has a constitutional, democratic form

I am very proud of the fact that I have ments. Almost every Latin American state

of government, they could not be more never won his good will; because if I did, has already or is in the process of overhaul

mistaken. ing its tax structure. Land reforms are movI would have to engage in some very long

Or consider the $3.5 billion which ing ahead. Roads, schools, hospitals, sewage introspection. I am proud of the fact

Pakistan has received under the AID nets are being built. Small businessmen are that there are some people who obviously receiving alliance loans for expansion.

program. We have pointed out that aid At are not enthusiastic friends of the Sena

in that amount to Pakistan cannot be the same time, other fortuitous signs of tor from Oregon. I am perfectly willing Latin American advancement are appearing- to leave the record as it is.

justified. Today we find Pakistan playthe regional economic integration movements

I am glad that none of my Democratic ing “footsie” with the Red Chinese and and the slowly rising prices of major com

entering into negotiated agreements with colleagues sought to answer him, almodities. though some said they thought they

them. We point out that, as a matter of Of course there is disappointment and should, but decided they should not un

policy, that cannot be justified to the grumbling-over the slowness of reform on

taxpayers of the United States. the one hand, and the slowness of money less I were present. I take this as one of

We have been discussing the basic on the other-but on the balance it is widely the normal courses of events that someaccepted that the program is providing a real times take place in the Senate, when

policy questions involved in the foreign stimulus to progress. The United States Senators are so lacking in their facts

aid bill; and we shall give all Senators must remember that the $1 billion a that they have to resort to ridicule, per

an opportunity to vote on the question year promised by Washington is not the Alsonal sarcasm, and personal abuse as a

of whether they want billions of dollars liance for Progress, but only a small part of it. Its chief importance is to provide a substitute for logic, reason, and evidence.

of the funds of the taxpayers of the

United States to continue to be sent to catalyst which will set off a much larger

Some Senators thought it was too bad and purely Latin American reaction. By that we could not have recorded in the

Pakistan, because we are going to move

that that item be cut. trimming its commitment, Washington at RECORD the well-known inflections of the a very minimum will do irreparable harm voices of the Senator from Montana and

Or let Senators consider the $5.5 bilto a burgeoning Alliance spirit that only now the Senator from Illinois; but I have re

lion which Korea has received under our is beginning to take hold.

quested that the RECORD remain un- AID program, although South Korea The call on Alliance funds will be greater changed, not edited—which is the right

would not last for more than a matter in the coming year than ever before. Peru of the Senate. So let the RECORD now

of days if it were not for the presence of and Argentina will be back in the program

our Armed Forces there. We point out with their return to democratic rule. Major show that I have formally notified the commitments to Chile and Colombia must Official Reporters that the RECORD of the that it is cheaper to put on the front

line a South Korean soldier or a Pakibe continued. If the dust settles in Brazil, speech of the Senator from Illinois is to new projects will rise again there. After set- remain unedited.

stan soldier or a Turkish soldier, rather ting rigidly high standards for development Mr. President, I have another brief

than an American soldier; but the proaid, Washington is hardly in a position to

comment to make: It would appear that gram now being operated makes no default once its demands have been met.

a part of the burden of the arguments sense, because both American troops and We have already seen indications from Latin America of the trauma felt there by

the troops of the other countries are and public announcements of the ma

jority leader [Mr. MANSFIELD], the our friends due to the recent cuts, and we

used; and not only are we paying the have seen examples of the gloating by the

entire bill for the maintenance of forchairman of the committee [Mr. FULCastro and Communist press over this cut, BRIGHT], and the majority whip, the Sen- eign armies, but we are also placing in coming, as Mr. Moscoso has said, at the very ator from Minnesota (Mr. HUMPHREY] those countries-in uniform-American time that Latin American governments are dealing with the position which those of soldiers, sailors, and airmen; and they moving ahead and when they have placed us who are opposed to this bill have taken are the ones who provide protection to themselves way out on thin political limbs. is, so it is reported, to charge that we are

these countries—not the foreign aid proWe have but one road to follow, the road

picking out instances of waste and mis- gram, at all. of support to the Alliance for Progress. Our failure to do so will result in consequences

management that always are bound to Furthermore, let us not forget that the to our own national interest-and to the

crop up in a program such as the foreign aid program does not include the cost hopes of the Latin Americans themselves,

aid program, and that we are not dealing of maintaining our forces abroad or the for a hemisphere of countries, representawith the basic issues involved.

