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A reading of a portion of the abundant “Let us exhaust every avenue for peace. the fullest the technical knowledge, history of that scheming era, emphasizes Let us make clear our willingness to talk, if skills, and equipment of these various the tragic lack of communication between talk will help, and our readiness to fight if
agencies. the self-important powers of the world, and fight we must.
The resolution I have introduced today their headlong refusal to weigh the possi- "Let us resolve to be the masters, not the bility that the opposition had any measure victims, of our history, controlling our own
would be another step in this program of of reason on its side. One of the recent destiny without giving way to blind suspi- tapping the resources of the sea. great books on the period was last year's cions and emotions. Let us distinguish be- It would enable us to bring together Pultizer Prize winning volume, "The Guns tween our hopes and our illusions.
the top scientists of the world to exAugust" by Barbara Tuchman, She "Let us recognize both the gains we have change information, to map joint projtraces with vivid accuracy the senseless se- made down the road to peace and the great ects and in general to bring the world quence of events that led to conflict in distance yet to be covered.”
up to date on the progress man has made August 1914.
in exploring the sea and extracting from The world today is not without parallels with that time. The hope is that men now
it some of the riches it contains. RESOLUTION CALLING FOR WORLD in power are familiar with those events and
How important is oceanography? It that they realize the danger of respecting CONFERENCE ON OCEANOGRAPHY is paramount to our defenses. The milineither the pledge nor the threat of their
Mr. BOB WILSON. Mr. Speaker, I tary has concluded that the undetectable opponents. This Nation is fortunate to have such
ask unanimous consent to address the approaches to our shores which lie under House for 1 minute and to revise and ex
water constitute one of our greatest men as President Kennedy, Secretary of State Rusk, Under Secretary Harriman, and Senatend my remarks.
perils of enemy surprise attack. The detor Fulbright, chairman of the Foreign Re- The SPEAKER. Is there objection fense of our Nation is involved, to an lations Committee, in positions of leadership. to the request of the gentleman from important extent, with our capability With steady perception, they have assessed California?
to reply in kind through underwater the reliability and the intransigency of our There was no objection.
systems. cold war opponents. The result is a con
Mr. BOB WILSON. Mr. Speaker, I am
Of nondefense interest-there are vast sistency of policy which, despite a great variety of minor irritations and bloody ag
today introducing a House joint resolu- ainounts of foodstuffs, minerals, and gravations by the Russians, Chinese and
tion calling for a world conference on energy sources beneath the sea. The other Communists, has kept us on a steady oceanography to be convened in the predominant nations of the future will path. United States in 1965.
be those which best solve the problems Critics of the administration have taken The resolution reads:
of utilizing these natural resources which every opportunity to question this course.
have accumulated through the centuries. They cast doubts upon the nuclear test ban treaty, they question willingness to sell some
Representatives of the United States of Many of them are renewable through the of our surplus wheat to Russia and its satel
America in Congress assembled, That the prodigious reproductive capabilities of
Secretary of State, in consultation with the sea species and the rich environment of lites. In the light of constant criticism,
Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the the saline seas. often carping, the speech in Maine is worthy
Interior, the Director of the National Sciof more than passing notice.
Mr. Speaker, my resolution would furence Foundation, Secretary of the Smith- ther America's programs of oceanogWe quote some further passages which
sonian Institution, Secretary of Health, Ed- raphy through world cooperation. contain the essence of our foreign policy, be
ucation, and Welfare, Director of the Bureau lieving that every American could benefit by
I note with interest that Jules Verne's of the Budget, Director of the Office of Scigiving them calm and objective consideration:
ence and Technology, and representatives (20,000 Leagues Under the Sea” is en
from the other interested Federal agencies, joying a revival on the country's movie “A year ago it would have been easy to asis authorized and directed to take all neces
screens. What was fantasy and science sume that all-out war was inevitable, that sary steps to convene in the United States in fiction before the turn of the century any agreement with the Soviets was impos- 1965 a world conference for the purpose of today is approaching reality. sible, and that an unlimited arms race was exchanging with other nations scientific and clear powerplant is a fact. Underwater unavoidable. Today it is equally easy for technical information relating to oceanog- exploration is being developed with insome to assure that the cold war is over. * * *
raphy. "The fact of the matter is, of course, that
credible ingenuity. Already plans are neither view is correct. We have, it is true, Webster defines "oceanography" as afoot for an undersea living experiment made some progress on a long journey. * * * "geography that deals with the ocean in Chesapeake Bay next year. New oneWe have concluded with the Soviets a few and its phenomena.” The oceans of the man submarines are making undersea limited, enforcible agreements or arrange- world are phenomenal. They cover exploration more effective. ments of mutual benefit to both sides and
three-fourths of the earth's surface. The field of oceanography is a multiple to the world. "But a change in atmosphere and em
They are in reality vast moving rivers. science. It must now include the marine phasis is not a reversal of purpose. Mr.
