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Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- Nebraska State construction was re If it were not for the GAO, Congress would sent that the text of the citation which leased, its proposed text was made avail
have no effective way of following up the accompanied the Distinguished Service able to the Federal Bureau of Roads for spending of Federal dollars, just as without Award, presented to Mr. Lasky by the its comment to be included in the report tee and the legislature's independent fiscal
the Nebraska Legislature's Budget CommitSecretary of the Interior, be printed in as published. The Appropriations Com
analyst, there could be no effective planning the RECORD.
mittee of the Senate was informed that and review of State spending. There being no objection, the citation the Federal bureau, in turn, communi Legislative controlled accounting agencies, was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, cated with the Nebraska highway de
Federal and State, often make themselves as follows:
partment for its comment. This is typi unpopular with the spending agencies beCITATION FOR DISTINGUISHED SERVICE cal of the fairness and the thoroughness
cause it is the accounting agencies' job to SAMUEL G. LASKY
let the legislatures and the people know with which an effort is made to produce
what the spending score is. (By the Secretary of the Interior, a helpful and meaningful report.
At a time when executive departments and Washington, D.C.)
Under the able leadership of Comp. spending agencies are trying to blow down In recognition of his 32 years of outstand- troller General Joseph Campbell, the and run over Congress and the State legising service in geology and technical and ad- General Accounting Office goes about its latures with their plans for bigger and bigger ministrative management in the Department job quietly and efficiently. Without its government and bigger and bigger spending, of the Interior: Since 1931 when Mr. Lasky honest examination and appraisal of
the accounting agencies often stand like began his Federal service as an assistant
lonely sentinels as they carry out their misgovernmental operations, the Congress geologist with the Geological Survey, his would have no intelligent accounting of
sions to alert and inform the legislatures work has been characterized by exceptional
and the people. initiative, personal integrity, and profes- the extensive spending programs which
But the sentinels are essential if the represional excellence. He advanced to principal we authorize.
sentative system and legislative control of geologist with the Survey and in 1951 he In sharp contrast to the legions of Government are to survive. They deserve transferred to the Office of the Secretary public information officers who thump
every citizen's support. where his special talents and experience were the publicity tubs for almost every other utilized in guiding departmental planning agency, the General Accounting Office in mineral resources, first on the staff of the
does not even have a public information FREEDOM VERSUS COERCION Assistant Secretary, Mineral Resources, and
office. from 1953 to 1960 as a member of the tech
Yet its work is respected and Mr. PELL. It seems increasingly nical review staff. In 1960, Mr. Lasky was regarded highly by the public.
clear to me that whatever the future again on the staff of the Assistant Secretary,
These thoughts are expressed in more
holds with regard to the nature of the Mineral Resources, charged with developing detail in a recent editorial in the Omaha
cold war confrontation, the ideological and implementing the organization of the World-Herald. I ask unanimous con aspect of that confrontation is going to Office of Coal Research. In May 1961, he was sent, Mr. President, to have the editorial continue. Premier Khrushchev has appointed Assistant Director of the Office. He
"Lonely Sentinels," printed in the assisted the U.S. Senate Committee on Inte
made it crystal clear that he intends RECORD. rior and Insular Affairs as chairman of its
no coexistence in the realm of ideology. national fuels and energy study from August
There being no objection, the editorial I, for one, relish that challenge and am 1, 1961, to September 7, 1962. The work of
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, optimistic about its outcome. My optithis study under his chairmanship was highly as follows:
mism is based on what I believe to be an praised. It was the latest of many such spe- [From the Omaha (Nebr.) World-Herald, overriding advantage our society hascial and difficult assignments ably handled
Oct. 29, 1963]
whereas our adversary seeks to capture by Mr. Lasky during his Federal service, in
men's minds, we seek to make them free. all of which he has brought great credit upon this Department. In recognition of his
If the Federal agencies in Washington, In this competition of freedom versus eminent career in Government, the Depart- D.C., were to compete on a basis of charm, coercion, the U.S. Information Agency ment of the Interior grants to Mr. Lasky its glamour and persuasive publicity techniques,
glamour and persuasive publicity techniques, bears the official Government responsihighest honor, the Distinguished Service
the General Accounting Office wouldn't even bility for representing our side. That Award.
be in the running.