cost of a good many other things which tive of their people, and responsive to the

Mr. President, nothing could be more add to these huge expenditures. Next social and economic needs of the populace,

incorrect. On the contrary, we have not week, we shall give a detailed accountwhich are too horrible to consider. We cer- “nit-picked” at specific projects or items. ing of the facts. tainly cannot expect to be able to sit fatu- What we have been doing, and what we Let Senators also consider the sum, ously on our own front porch while our back- will continue to do for some days, be- close to $1 billion, which Indonesia reyard is aflame.

fore the Senate votes on the Mansfield- ceives under the U.S. foreign aid program. Can any Senator state exactly idea that the place for U.S. Senators to another series of expenditures that have where Indonesia stands today among the be is in the U.S. Senate, in Washington, been without justification. nations of the world, or show which side D.C., when a bill involving—to the de- A limited nuclear test ban treaty she is on?

gree this bill does—the security and the ratified by the Senate last month is of Or let Senators consider the $4,500 future of the United States is under de- great significance not only because it million which Taiwan has received un- bate. I am sorry if some Senators do ends the deadly pollution of the atmosder our foreign aid program. The United not like that; but let them tell their phere, but more important for its symStates has maintained a great social constituents that they do not like it, be- bolism as a possible first step toward persecurity program for Chiang Kai-shek's cause it is my judgment that the course manent peace. For more than a month soldiers, and the United States pays the of action which is being attempted by millions of words were uttered by witsalaries of more generals in Chiang Kai- some Senators will be repudiated as I nesses and by Senators in the historic shek's army than the total number of

said the other day-in the great citadel debate on ratification. generals in the entire U.S. Military Es- of freedom, the voting booth, when the I consider the test ban treaty in the tablishment. Is it any wonder that the voters of the United States have an op- best interests of our country. I was very American people are fed up with such a portunity to pass judgment on the for- glad indeed to speak out for it on a numprogram.

eign aid bill and their support of it. ber of occasions, and I am glad that my Of course the proponents of the pro

Mr. President, I should like to ask vote is recorded in favor of ratification of gram want to rush this bill through the my friend, the Senator from Ohio [Mr. the treaty. Senate, so that the facts, such as those YOUNG], if he would do me a great favor? It is incongruous that as the Senate I am bringing out, cannot be known by I am sure I can count on him to do me a debated this treaty, which we hope may the American people. But the propo

great favor, although I apologize be- be a step toward permanent peace, the nents will not be successful in that at

cause I cannot stay and hear his speech. House of Representatives at the same tempt; and the Senator from Illinois can However, I shall read it. I have an en- time authorized $190 million for a fallweep his forensic tears until his shirt gagement that I must keep. The ma- out shelter program, obviously on the front is as wet as he may want it to be, jority leader, assuming that the Senator assumption that there will be no peace. but he will not shake me from my deter- from South Carolina [Mr. JOHNSTON] The limited test ban treaty stands on mination to have full debate in the Sen

would be the last speaker, told me to the judgment that new weapons develate on this bill.

move to recess the Senate until next opment would not significantly add to This afternoon I gave the Senate an

Monday noon at 12 o'clock. He appar- the deterrent power of our present nuopportunity to make use of the most ently did not know that the Senator from

clear arsenal. The administration reproper forum for procedure in connec

Ohio intended to speak. I wonder if I jected Dr. Edward Teller's advice on the tion with this bill at this time; namely, may plead with my friend from Ohio to treaty, but is enthusiastically following to permit the Foreign Relations Commit- take over that chore of mine and, when his advice in proposing to spend almost tee to hear, behind the doors of the comhe finishes, move to recess until Monday $200 million next year alone on the be

ginning of a fallout shelter building spree mittee room, representatives of the at 12 o'clock. administration,

Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. The distin-
However, my motion

that could become the greatest boonwas defeated. Nevertheless, Mr. Presi

guished Senator from Oregon need never doggle in American history.

plead with me. In fact, he need never dent, the vote on my motion did not make plead with me.