They contain untold mineral riches, yield aspects of many sciences. Meteorology Khrushchev himself has said that there can
tons of foodstuffs, and are the major and oceanography are now interwoven. be no coexistence in the field of ideology. future source of water supply for a Biology, physics, chemistry, and fluid In addition, there are still major areas of thirsty world.
mechanics, geophysics, mechanics and tension and conflict, from Berlin to Cuba Man has sailed the seas, reaped its electronics contribute design for necesto southeast Asia. The United States and
seafood, to some extent plumbed its sary tools, gear, and equipment while the Soviet Union still have wholly differ
depths, yet only in relatively recent years the marine sciences must provide new ent concepts of the world, its freedom, its
has a concentrated effort been made to concepts of surface ships and submersible future. * “While the road to that peace is long and
unravel its mysteries, to utilize its vast vehicles, with new powerplants and hard, and full of traps and pitfalls, there is potential.
adaptability. no reason not to take each step that we can The United States has been a late- New agreements in conservation of food safely take. It is in our own self-interest to comer to the field of oceanography. I fishes must be reached if future generaban nuclear testing in the atmosphere so am proud to say that we are making tions are to have an adequate supply of that all of our citizens can breathe more
strides in this vital field. The House has the bounteous harvest of the seas. easily. It is in our national self-interest to
assumed responsibility in assisting our Many neglected species of fish, or marine sell wheat in storage to feed Russians and
scientists in this area. Eastern Europeans who are willing to divert
On August 5, plants must be made useful. Ways must large portions of their limited foreign ex
1963, the House passed H.R. 6997, provid- be found to extract the millions of tons change reserves away from the implements ing for a comprehensive, long-range, and
ing for a comprehensive, long-range, and of minerals washed from the land of war. * * *
coordinated national oceanography pro- through eons into solution in the seas. "Even if these steps should be un- gram.
The rewards will be great. Men will * there would still be no reason to This measure is as important to the live beneath the sea. Fish "farms" will regret, the fact that this Nation has made field of oceanography as is the National be established with scientific methods of every reasonable effort to improve relations.
Aeronautics and Space Administration to rearing, feeding and harvesting of valu"For without our making such an effort, we could not maintain the leadership and
the exploration of space. It will co- able food fishes employed. Artificial isrespect of the free world * * * we could not ordinate the marine activities of many lands above the surface and “cities” beconvince our adversaries that war was not in Federal agencies into a program with di- neath will be used as bases for discovtheir interest. *
rection and purpose. It will utilize to ery, aids for navigation, defense outposts
and centers for refining and processing nual homecoming dinner was held at the
nual homecoming dinner was held at the a time for looking back, since it is the first minerals and seafood.
Shoreham Hotel Saturday night, Novem- homecoming weekend in the year of the uniLife magazine has summarized the im- ber 2, during which the Cardinal Gib- versity's diamond jubilee. The number of portance of oceanography thusly:
bons Medal was presented to Speaker alumni, who have returned for homecoming, Even as the United States thrusts into MCCORMACK for "distinguished and meri- us with their presence this evening-all this
the distinguished guests who are honoring space it does so from a continent that is in torious service either to the United States points to the fact that homecoming 1963 is a fact a large island enveloped by massive of America, the Catholic Church, or the
very special occasion. oceans. Whoever knows most about those Catholic University of America."
Mr. Speaker, it is a great personal pleasure oceans holds the advantage in the struggle
As the 15th recipient to be honored to welcome you to this jubilee gathering of for command of the seas, holds the lead in with the Cardinal Gibbons Medal, our
Catholic University sons and daughters. reaching for the fabulous unknown resources of the ocean floor.
Your presence here this evening and that of respected Speaker joins other distinguished Americans who have received the
your charming wife enrich this occasion as It is obvious that the Federal Govern
your thoughtful words hearten us. The fact medal, including President Kennedy; J. ment must play a major role of coordi
that in our audience are many members of Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal
the Federal Government and Congress of the nation in oceanography. The job is too Bureau of Investigation; Gens. J. Lawton United States, does honor to you, sir, as well complicated for coastal States to perform Collins and Alfred Gruenther; Bishop as to the university. by themselves. Many Federal agencies
Many Federal agencies Fulton J. Sheen; Dr. Carlton Hayes and Though the word is never a substitute for are already involved. These include the
Dr. Karl Herzfeld. The medal, not nec- real presence, Monsignor McDonald, our beresearch and development facilities of essarily an annual award, was estab
loved rector, when he was suddenly called the U.S. Navy, the Atomic Energy Com- lished is 1947 to perpetuate the memory
to Rome and realized that his duties at the mission, the Department of Commerce, of the late James Cardinal Gibbons,
Ecumenical Council would not permit him the National Science Foundation, the Archbishop of Baltimore and Washing
to be with us this evening, charged me with
the grave responsibility of representing him Smithsonian Institution, the Department ton, and one of the founders of Catholic
to you and conveying the following mesof Health, Education, and Welfare, De- University, which is this year observing sage: partment of the Interior, the Coast its diamond jubilee marking its 75th year "DEAR MONSIGNOR MCALLISTER: In all my Guard, and the Office of Science and of founding. Cardinal Gibbons was the years at the university, this is the first time Technology. In addition there are many first chancellor of Catholic University. I have not been present at the annual homeprivate organizations, State wildlife and
No man is more deserving of this high coming. I shall miss it greatly. Please confisheries groups, foundations and indus
vey to our alumni my deep and sincere rehonor than the great statesman and out
gret that I cannot be with them, as well as tries that will play important roles in standing Catholic layman presiding over
my most cordial greetings and gratitude for our massive assault on the mysteries of this House, Speaker McCORMACK.