It's a plain Jane outfit
Agency conducts its work through every
without press agentry. The sticky hand of
television, films, books, magazines, and found there. It does not run political er So forth. Due to limitations on our REPORT OF GENERAL ACCOUNTING rands for the Kennedy administration or for ability to conduct information activities OFFICE ON INTERSTATE HIGH- anybody else, including its boss, the Con- behind the Iron Curtain, other than gress of the United States.
shortwave broadcasting by the Voice of WAY CONSTRUCTION
What the GAO does do is review Federal America, the Agency has relied heavily Mr. HRUSKA. Mr. President, some spending and make investigations to see that resentment and indignation were ex
the taxpayers' money is spent as Congress on exhibits. These exhibits are conintended. After so doing, it makes written
ducted in accordance with cultural expressed by some Nebraskans on the criti
reports to the Congress, pointing out where change agreements and have met with cal nature of the recent report of the it believes an agency handling Federal money considerable success. In the last year General Accounting Office on interstate has strayed from proper procedures.
they have covered such subjects as plashighway building within that State. The GAO has made news in Nebraska these tics, transportation, and medicine. The This is very unfortunate indeed because past 10 days because it issued a report in exhibits are accompanied by about 25 this arm of the Congress is competent,
which it concluded that "ineffective review Americans who are fluent in the lanwell considered, and well operated. It
and supervision" by both the State of Newill be remembered as an agency which
braska and the Federal Bureau of Public guage of the country in which we was created through the active efforts interstate highways in the State.” Roads had resulted in "less than first-quality are exhibiting. I am told that these
guides are at least as important as the of many Senators, including Senator
The agency added that a number of faults subject matter of the exhibit itself in George W. Norris, of Nebraska. The “had been corrected, but that some remained, terms of representing our country. Durvery first Comptroller General was the and that, all in all
, substantial amounts of ing the past year close to a million Solate Mr. McCarl, of McCook, Nebr.
Federal-aid funds had been wasted in Ne viet citizens attended our exhibits. All Review of any Government expendi- braska on design features of questionable
reports indicate the impact has been ture on interstate highways by such a necessity.
This is a serious matter. Governor Morcompetent body should be welcomed berison, the Nebraska Department of Roads and
I call to the attention of my colleagues cause when the Interstate Highway Systhe Federal Bureau of Roads have reason to
the most recent USIA exhibit entitled tem is completed, it will be turned over be concerned, and should feel called upon “Graphic Arts: U.S.A.," which opened to the State of Nebraska for maintenance to answer the specific criticisms.
just 2 weeks ago in Alma Ata, Kazakhat State expense. It therefore behooves But we can see no occasion to attack the stan. During the first week alone over anyone who has Nebraska's best interests Accounting Office and to ask for an investiga
Accounting Office and to ask for an investiga 100,000 Soviet citizens attended the exat heart to insist upon the best possible tion, as Governor Morrison did last week.
hibit. These Soviet visitors have an opbuilding and construction job in the first Washington bureau seem satisfied that the portunity to see some 2,000 items of instance. GAO report is in order and that it will have
American graphic arts and how they are The General Accounting Office is fair a good effect. We strongly hope and believe useful in our society. While, in part, the in its operations. Before its report on that it will.
very existence of something American in
the hinterlands of the Soviet Union as A young Kazakh woman looking at an ab. tions on salaries, unemployment, the cost sures a large audience, the introduction straction titled, “Vis-A-Vis" suddenly ex of living and racial problems. Many Ruinto the gray Soviet society of an exhibit claimed, "there I see that line now, there's manians, he said, appeared startled when
told it was possible to buy a car in the such as this, illustrating the color and something there.”
"You see, when you look and think, you United States with a loan from the bank. artistry of our open society, is a vital con- begin to see it,” said Oresta happily.