It was indeed reassuring to see "sweet the proponents of the bill at all happy, side in many things. I am flattered by the House Appropriations Committee

plead with anyone. I find myself on his reason” return to the other body when because now they know that many Sena- his kind reference to me. tors will not join them in their opposition

subsequently refused to approve one cent to the Senator from Florida (Mr. HOL- deliver a speech, but a conference on

Mr. MORSE. I, myself had planned to for this proposal. LAND] to me, and to other Senators who higher education made it impossible for awaiting action in the Senate Committee

The authorization measure is presently have amendments to offer. The Senator from Illinois made sport me to do so.

on Armed Services. It is my fervent of the fact that I called the Mansfield I am delighted that the House con

I should like very quickly to report that hope that a convenient pigeonhole will amendments "powerhouse amend

be found for it, and as a member of that ments”- which, in my judgment, they

ferees and the Senate conferees reached great committee I shall do my utmost to are, for they are designed, in my judg- tion bill. I shall make a report on that

an agreement today on the higher educa- see to it that this bill remains in comment, to seek, parliamentarywise, to

mittee. prevent an onslaught on this bili by subject on Monday.

This $190 million authorization would

My speech on the foreign aid bill had means of amendment after amendment;

be only the first step in a 5-year proand their purpose—as the Presiding of already gone to the press gallery. I wish

gram of shelter building that the civil ficer has already pointed out—is to place to explain to the members of the press defense bureaucrats say will cost a total the opponents of the bill in a position gallery that I shall deliver that speech of $2.1 billion. It would provide Federal where, if we permitted the Mansfieldon Monday.

grants of up to $2.50 a square foot for Dirksen amendments to be adopted be

I thank my friend from Ohio very the construction of shelters in State and

much. fore we first resorted to all the amend

municipal buildings, schools, hospitals, ments which we wish to offer, we would

Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, and welfare institutions in communities find ourselves in a parliamentary position in the course of the debate on foreign throughout the land. in which certain figures in the Mans- assistance, I find myself alined with I am reminded of a poem which refield-Dirksen amendments could not be those of my colleagues who seek to cut cently appeared in a national magazine changed, once those amendments were

unnecessary spending from this program. and read something like this: adopted. Mr. President, I have not As I have said before, and I repeat

Oh, what a rumpus in the Nation served here for 19 years only to walk into now, I am thankful that the present ad- On Federal aid to education that trap, even though it is laid by the ministration is honest with the Ameri- But yet there's money found majority leader and 'the minority leader.

can people and terms our foreign aid To bury children underground. There is no hurry about the bill. Any program “foreign assistance.” While I

We would do far better to enact legistime they want to have it laid aside, they supported all of the foreign assistance

lation to provide additional classrooms can succeed in having that done. Or requests of President Eisenhower during

for children of this Nation than to spend if they want to have the Senate take up, the final 2 years of his administration,

money for useless fallout shelters in the one at a time, the various amendments I alway felt that it was not honest to

basements of antiquated school buildto this bill, they will have my cooperaterm foreign aid “mutual security," as

ings. It would be ironic if this Congress tion. was the case during that administra

passes a subsidy for school construction But I shall continue to be impervious tion.

underground while refusing assistance to insults. I shall be sad if I offend any

for wholesale school programs above Senator who finds himself inconven

ground. What must we think of our ienced because he cannot go on a safari SHELTER BUILDING BOONDOGGLE

children to do such a thing? to Paris or Malaya, or on some other Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President, Mr. President, over the past 12 years junket. But I have the old-fashioned at this time I desire to speak out against over $1,300 million of taxpayers money has been foolishly wasted on silly terest. During each crisis the get-rich- come. That is what some of the civil civil defense schemes. Today, 18 years quick shelter salesmen appear. As soon defense bureaucrats advocate in this after Hiroshima, the United States has as the crisis abates and public interest country. Yet, generals of our Armed no civil defense worthy of the name. fades completely, they crawl back under Forces, Gen. Curtis LeMay and others, Most of what there is consists of absurd the rocks from whence they came, or have testified that they would prefer, in plans on paper and the rest is confusion. take up some other means of separating

take up some other means of separating the first place, to spend the money for Simple arithmetic proves that any shel- worthy people from their money.