their loyalty and continued support of alma the underwater world. Cardinal Gibbons Medal is now added to
mater. I am proud that my own hometown of his long list of honorary degrees received “I had hoped to have the privilege of preSan Diego, Calif., has become this coun- from other great colleges and universi- senting the Cardinal Gibbons Medal to a try's most important center of oceanog- ties in the United States, one of which distinguished statesman and good friend, the raphy. The Scripps Institute of Ocean- was an honorary degree in law from
Honorable JOHN W. MCCORMACK, Speaker of ography has been in the forefront of this Catholic University in 1956; the papal
the House, who has so well merited this high
honor. My warmest congratulations to him science. Its revolutionary ship Flip- honors he has had bestowed upon him,
and to Mrs. McCormack, To each of the refloating instrument platform-has con- and the decorations he has received
cipients of the alumni awards go my pertributed much to advance underwater from several foreign governments. The
from several foreign governments. The sonal felicitations as well as deepest appreexploration. The institute has an ag- Cardinal Gibbons Medal is made of gold, ciation to them for shedding such luster on gressive program of oceanographic work 112 inches in diameter, with a ribbon
11/2 inches in diameter, with a ribbon the university by their achievements. covering many fields. in Catholic University colors of gold and
"I want to be associated with your com. Recently the Mission Bay Research white. Bearing the seal of the univer
mendation of the outgoing president, Dr. Foundation was established in San Diego sity, combined with the papal insignia
Frank McQuade, who has worked so hard
and accomplished so much for our alumni with private capital as a nonprofit cor- and profile of Cardinal Gibbons on one
association. While expressing indebtedness poration. It will engage in a sizable fish side, the inscription on the reverse side
to him and to the other outgoing officers, I tagging project this year and has other states:
wish at the same time to congratulate the wildlife projects in the planning stages. Awarded to Speaker JOHN W. MCCORMACK new president, Mr. Frank de Bettencourt, and We have acted in the House to bring for distinguished services by the Alumni
those who are to serve with him in execuU.S. oceanographic programs under a co- Association of the Catholic University of
tive positions. I know they will maintain ordinated program. The success of our America.
the present high standards and exert every
effort to promote the real aims and objectives efforts can be further assured by acting
The medal was designed by Sister of our alumni association. to bring to the United States a world- Mary Lurana, of the Sisters of the "Dr. Bode, who has been such a tower of wide conference of oceanographic knowl- Blessed Sacrament, while working for strength as director of alumni relations, and edge in 1965. My resolution would au
her master of arts degree at Catholic his efficient staff deserve a special vote of thorize preparations for this event. I University. Among those present to see
thanks. am hopeful that Congress will give it the Right Reverend Monsignor Joseph
"Finally, my deepest gratitude to the chairspeedy approval. B. McAllister, vice rector of the Catholic
man of the homecoming, Mr. Ed McMahon,
and to the committee who have cooperated University of America, present the Cardi
in making the homecoming what I know will nal Gibbons Medal to Speaker McCOR- be a splendid success. SPEAKER MCCORMACK AWARDED MACK was his beloved wife, Mrs. Harriet "May God bless you all. JAMES CARDINAL GIBBONS MED- McCormack. Monsignor McAllister pre
"Monsignor MCDONALD." AL BY CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY sented the medal in the absence of the May I personally associate myself with
these sentiments. ALUMNI
Right Reverend William J. McDonald,
The rector would not want me to let you
go home without some knowledge of our unanimous consent to extend my remarks
stewardship of your university during the Ecumenical Council. at this point.
past year. I cannot begin to mention the The SPEAKER. Is there objection
Mr. Speaker, under permission to ex-
many facets in the past 12 months, but I
should like to single out a few of the more to the request of the gentleman from
delivered by Monsignor McAllister, in- outstanding, so that the picture of your Massachusetts ?