Rumania, although one of the richest tributing factor. This graphic arts ex
An abstraction called White on White, countries in Eastern Europe, has only 12,000 hibit will go from Alma-Ata to Moscow showing oblong and roundish white forms passenger cars. The United States has 68 for a month and then conclude its So- on a background of a different shade of million. viet journey in Yerevan, Soviet Armenia. white attracted the most attention and some On display at the exhibit, which will also Several articles have recently ap
scorn. “What is it?" people wanted to tour Brasav (formerly Stalin City) in cen
know. "An experiment," Oresta answered. tral Rumania next month, are a Ford peared in the U.S. press describing the
“Looks like noodles," a woman said.
Thunderbird and Falcon station-wagon and reception of the graphic arts exhibit as
"I thought blini (Russian pancakes]" de a Valiant, as well as a small truck and a well as the transportation exhibit in Ru clared her husband as they walked away
three-wheel post office delivery van, a model mania and a recent art exhibit in São shaking their heads.
of Telstar, models of airplanes and airports Paulo, Brazil.
and other developments in U.S. transporta
tion. I commend these articles which follow [From the New York (N.Y.) Herald Tribune, from the New York Times of October 11,
Oct. 7, 19631
The exhibit, given more space than needed,
has been augmented with a Buick sedan and the Herald Tribune of October 7, and the
RUMANIA'S WILD ABOUT U.S. SHOW
Oldsmobile and Plymouth station wagons Washington Evening Star of October 8
(By David Miller)
contributed by the American community of for consideration by my colleagues, and
BUCHAREST.-A crowd of 10,000 Rumanians
Bucharest. A Cessna Skymaster arrived in ask unanimous consent that they be pressed against a police barrier yesterday time for the opening and was displayed in printed in the RECORD.
in a vain attempt to enter a U.S. Govern front of the exhibit hall for 3 days before There being no objection, the articles
transportation exhibit already leaving for another commitment. A smaller
Cessna is due this week. were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, swamped by record attendance.
Western diplomats said it was the greatest The crowds are expected to increase in the as follows:
display of affection for the United States or remaining days as word spreads through [From the New York (N.Y.) Times, Oct. 11,
any Western country in postwar Rumanian Bucharest. Handsomely printed Rumanian1963] history.
language brochures, tracing the history of U.S. ART SHOW DRAWS LARGE CROWDS IN More than 50,000 Rumanians filed through transportation in the United States SOVIET-DIVERSE DISPLAY OF GRAPHICS AT
a pavilion housing 1963 model American being distributed free at the exhibit. TRACTS 1,000 AN HOUR IN KAZAKHSTAN cars and a model of the Mercury capsule CAPITAL
used by Astronaut Gordon Cooper. At least (By Henry Tanner)
5,000 Rumanians were waiting for admission [From the Washington (D.C.) Evening Star, ALMA-ATA, U.S.S.R., October 8.--An exhi when doors opened at 10 a.m.
Oct. 8, 1963] bition of graphic art from the United States Attendance has been the heaviest at any
HOW IN SÃO PAULO has become a tremendously popular attrac show ever sponsored by a foreign country.
Adolph Gottlieb, a tion in this central Asian city, the capital of Since its opening on September 27, the ex
leading American the Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan. hibit has attracted an average of 25,000 a
painter for several decades, has won the top In 2 days, more than 17,000 Soviet citizens, day-five times the original estimate and painting prize, 2 million cruzieros, at the most of them in their teens or early twen 40,000 last Sunday in the rain.
current Brazilian biennial exhibition at São
Paulo. ties, have come to see a gay collection of
We congratulate Mr. Gottlieb and An hour before the show was to close
share the pride of interested Americans in funny American posters, preposterous ads, yesterday at 7 p.m., U.S. officials and Rucolorful book covers, and abstract prints. manian police decided part of the vast crowd
such international recognition accorded one The exhibition is a study in calculated waiting outside could never be admitted in of our own. disorder, diversity and gaiety. It has been the time remaining. Four Rumanian-speak
We also congratulate USIA and the Govdesigned to show what happens in a society ing American guides went through the tail
ernment in general for sponsoring American where an artist, whatever his talents, is free end of the line and advised those waiting participation in the big Brazilian show. This to let his imagination run in any direction that the exhibit would be in Bucharest until
is the first time our representation has been he wants and the message is getting across. October 18 and to please go home.