offensive weapons rather than to dig ter program large enough to be mean- Only recently the city of Portland, useless holes in the ground. ingful—if such a thing is possible—will Oreg., voted to abolish its civil defense Mr. President, it is interesting to note cost untold billions of dollars. However, program which was costing $110,000 of that through the uncertain years while civil defense officials follow the bureau- local funds annually. The Los Angeles

local funds annually. The Los Angeles this Nation and the Soviet Union were cratic rule of keeping first estimates low City Council slashed $209,000 from the

City Council slashed $209,000 from the building up their nuclear capacities, no enough to induce Congress into author- civil defense budget request, reducing it

idget request, reducing it real interest could be stirred up among izing some colossal lunacy knowing they to $30,000. The staff was reduced from the general public or in the Congress for can always get more once a program is 26 to 3. Officials of the city of Balti- any form of civil defense. During that born.

more, Md., are considering taking similar time it is true that over $1 billion was Mr. President, those favoring a mas- action. The city comptroller has called appropriated in piecemeal fashion but sive fallout Shelter building program for the outright elimination of the city's

for the outright elimination of the city's not for any really serious or effective have estimated that it will cost any- civil defense organization. Last week

civil defense organization. Last week - plan of action. Actually, we were soothwhere from $20 billion to $200 billion. end, Mayor Theodore McKeldin stated ing our consciences "just in case" a In their recent book “Strategy for Sur- he would drastically reduce the budget

he would drastically reduce the budget nuclear war would come. Year after vival,” Thomas L. Morton, dean of the request for civil defense purposes. Com- year we appropriated $75 or $100 or College of Engineers of the University munities throughout the Nation are $80 million for civil defense purposes, of Arizona, and Donald C. Latham, an awakening to the fact that thousands of always "just in case." Neither the electronics researcher, concluded that a dollars of taxpayers' money has been Eisenhower administration

nor the national community shelter program spent on foolish programs with no tan- Kennedy administration nor the Conwould cost in excess of $37 billion. Her- gible results except for the fact that in gress over the past 12 years has really man Kahn, one of the foremost propo- many instances livelihoods were pro- faced up to this issue. It was always nents of fallout Shelters, has estimated vided for ex-politicians and city hall par- easier to pretend that something was bethat a reasonable program might in- asites. They are the types in my State

asites. They are the types in my State ing done. It assuaged the fear of a posvolve a gradual buildup from about $1 of Ohio and elsewhere who for the most

of Ohio and elsewhere who for the most sible future guilty conscience. billion annually to somewhere in the part are handling civil defense work- It is only human to grasp at straws neighborhood of $5 billion annually. A political hacks who have been defeated

when faced by an overwhelmingly diffirecent estimate by Prof. John Ullman, for office by the people and then seek cult situation, and in appropriating these chairman of the Department of Manage- soft public jobs and feed at the public

soft public jobs and feed at the public funds which gradually began to total a ment at Hofstra College, would place the trough, drawing high salaries and wait

staggering sum; this is what was done. cost as high as $302 billion. Regardless ing for that bomb to fall while doing

No one in his heart really believed that of which of the expert opinions is cited, nothing constructive.

the civil defense fishnet would be of any the price tag would be astronomical. Mr. President, there is no shelter build- protection in a surging sea of nuclear

Even then, there is no guarantee that ing program in Great Britain, France, or destruction. These appropriations were a shelter program will be at all effective. in any of the major Western powers.

in any of the major Western powers. psychological pablum to soothe the anxiWith extensive advances being made in Reliable observers in the Soviet Union eties and fears of a worried citizenry that rocket and nuclear technology, it would report that there is no fallout Shelter

wanted a solution to an insoluble probprobably be obsolete before completion. program in all of Russia.

lem-civil defense in the atomic age. In One of the scientists now working on ad- Henry Shapiro, dean of the American

the city of Columbus, Ohio, for example, vanced weapons technology is reported correspondents in Moscow, wrote: more than $600,000 was spent on special to have said: “You ain't seen nothing No foreigner here has seen any civil de- regulation of traffic lights on the asyet," compared with what is coming into fense shelters. The average citizen is un- sumption that in a time of emergency all sight in the way of new weapons. Ed- aware of the existence of shelters.