cluding a message from Rome by Mon- alma mater in its 75th year may be brought There was no objection. signor McDonald; and the text of the
up to date. The fall term 1963 saw the Mr. BOLAND. Mr. Speaker, I want to
university's enrollment reach a record of response given by Speaker McCORMACK: take this opportunity to call to the atten
over 5,600 students. Last spring, the univertion of the Members of the House that
I think you will agree that it has been a sity initiated its division of space sciences another great honor has been bestowed
busy weekend; but I must confess that for and brought to the campus some of the top
me personally, it has been a most enjoyable scientists in this field from all over the world. on our beloved and distinguished Speak
one and a source of deep satisfaction. To see We are, as you know, in the midst of a drive er, the Honorable JOHN W. McCORMACK;
so many of my former students and col- for a great new university theater. A modern namely, the Cardinal Gibbons Medal.
leagues brings me back to the good old days, addition to the theological college is now The Catholic University of America's an- as we like to call them. This weekend was nearing completion Faculty ranks have reached a record high. Our married faculty the hierarchy of the American church. He slow down in its quest, already well begun, has received a substantial increase in family possessed extraordinary courage the cour- to master the forces of nature in a nuclear allowance. All this, so that the university age of action, and when advisable—the cour- age. may continue to attract teachers of the age of silence. Above all, what Cardinal On the other hand again, many of us, highest caliber.
Gibbons stood for was genuine and complete especially those of us who are responsible It is no wonder that the Catholic Univer- Catholicism in entire harmony with a gen- to a small or great degree, for the policy sity of America is represented at the Second uine and complete Americanism. He would and the progress of this Nation, see that Vatican Council by more official theological have been very much at home with Pope there is only disaster in closing our eyes to experts than any other university in the John, very much at home with Pope Paul. the arts as we concentrate on the sciences. United States. No wonder either that one of He saw his role as a national figure in the This has been the lesson taught by the our fellow alumni-Mr. James Norris of the light of his own great charity for all races, Catholic University, and by every institution class of 1933—is the only official lay repre- for all nations, and for all religions. The of higher learning in the United States tosentative from the English-speaking world at ecumenical council meeting in Rome this day. the council.
very week would find in him a great spokes- When the House of Representatives I know, as all of you do, that the success man for its pleas for an ecumenical spirit passed its bill providing for assistance to of a university is not gaged alone on factors and for universal brotherhood. It is a spe- institutions of higher learning, these such as new buildings, laboratories, eminent cial honor to receive this medal which bears thoughts were in our minds. They provided faculty and such. I know, as you do, as im- his name.
the motivation for the bill which would portant as these are, the only true measure The Catholic University of America is this have given aid to all types of higher educaof the excellence of a university is in the year celebrating its diamond jubilee. The tion, including the arts and the humanities, achievement of its alumni. I am proud of University of the American Bishops has a
and not restricted to the scientific and alma mater, because I am proud of you. right to be proud of its contributions to the
technological. Senator RIBICOFF, of ConRt. Rev. JOSEPH B. MCALLISTER, church and the Nation during the past 75
necticut, himself a former Secretary of Vice Rector. years. One of the very first of the univer- Health, Education, and Welfare, in pleading sities organized by the Catholic Church and
for the House orientation of the education ADDRESS DELIVERED BY THE HONORABLE JOHN the only one in the Nation of pontifical
bill from the floor of the Senate last month, W. MCCORMACK, SPEAKER OF THE U.S. HOUSE status. It has blazed a bright trail through
did not hesitate to prefer the broader purOF REPRESENTATIVES, ON THE OCCASION OF the educational history of the United States.
poses of the House bill, saying, "Higher HIS ACCEPTANCE OF THE 1963 CARDINAL GIB- Outstanding scholars have always found the
education needs support in all fields. It BONS MEDAL AWARDED TO HIM BY THE ALUMNI university as a congenial home and the his- simply cannot be argued that funds should ASSOCIATION OF THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY tory of the church in America has been in
be used to aid the teaching of physics, but OF AMERICA AT THE SHOREHAM HOTEL, fluenced greatly by the administrators, fac
not the teaching of foreign languages, to aid WASHINGTON, D.C., NOVEMBER 2, 1963 ulty, and alumni of this great institution. the teaching of biology but not the teaching I am very conscious of the honor that has The clarion call of this university, as in
of economics, to aid the teaching of botany been bestowed upon me by the Alumni Asdeed of all Catholic education has been the
but not the teaching of history" (CONGRESsociation of the Catholic University of Amerinsistence of the preparation of the well
SIONAL RECORD, October 15, 1963, page 19483). ica in presenting the 1963 Cardinal Gibbons rounded man. The university has firmly
Educators throughout the country have Medal to me. It is true that a man in public rejected the idea of education which focuses
seen the need of expanded support for edulife can become the recipient sometimes of on the technician as a human machine
cation which would include as equal sisters,
the fields of arts and humanities. Senator many honors, and equally true that these rather than as a human person, even as it
PROUTY, of Vermont, in defending the House must naturally fall into some gradation of has also rejected the notion that the liberal importance assigned by the individual him- arts today can prosper in a heavily technical
bill several weeks ago in the Senate called self. May I assure the members of the Cath- world by ignoring the great contemporary
the attention of that body to the fact that olic University Alumni Association that this movements in science, much as an ostrich
he had received messages from hundreds of present award, combining as it does the dis- with its head firmly planted in the sand.