underwritten by the Government, in con"You mean you're really allowed to paint Instead of leaving Haraftrau Park (for
trast to all other participating nations. like this and nobody says anything?” one of mally called the Stalin Park of Rest and Cul
Heretofore, American representation at Sao the visitors asked. ture), where the exhibit is being held, the
Paulo as at the other great international ex"I am against abstract art," a middle-aged crowd surged forward, broke through pre
crowd surged forward, broke through pre- hibition, in Venice, has been made possible man declared after having seen it all. Then viously erected barriers and raced for the by the Museum of Modern Art, New York. he added, “I've bought tickets for the next 2 entrance. Those at the head of the line, Last year the museum announced it could weeks.”
seeing they would be refused admission no longer afford to carry the burden that is Like all the others, he carried off a port pushed forward. The two groups met head universally assumed by governments. It is folio of prints and brochures given to each on, pushing and shoving through the narrow to the credit of USIA that it has moved into visitor. By the end of this week American entrance.
the gap. abstract prints may be pinned to the walls Some 20 armed police shouldered their Both Government officials and some perof 50,000 homes of Alma-Ata and the central way through the congestion, forced the
sons in the art world have traditionally Asian farmlands around it.
crowd back, erected heavy iron barriers and feared our Government's participation in the The size of the crowds came as a surprise announced the show was closed for the to Jack Masey of the exhibits division of the night. Some in the crowd booed the militia boondoggling to that of cultural dictatorship.
arts on grounds ranging from the chance of U.S. Information Agency. He expected a and whistled a sign of derision. They were sizable turnout but not the more than 1,000 later questioned by police.
USIA cut through the problem by contractevery hour who have been pouring in since In another attempt to placate the crowd, ing the job out to a first-rate American prithe show opened. Paul Wheeler, director of the U.S. Informa
vate institution, the Walker Art Center in Alma-Ata, fewer than 200 miles from the tion Agency exhibit, mounted a barrier and Minneapolis. Chinese border, is the exhibition's first stop. told the crowd in Rumanian that it was
The center, in a decision almost impossible It will be here 1 month; in December it will physically impossible for so many people to
to imagine being reached by a Government move to Moscow for a month, and early next make their way inside. The crowd dispersed committee, chose to send a large show of year it will go to the southern part of the only gradually. Some 1,500 remained until Gottlieb paintings and a group show of conSoviet Union. the end, hoping to be admitted.
temporary American sculpture. Much of the excitement of the opening Mr. Wheeler, who served in Rumania Previous Government involvement in simidays centered on Russian-speaking young from 1959 until 1961 as cultural attaché at lar art projects has been harassed on the one Americans who are guides. American ex the U.S. Legation in Bucharest, said he was hand by congressional primitives, on the hibitions in the Soviet Union have been aware of the "very sincere interest and un
other by purist aesthetes. We think the using such guides, mostly students of Rus derstanding between the Rumanian and sian literature at American universities, for
contractural arrangement, such as is followed American people," but the demonstration the last 4 years. The guides in front of the
in many Government enterprises, answers today “far surpassed anything he had anabstract prints were the most embattled. ticipated."
all objections and hopefully points the way “What would you say if they painted you The 10 Rumanian-speaking Americans
to a continuing relationship between art and like this,” Oresta Szeparowyez, a young New serving as guides have been driven to
Government. Yorker, was asked in front of an abstract hoarseness by an avalanche of questions
Specifically, the Venice Biennale of 1964 is portrait. about how Americans live.
presently planned with no American repre“There are all sorts of people and they Armand Scala, 22, of Washington, D.C., sentation at all. Since USIA has done so shouldn't all be made to look beautiful," she a foreign trade major at the American Uni- well its first time out, the Agency should answered.
versity there, said he was besieged by ques- stay in the game.