traffic lights in that city would be green ward McDermott, Director of the Office

Preston Grover of the Associated Press

to enable people to flee in one direction. of Emergency Planning was recently took a similar position when he stated:

As if in a moment of terror during a quoted as having said that most nuclear

nuclear attack people would be looking scientists now agree any underground

Attachés from embassies who have looked

at traffic lights or would be guided by facilities can be "dug out” if an enemy

'round the country for sign of shelters have
found nothing. Foreigners live in many of

them. If they did that, there would be is willing to invest enough in the job, the newest buildings put up in Moscow, and

the greatest traffic jam known to history. while others believe some protection is they have no bomb shelters.

Now that there has been a lessening possible if one goes down far enough. He

of tension, we are asked to approve a pointed out it would be "economically

In 1961, the New York Times pub

bill for the spending of an additional impractical” to dig such a shelter and lished a report from Moscow by Harri

tremendous amount of taxpayers' money subsequent nuclear advances might wipe son Salisbury which stated:

for protection against past dangers and out the investment once made.

About 12,000 miles of travel in the Soviet
There is also the possibility of more
Union by this correspondent in the last 4

to again soothe our consciences just in

case. weeks failed to turn up evidence of a single deadly types of warfare for which shelSoviet bomb shelter.

Mr. President, our best and probably ters offer no protection whatever-chemical and biological warfare. Any nation Mr. Salisbury agreeing with Mr. Grov

only civil defense in this nuclear age is a

firm stand against aggression. This was that would unleash a thermonuclear war er of the Associated Press said:

evidenced a year ago last October when would probably not hesitate to use other Diplomats, foreign military attachés, and

President Kennedy took firm, determethods equally as terrifying and deva- correspondents who have traveled widely in stating. the Soviet Union report that there is no

mined, resolute, and unyielding action Is the Congress prepared to embark on

visible evidence of a widespread shelter pro- against Khrushchev, and Khrushchev such a vast gamble and to spend perhaps gram.

turned tail and withdrew his offensive $200 billion of taxpayers' money? Let In the Soviet Union, civilians are being missiles and airplanes from Cuba. us have no illusions. In reality, this is taught first aid procedures; they are be

There is no workable defense against what the civil defense planners are ask- ing taught about street fighting and how

the hydrogen bomb except not to drop it ing us to do.

to resist invasion from basement to base- in the first place. As Gen. Douglas McAnyone who has taken the trouble to ment and from street to street. There is Arthur has stated: look into the matter is aware of the fact no construction whatsoever of shelters War has become a Frankenstein to destroy that most building owners have ignored in the ground for people to crawl into both sides. No longer does it possess the or refused requests to provide shelters, and cower in, like moles in holes wait- chance of the winner of the duel. It conand that ordinary citizens have lost in- ing for the conquering paratroopers to tains, rather, the germs of double suicide.

Or, as Walter Lippmann put it: and the free world. It means that we resources at our command. Now is the

There is no protection against nuclear war are gaining in our contest with the Com- time to get on with the job, rather than except to prevent it.

munists on the economic front, and it worrying about what others are doing, Certainly, holes in the ground or so- provides the opening for moving into the or dwelling on minor mistakes and

shortcomings. Mistakes are bound to called fallout shelters are no deterrent vacuum created by Communist with- shortcomings. to any possible aggressor. They in no drawal.

happen. Enough mistakes were made way work to prevent war.

It is paradoxical, at the very time we on D-day to convince any skeptic that Mr. President, I fervently hope that appear to be winning and the Commu- the war was lost—if all he could see

were the mistakes and the confusion. the Senate will reject the bill passed by nists appear to be pulling back, that we the other body authorizing $190 million should also seem to have so many doubts D-day was turned into a great victory for a beginning of a shelter building pro

about ourselves and our own foreign aid for free men because we moved ahead gram. There are many more worthwhile program. Doubts have been created without stopping or looking back.