colleges and university presidents on this tinction of being honored by the National The Catholic University has given evi
issue, 96 percent of them being in favor of Pontifical University and the memory, still dence of its forward thinking, and as well
unrestricted aid that could be applied to fresh and still impressive, of so great a of its balanced judgment concerning the
the arts and humane studies as well as to Catholic churchman as James Cardinal Gib- needs of education today. Your university
the strictly scientific. He went on to warn: bons was, brings me a feeling of great hu- was one of the very first to obtain a nuclear
"Downgrade the arts and humanities and mility and great appreciation. reactor, one of the pioneers in establishing
you downgrade America. If we downgrade
the arts and humanities, American educaThe Cardinal Gibbons Medal, as the presi- a department of the space sciences, one of dent of your association reminded you, the most forward thinking of the engineering
tion will be flying on one wing."
Monsignor McDonald, your own rector, should be awarded to a person who has made schools in the country. And, I know, the a contribution to the church, the Nation or Catholic University stands ready even today
made a plea of great importance at the Cath
olic University's June commencement, this the university. Any man in public life hopes to meet the challenging opportunity of a
year. He called for a national foundation to be able to make some contribution, how- world in scientific transition.
based on the National Science Foundation, ever small it might be. It is never as great On the other hand, the Catholic Univer
which would provide aid to outstanding as a man would want it to be. But I am sity has never lost sight of the humanistic grateful to all of you for considering me for
young men and women who chose the arts and spiritual values that must go into the and humanities as their field of graduate rethis award, and I am all the more closely process of formation of the whole man.
search; similar financial support as is today touched by it because of the man whose Alongside this new technological growth, the given to those who dedicate themselves to name it bears. university has kept pace in the field of arts
research in the sciences. I welcome the The honor that comes to me through this and letters. Your splendid plans for a new thoughtful suggestion of the rector of the award is all the more valued since it bears university theater, the thriving bureau of Catholic University of America. It is a most the name of one of the truly great Ameri- social research established a short time ago, constructive suggestion, worthy of every concans of our time. . Less than a half century the continuing excellence of the depart- sideration. ago, we were living in the age of James ments of humane studies which was crowned The battle for the future will be, as has Gibbons, and the impress of his life of deep last June by the award of more Woodrow faith, of his remarkable personality and far
been said before, a battle for men's minds. Wilson fellowships to your students than seeing leadership has left many a monument.
To the nation with the greatest understandto any other university in the area; finally, ing of the truth of the whole truth-of This great university, a landmark of Cath- the insistence on graduate studies where the truth in science and the truth in culolic education throughout the Nation, is to a Catholic University makes its unequaled ture, to this nation belongs tomorrow. And considerable extent the legacy of his fore- contribution to American higher education, today's struggle is to prepare the minds of sight. As the first chancellor of the Cath- all these are indications that you are still our young men and women with a grasp of olic University of America, he played a sig- moving forward in both the scientific and nificant role in guiding its early years. In
knowledge and understanding which is balthe humanistic components of the well-bal- anced enough to meet the challenges of an fact, what is there in the Catholic Church anced education.
evolving science without losing its roots in in this area-indeed in the entire Nation- And such forward progress is the hall- a culture that still appreciates the value of that does not bear the mark of his genius? mark of American education today. As this the human person. I commend the CathHow much did the great papal encyclicals Nation makes incomparable strides forward olic University of America for its neveron labor owe to the cardinal's unfailing in its scientific knowledge, as it reaches out flagging dedication to this ideal. It captures championship of the American workingman? literally to grasp the moon within the arms my imagination, and I commend highly your How much does the splendid patriotism of of its technical comprehension, it must right reverend rector for advancing these American Catholics, tested in so many trials move forward with equal steps toward a constructive proposals. and conflicts, reflect the outspoken love of broadening and a deepening of its cultural We are living in an important and trying country that was a hallmark of the great and intellectual life. No one who faces the period of the world's history. As you and I cardinal?
future can deny that scientific know-how are present this evening, history is being And not only this, but James Cardinal and technical appreciation of new forces made. Despite the cooing voice of peaceful Gibbons was a man far ahead of his times. must be one of the keystones of national coexistence, the forces of evil are bent on He is perhaps the first great ecumenist in greatness. This Nation cannot afford to world domination.
While we must be powerful militarily, we the intelligentsia and antagonism from who misused U.S. assistance in their must also be strong spiritually; all persons Buddhists would continue to harass his raids on Buddhist pagodas. everywhere who believe in God and His law.