As the Soviet Union cuts back on its places where taxpayers' money can be about whether the responsible officials of put to good use. When our country has this Government really believe what they commitment, we should move ahead. It so many unmet needs, when more than profess and what they say about the for- should be noted that others are moving half the world is ill clothed, ill housed, eign aid program. At the beginning of ahead to expand their influence, to take and ill fed, is it appropriate to devote this year, before the Clay Committee advantage of new opportunities. France billions of dollars to burrow underto burrow under- made its report, we were told that a $4.9 is notable among them.

I may add, so is the Federal Republic ground? Is it justifiable to spend mil- billion program was essential to the Na

of Germany. lions to stock shelters with food when tion's security and prestige in the world.

After the Clay Committee report, we were so many are hungry?

The French Government is not cutMr. President, I again urge officials of told that a $4.5 billion program was the ting back its aid program. It is exthis administration to review carefully bare minimum necessary if the Nation's panding it—even though its per capita present civil defense policy so that we in security is not to be impaired. The Sen- aid is already twice as large as that of the Congress may be aware of the ulti

ate Foreign Relations Committee, after the United States. mate costs and so we may know where months of study, hearings, and markups, I do not share many of the aims of we are going in this area. I hope that recommended an authorization of $4.2 French foreign policy, nor the objec

tives which their aid program in some the present proposal calling for Federal billion as the absolute minimum. Now aid to States and communities to supply we learn that a smaller authorization bill, cases may be designed to achieve. But

I am impressed with the French Govpublic buildings with shelters is going to $3.8 billion can be justified. receive a complete review in the Senate

The citizens' committees for the for- ernment's decisiveness in formulating Armed Services Committee. Until that eign aid program have been permitted its foreign aid policy, and its resoluteis done, not 1 cent more should be ap

more or less to dissipate or evaporate, ness in implementing it. There is nothpropriated on a wasteful, directionless rather than have the kind of organiza- ing random, disjointed, or haphazard

about its policy. Although the French program that has already cost taxpayers tional assistance required for a better well over $1 billion and threatens to cost understanding of our foreign aid objec- aid program is certainly not a model hundreds of billions more. tives.

program, particularly in regard to the I yield the floor.

It is no wonder that the people are con- terms of the aid offered, it has one charfused. My office and others in this city acteristic which we should note carehave received calls from numerous

fully. It is concentrated in selected AMENDMENT OF FOREIGN ASSIST

groups and organizations who were plan- areas considered to be of highest priANCE ACT OF 1961

ning to launch programs to arouse pub- ority to France. It is not scattered over The Senate resumed the consideration lic support for the foreign aid program.

80 or 100 countries. It has a consistent of the bill (H.R. 7885) to amend further Now is it any wonder that they are con

direction. The French Government the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as fused and perplexed? They ask: Are the

They ask: Are the knows what it wants to do with its aid amended, and for other purposes.

leaders of the executive and legislative program—and is doing it. Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, first branches willing to fight for the aid pro

One of the major weaknesses of our I thank the Senator from Illinois (Mr. gram which they repeatedly have claimed aid program is that of attempting to do DOUGLAS] for his consideration and kind to be essential to our national security, too much, and thereby it loses its sense ness in permitting me to speak at this or are they not? Is there any point in of direction. What is often lacking is time, because he has been waiting to trying to arouse public support for the

a clear set of priorities for the program make a speech. I wanted to make a I wanted to make a foreign aid program which the adminis

and a strong resolution to implement statement in reference to one of the tration said was needed?

these priorities. amendments before the Senate on the Mr. President, these are legitimate

This is sometimes evident among those foreign aid bill; namely, the amendment questions by citizens who are genuinely in the executive branch and in the Conthat was offered to reduce the bill by concerned. This is not the first time the gress who are declared friends of the $385 million.

aid program has been attacked-nor will foreign aid program. In their espousal Mr. President, we have recently seen it be the last.

of the foreign aid program, they must evidence of a massive failure on the It is the perennial whipping boy of have a clear grasp of what is most impart of the Soviet Union—the failure anyone who has any sense of frustra

portant and what is less important, what of the Soviet agriculture system to pro- tion on any subject, domestic or inter- is top priority, and what is of secondary vide sufficient food to feed the Russian national.

importance. people. The Communists are clearly But in view of the difficulties presently

This set of priorities must always be having basic economic difficulties. Their confronting the Soviet Union and the kept in mind. If it appears that the Consystem simply is not working efficiently. opportunity now available to us, it is gress will not approve of the administraThis not only may provide opportunities most disturbing that we shrink from tak- tion's total program, then the established for us to make better use of our great ing advantage of these opportunities. set of priorities will naturally be followed economic system; it also means that the Wars are not won by retreating when in distributing any cuts. Communists do not have the economic the enemy retreats, and the war which We have recently been advised in the power necessary to implement their po- is being fought with all the tools in our Senate that the Foreign Relations Comlitical objectives. Among other things, foreign aid program is just as serious mittee's recommendations must be rethey are having trouble with their for- and as important as any of the shooting duced. eign aid program. wars we have ever fought.

I have shared the view, after sensing While we should not minimize the In fact, the foreign aid program is de- the temperament of the Congress, that threat of Communist subversion, it is signed to win the struggle in the world some agreement to reduce the commitquite clear that the Communists, at least without a shooting war.

tee's figures might be necessary in order at the present time, do not have the Now is not the time to retreat. Now for the bill to be approved in the Senmeans necessary for the foreign aid pro- is the time for launching an offensive ate. But what concerns me most is the gram they have been conducting in in those areas of the world that are of absence of any clearly established priorirecent years. This is a development of greatest importance to the United States. ties in distributing the cuts that have great significance for the United States Now is the time for mobilizing all the been proposed.

Many parts of this foreign aid bill are commitments made. The recent action What I insist upon is that these cuts important, but which part is most im- of the House of Representatives in dras- must not fall on the highest priority proport? Which part has top priority? tically reducing the Alliance for Progress gram, the Alliance for Progress. I will

I believe that the Alliance for Prog- funds requested by the administration is continue to oppose any substantial cuts ress program has top priority. I accept interpreted in every Latin American in this program. the President's statement that Latin country as precisely that.

I am not saying we must honor in America is the most critical area in the The Senate Foreign Relations Commit- full the administration's request for aid world as far as U.S. foreign policy is con- tee disagreed with the House action, and to 80 or 100 different countries. The cerned. I accept this and believe we recognized the embarrassment this would sooner we cut that figure the better. should act upon it. The executive branch cause the U.S. Government and restored The sooner we really learn to concenshould act upon it. The leaders of Con- the funds cut by the House. Now we are trate our aid program in selected high gress should act upon it, and yet we are told that the Senate should follow the told that the Senate should follow the priority areas the better.

priority areas the better. We have been informed that some believe the Alliance House's example and reverse the decision

House's example and reverse the decision asking our allies to step up their aid profor Progress item recommended by the of the Senate Foreign Relations Commit- gram. But if we continue to have aid Senate Foreign Relations Committee can tee.

missions in 80 different countries where be cut by $125 million. We hear that this I remind my colleagues that this is are our allies going to concentrate? And is one of the categories best able to sus- only the authorization. The appropria- so I do not ask that we give the admintain a cut. And today we hear further tion is another matter. Everyone who istration what it requests for 80 different that some officials in the executive has served in this body over the years countries. branch are most concerned, not about knows that the appropriation figure I ask only that we provide what the obtaining the full request for the Alli- usually is substantially less than the au- Senate Foreign Relations Committee ance for Progress, but about restoring thorization figure.

recommended as a prudent amount for a large part of the military aid pro- This would mean that the Senate au- the Alliance for Progress program in gram-most of which goes to southeast thorization figure for the Alliance would Latin America, the area having top priAsia.

be $525 million. As everyone knows this ority under our foreign policy. . Mr. President, I claim no superior figure could be reduced further by the knowledge about strategy for obtaining House-Senate conference and reduced the best possible foreign aid bill this year. drastically by the House in the appro

THE TAX BILL-THE NEED FOR TAX I am quite willing to follow the advice of priations round. What we would likely

REFORM others on this question in many re- have in the end is a figure approximating

GOOD FEATURES OF BILL spects. But I am certain on one thing: the $400 million which the Soviet Union I know that a cut of $125 million from

Mr. DOUGLAS. Mr. President, there now gives to one small country, Cuba. the Alliance for Progress weakens it.

are many good features in the present If the world's leading capitalist country

tax bill, H.R. 8363, with which we are I know that that cut does not carry cannot do any better than that, we do out what was the President's judgment not have much of an argument with the

dealing in the Finance Committee.