But there can be little doubt that this For deep faith is the affirmative strength government unless reforms were made that could well be the difference between soon.
curtailment of aid also heartened Diem's victory and defeat.
At that time President Diem promised opponents and helped trigger the coup. One of the great events of history is tak- that reforms would be made, that civil It was a signal to the military leaders ing place now in Rome-instituted by Pope liberties would be restored to his people of Vietnam that the United States would John and followed and emphasized in his as soon as hostilities with the Vietcong support the overthrow of the Diem own right by Pope Paul—the Ecumenical had subsided. Of course, he had made regime. Council. This is not only a great event in the his- been done. I am satisfied, however, that
such promises before and nothing had Further, there will be some who will tory of the Catholic Church, and more
been done. I am satisfied, however, that say that the United States openly enbroadly, of religion, but it is one of the his- Diem meant what he said. He impressed couraged the coup. toric events of mankind. For from it will us as a dedicated nationalist, sincere, in- Whatever the case, Mr. Speaker, the flow great beneficial results.
corruptible, and determined to defeat the military junta which now rules Vietnam It is evident to everyone that the Ecumen- Communist Vietcong.
has not shown itself to be any less ruthical Council is affirmative and positive. The From our conversation, it was evi- less or any less autocratic than the growth of the ecumenical spirit throughout dent that President Diem and his broth- former regime. One of its first acts was the world has already strongly evidenced itself. The religious understanding and spirit of a coup. There had been, it should be
er, Nhu, were conscious of the possibility the reprehensible slaying of President is stronger today than it has been for gen
Diem. erations, and that understanding and spirit remembered, five previous unsuccessful For those of us reared in the Judeowill grow stronger in generations that lie attempts to oust the Diem regime. But
Christian tradition and schooled in ahead.
Diem indicated no fear of his political Anglo-Saxon law, this act of assassinaWhile military power is necessary as a opponents.
tion is repulsive. It is made even more deterrent to Communist aggression, the ecu
For whatever his adversaries might horrible by the attempt to make the killmenical spirit everywhere is necessary for a future world of peace. For in a sense, mili- say about him, they cannot deny the hon- ing seem a suicide. Even in military tary strength is negative-responding to the esty, the courage, or ability of Ngo Dinh
esty, the courage, or ability of Ngo Dinh action, killing those who surrender is law of self-preservation to deter, and in Diem.
massacre. case of attack and war, to win and survive. A fervent champion of Vietnamese na- The State Department has officially In the world of today it is absolutely nec- tionalism, Diem returned in 1954 from
tionalism, Diem returned in 1954 from deplored the assassination of Diem essary. And our country has great military 4 years of exile to lead the Government
4 years of exile to lead the Government while disclaiming any prior knowledge strength and power. But it is the word of
of South Vietnam, a country which at of the plot to overthrow him. Yet subGod in the minds of men and women that is
that time had no national feeling or sequently we have learned that members our real strength, our affirmative strength, animating their thoughts and actions, and identity.
of the American press corps in Saigon looking forward with faith and confidence Almost singlehandedly, with few re- were aware that a coup was imminent. to a world of peace. sources at his command, Diem created
Can we believe then that the State As we project our minds into the foresee- a nation-state of Vietnam and solidified Department did not know that a coup able future the results that will flow from the rule of his government. To do this was likely? Were steps taken to warn the work of the Ecumenical Council, makes it he was forced to crush the opposition one of the most notable events of world of dissident sects, subdue pirate bands he was forced to crush the opposition President Diem of pending danger?
And what of the CIA? Did its agents history. As Cardinal Cushing recently and so well roving the delta and coastal regions,
roving the delta and coastal regions, in Vietnam know of the coup? Did, in said, "The present Ecumenical Council will and began the campaign to recapture fact, the CIA play a part in it? These accept the challenge of those who contend the countryside from the Communist
the countryside from the Communist questions remain to be answered. that we are on the threshold of an atheistic guerrillas. At the same time he effec- But one thing is clear. If officials of era.”
tively accomplished the absorbing of the U.S. Government knew of the coup, It is in the spirit of James Cardinal Gib- hundreds of thousands of refugees from
and failed to exert every possible presNorth Vietnam who had streamed into sure to gain assurances of safe conduct preached and practiced the ecumenical spirit, that I accept this year's award of the South Vietnam at the end of the Indo
South Vietnam at the end of the Indo- out of the country for President Diem, Cardinal Gibbons Medal. china war.
then the shadow of blame falls on our It is safe to say that had there been no Nation. Mr. Speaker, only time will tell
Diem in South Vietnam, the situation what really happened in Vietnam. I THE UNITED STATES AND RECENT there would have been even more cha- hope the authorities will soon advise the EVENTS IN SOUTH VIETNAM
otic than it has been, and the Commu- Congress and our Nation so that faith
nist Vietcong would be in a stronger posi- can be kept in our executive departThe SPEAKER. Under previous order tion than they are today.
ments. of the House, the gentleman from Wis- Yet we have heard from many
What has happened in Vietnam must consin (Mr. ŽABLOCKI] is recognized for individuals that the war against the cause troubled thoughts for the leaders 30 minutes.