Among these are first, the fact of tax on the importance of the Latin America Communists. Yet Latin America is the

reduction itself in order to stimulate area in the struggle in which we are now most critical area in the world, as we

demand, production and employment; engaged with world communism.

have been told by the leader of the greatI know that this conflicts with the pol- est Nation on the face of the earth, the second, the minimum standard


of $300 per taxpayer plus $100 for each icy stated by the President of the United President of the United States. States.

What Mr. Harriman is likely to be family dependent; third, the shifting of Mr. President, this week there opened asked in São Paulo, and quite rightly,

the corporation tax collection period

from the present delayed system to in São Paulo, Brazil, the annual meeting what prompted us to go back on our comof the OAS Inter-American Economic mitment. When we committed our sup

roughly the same basis as taxes are now

collected from individuals; and fourth, and Social Council. At this meeting, port to the Alliance at Punte del Este, which will be attended by most of the

the repeal of the 4-percent dividend we expressed support for a figure of $600 key Alliance officials in the hemisphere, million per year for 4 years. The ex

credit against taxes actually owed; and

certain other features as well. the future of the Alliance for Progress pectation, however, was that our aid will be discussed. Proposals to modify would increase after the first year. In

I shall discuss these and other feaits structure to achieve greater Latin stead it is now proposed to be cut back which I plan to make on the tax bill

tures of the bill in later brief discussions participation will be discussed at this from the $600 million level. meeting. At the end of next week, Un- Mr. President, it is difficult to justify during this session of Congress at times der Secretary Averell Harriman will go to a cut of $125 million from the Alliance which will not interfere with discussion São Paulo to head the U.S. delegation to for Progress and add $125 million to the

and action upon pending business. My the OAS meeting at the ministerial level. contingency fund when experience

comments come at the end of a long This proposed reduction puts Secre- teaches that funds for this category have

day's session, and certainly do not intary Harriman in a most difficult posi- gone unused. Last year, out of $260

terfere with any pending business before

the Senate. tion. The U.S. Government has been million appropriated for the contingency exhorting Latin American governments fund, $117 million went unspent.

MILLIONAIRES ESCAPE TAXATION to do better in mobilizing their own re- Furthermore, if the President's con- But today I rise to state the urgent sources, to exact the taxes and enact the tingency fund is increased by $125 mil- need for tax reform and to protest its reforms called for in the charter of Pun- lion, we can rest assured that the little slow and quiet strangulation. ta del Este. We have repeatedly pleaded Alliance for Progress establishment will There are, in the record of the curwith Latin government officials to live be pushed out of position in the grab for

be pushed out of position in the grab for rent hearings of the Finance Commitup to their commitments under the Al- that money by more powerful forces in tee on the pending tax bill, some shockliance. And yet now we indicate that this country.

ing figures of which every American the United States is to go back on its I repeat that I am not unaware of the ought to be aware. The Secretary of the commitments. Most of the major Latin necessity to make compromise to obtain

Treasury has furnished figures showing American newspapers, including those an acceptable foreign aid bill this year. that in 1959 there were 20 persons in most friendly to the United States, did I can readily accept a cut in military

this country with incomes-adjusted not fail to note that the House figure ap- assistance. It is long overdue. I can

gross incomes-of more than $500,000 proved for the entire Latin American accept a modest cut even in the Decontinent was only slightly above the velopment Loan Fund. However, if we

who paid not a penny in Federal income total Soviet aid to Cuba alone. Our are to wage the battle in Latin

taxes in 1959. commitments under the Alliance, as well America that we ought to be fighting, so

There were 15 persons having incomes as those of our Latin American neigh- far as this part of the world is concerned,

of more than $1 million who paid not a bors, must be honored. Nothing is more to prevent it from falling into chaos and cent of taxes. harmful to our prestige, to our national revolution and Castroism and commu- There were five persons having gross image, and to our foreign policy inter- nism, we ought not to retreat from our incomes of more than $5 million a year ests than the appearance of reneging on obligations and our commitments. who did not pay a single cent in taxes.

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