Vietcong could not be won with Diem. of other nations allied with the United Mr. ZABLOCKI. Mr. Speaker, it has Our study mission found that the war States in the fight against world Combeen with deep concern and sorrow that against the Vietcong was being won. munist aggression, in southeast Asia, in I have viewed the events of the past few The Vietnamese, we reported, are de
The Vietnamese, we reported, are de- Europe, and most particularly in Latin days in South Vietnam. I have been termined to maintain their independ
America. concerned about the ruthless way in ence and their forces have been fighting Further, Mr. Speaker, it is my belief which the Diem government was deposed well.
that before the United States recognizes and grieved at the assassination of Presi
However, it cannot be denied that the the junta in Vietnam as being the legitident Diem himself.
reputation as a national leader and hero mate government in that country, we Just 4 weeks ago today seven other which Diem earned by his early actions should receive some definite commitMembers of this body and I sat in the Vietnam's President, in recent
recent ments from its leaders. We have President's palace in Saigon, exchanging months, had fallen because of the re- learned hard lessons in other parts of views with President Diem.
pressive measures which had been taken the world when a military junta supAt that time we advised Diem of the against opponents of his regime. His planted civilian rule. anxiety evident in the United States and popularity, particularly in the large cit- Some formula should be agreed upon elsewhere in the free world over the do- ies, had been dissipated in a series of to return control of Vietnam to civilian mestic political problems which had government actions against the people
government actions against the people rule as soon as possible. Further, simplagued his administration. We empha- attributed largely to his brother, Nhu ilar requirements such as we are awaiting sized the fear that these difficulties might and Mme. Nhu.
in the Dominican Republic and Honduras adversely affect the military campaign As a result of these actions U.S. eco- are in order. Finally, we should insist against the Vietcong if they continued. nomic and military assistance was cur- on reforms such as requested of the prior We cautioned him that political un- tailed.
regime in Vietnam. rest in the form of dissident groups, vo- In part, this withholding of assistance Mr. Speaker, it is vital that we concal opponents at home and abroad, up- was justified. Particularly aid which
Particularly aid which tinue our efforts to defeat the Vietcong. risings by students, dissatisfaction among went to the regime's "special forces" We should continue to cooperate with
the ruling junta in Vietnam in pressing nounced their intentions to withdraw all the United States and the Dominican the war against the Vietcong.
semblance of recognition, even practi- Republic? However, let us closely examine the re-cally all of the military missions from Mr. ZABLOCKI. I will say to the genquest of the junta, as reported in the the Dominican Republic and from Hon- tleman from Florida that I am unable press, for double our present level of as- duras. Does not the gentleman feel that to reply to the question which he is asksistance—both economic and military. that position of the administration is ing. I agree that the transitional govAccording to some individuals Diem slightly inconsistent?
ernments in the Dominican Republic and was the main stumbling block in the way Mr. ZABLOCKI. I definitely agree Honduras should be given at least an of winning the war against the Vietcong. that there is an inconsistency. In my opportunity to present their case. Yes, Diem is gone now, cruelly slain. Why opinion the same formula, similar re- the issues are similar. That is why in then, now that the obstacle is gone, is quirements, as I said earlier, should be the conclusion of my prepared statement substantially increased assistance nec- followed in both instances. I believe that I stated that there should be a reevaluaessary?
agreements and commitments on the tion, reassessment, and a rededication As a member of the Foreign Affairs part of the military junta in Vietnam of our military and economic assistance, Committee, I want to serve notice now must be had now, before recognition, so not only in the case of Vietnam and the that Congress will be taking a close and that we may be more certain of the re- Dominican Republic, but in other areas. careful look at any forthcoming requests
of a civilian government to Mr. CRAMER. Will the gentleman for massive increased aid to Vietnam. Vietnam.
yield for one additional question? Further, the occurrences in Vietnam and I agree with the gentleman. Basically, Mr. ZABLOCKI. I yield to the gentleelsewhere indicate the reevaluation, re- there are no differences in the situation man from Florida. assessment, and redirection of present in Vietnam.
Mr. CRAMER. I know you are familpolicies concerning assistance to foreign Mr. CRAMER. If the gentleman will iar with the fact that for some time I nations is necessary.
yield further, the gentleman agrees that have been concerned over the fact that Mr. LAIRD. Mr. Speaker, will the the principle is the same, does he not? in Latin America the Communists are gentleman yield?
Mr. ZABLOCKI. I agree.
continuing to infiltrate and gain ever Mr. ZABLOCKI. I am delighted to
Mr. CRAMER. Will the gentleman stronger positions in many countries. In yield. yield further?
many of the Latin American countries
Mr. ZABLOCKI. I would be glad to our Alliance for Progress program and Mr. LAIRD. Mr. Speaker, I know of the long interest of the gentleman from yield further to the gentleman from foreign aid program efforts apparently
Florida. Wisconsin in the problems of Vietnam
are not successfully directed toward preand the conduct of the United States in there are obviously communications go- ing over of some of these countries by
Mr. CRAMER. I understand that venting Communist growth and the takits efforts to stop communism in that section of the world. I think that the ing on at the present time between the the Communists.
Why is it that the United States takes report that the gentleman has made to- Vietnam junta and this Government reday is indeed a very fine report. I would lating to what the junta's intentions are the inconsistent position that the State
Department, when it comes to Latin like to ask him one question, and that is in the future; is that not correct?
Mr. ZABLOCKI. That is correct. America and this hemisphere, cannot beDoes not the gentleman believe that
Mr. CRAMER. I have been rather come involved in matters within the sovthere were commitments made by the disturbed by the fact, and I understand ereignty of these other countries and we United States, to the military junta that
it is a fact, because I was informed by cannot impose our will upon these other took over in Vietnam prior to the time the ambassador to the OAS from the nations, when according to the answer of the rioting and the takeover by the Dominican Republic, Ambassador Bo- given by the gentleman in the well to the junta?
nilla, just last week, that he cannot even gentleman from Wisconsin [Mr. LAIRD] Mr. ZABLOCKI. The gentleman knows the answer to that question far partment to discuss pledges that the imposing our will on South Vietnam?
get in to see anybody in the State De- just a moment ago, it appears we are better than I. As a member of the Com- triumvirate ruling government in the Of course, it is common knowledge that mittee on Appropriations, the gentleman Dominican Republic is willing to give to we did in Guatemala, in 1954, when there is deeply interested in the defeat of the the United States relating to elections as was a Communist government. That Communist menace throughout the world. He knows the answer.
soon as possible and relating to other was a case in which we rendered assist
assurances such as concerning the re- ance to oust the Communists. Mr. LAIRD. I could not tell from the turn to constitutional government in the It seems to me that we have either got gentleman's remarks what he thought as Dominican Republic.
to fish or cut bait. In one situation we chairman of the Investigating Commit
I am sure the gentleman is fully aware intervene supposedly to strengthen our tee of the Committee on Foreign Affairs. that a few days after the military junta anti-Communist efforts but in anI was trying to get his best judgment.
took over, the government was turned other situation where the Communist Mr. ZABLOCKI. My best judgment,
over to the civilian triumvirate which is threaten we say that we have got to I might say to the gentleman, is that now governing it and the country is not recognize their sovereignty and we canthere must have been some encourage- now governed by the military.
not intervene. ment.
The gentleman is familiar with the If we are to be consistent, should not Mr. LAIRD. I thank the gentleman. fact that the military forces are no our basic policy be that we fight com
Mr. CRAMER. Mr. Speaker, will the longer patrolling the streets, imposing munism wherever it occurs, if it justifies gentleman yield?
martial law, and that there is a substan- interference in one case should not it Mr. ZABLOCKI. I am glad to yield. tial degree of freedom even now in the justify the same thing in another?
Mr. CRAMER. Mr. Speaker, I was Dominican Republic. Yet the U.S. Goy- Mr. ZABLOCKI. At the moment I very much interested in the gentleman's ernment will not even talk to Mr. cannot give to the gentleman an answer observation with regard to military Bonilla in this country nor are they will- to his question. I submit the gentleman coups. The gentleman very rightly ing to send an official or unofficial emis- had better ask it of the proper authoripointed out that the cases of Honduras sary to discuss with the triumvirate in ties. and the Dominican Republic are situa- the Dominican Republic what their plans Mr. GROSS. Mr. Speaker, will the tions of two military coups. I under- are or what assurances they are willing gentleman yield further? stand the gentleman's position is that to give.
Mr. ZABLOCKI. I yield further to the there should be considerable reservation Does not the gentleman from Wiscon- gentleman from Iowa. about recognition of this military junta sin feel that is totally inconsistent? Mr. GROSS. The gentleman headed in South Vietnam unless adequate assur- How are we going to help settle the very a committee that returned only a few ances are given with regard to elections, serious, critical, and explosive situation days ago from Vietnam. and other matters which the gentleman in the Dominican Republic? We spe- Do I understand correctly that the mentioned. According to the press the cifically made recommendations and did gentleman in his committee talked to State Department is ready, willing, and certain things in this other crisis in President Diem personally? anxious to give immediate recognition South Vietnam. Can the gentleman Mr. ZABLOCKI. We did. to the junta there, in South Vietnam, understand why our Government will Mr. GROSS. . And his brother, Nhu? but just the last weekend they an- not even set up communications between Mr. ZABLOCKI. We did.