HARSH WORDS INDICATE GOOD IMPACT, USIA LET US NOT UNDERCUT UNITED dent to make exceptions in instances where FEELS-SOVIET CRITICS RAP U.S. ART-AND
he considered this to be "vital to the secuTHAT'S A GOOD SIGN
rity of the United States." This applied to TIONS (By Bernard Gwertzman)
sales of military supplies as well as to ecoU.S. Information Agency officials are de
Mr. MCGOVERN. Mr. President, dur- nomic aid. The President was wholly withlighted these days with the unfavorable ing the Eisenhower administration pe- in his rights in making such a finding. press notices their latest traveling exhibition riod, a decision was reached to exempt
PAYMENT FOR EQUIPMENT has received from Soviet critics.
Yugoslavia and Poland from some of the With respect to the particular sale in ques“We've really drawn blood this time,” one trade and aid restrictions which we tion, the term "aid" ought never to have USIA man said today in commenting on the
apply to other Communist states. This been used. Our military aid program for most recent attack on the graphic arts show, decision was based on the conclusion
Yugoslavia was terminated some 6 years ago, presently in Alma-Ata, capital of Soviet Ka
at the initiative of the Yugoslavs. Since that these two countries, while operating zakhstan.
then they have paid dollar cash for military USIA officials judge the worth of their Sounder Communist governments, were
equipment purchased in this country. They viet exhibitions on a scale roughly like this:
nevertheless not entirely controlled by will do so in the present instance. The harsher and more frequent the criti Moscow. It was believed that by carry The inclusion of such sales under the procism the more impact it is having on Soviet ing on limited economic and diplomatic visions of the aid legislation is really a legal audiences.
relations with these two states, we could technicality. The purchases to be covered by The graphic arts show is particularly pro- further decrease their dependence upon
further decrease their dependence upon this particular authorization consist of spare vocative because it contains abstract lithothe Soviet bloc.
parts for end items acquired by the Yugographs, book covers, advertisements, and the
slavs in earlier years. These end items are,
Mr. President, I believe that this decilike, rarely if ever seen in Russia. In Soviet
as I understand it, obsolete or obsolescent by sion by the Eisenhower administration, standards of current military procurement; terms, this is "bourgeoise ideology” at its worst.
concurred in by the present administra- and no question of military secrecy is inThere have been four long articles in So
tion, was sound. I think we have volved. viet publications about the exhibition, which profited greatly from the semi-independ They were acquired in good faith. Many of goes on to Moscow in December and to Yere ent positions which Yugoslavia and them were paid for in cash. The spare parts van, capital of Soviet Armenia, in February. Poland have followed.
are necessary to permit their full utilization. The latest criticism, published Sunday in
The Yugoslavs would presumably not have
It would certainly not be in our interIzvestia, says that after initial interest on est to deliberately drive these two impor- spare parts were going to be denied; nor
acquired them had they known that the ber of visitors has fallen catastrophically," tant nations into a tighter relationship would we, I am sure, have made the initial because of the lack of interest in this abstract with Moscow. For that reason, I am sale had we thought this possible. art. opposed to recent actions designed to We are, after all, not sharpsters. What is
involved here is the good faith of the U.S. “Hogwash,” USIA officials reply, citing fig. curtail trade with Yugoslavia. ures showing that about 10,000 persons a Our recently retired Ambassador to Government, not as a sponsor of aid but
as a partner to a commercial proceeding. day have been visiting the exhibit, with Yugoslavia, Mr. George Kennan, who is
Messrs. DIRKSEN and HALLECK may not be30,000 on Sundays. More than 200,000 have now a member of the faculty at Princebeen to the show in the 242 weeks since its ton University's Institute for Advanced is vital to the security of the United States.
lieve that the good faith of this Government opening. USIA had counted on only about Study, authored a letter on the subject I do. The President, in approving this sale, 4,000 a day when the show opened. The Soviet critics have distinguished care
which appeared in the New York Times had before him my affirmative recommendafully between the realistic works which of October 16, 1963. Ambassador Ken- tion, submitted in my capacity as Ambassaone review said "attract the visitors," and nan is generally regarded as the chief dor to Yugoslavia, for which I gladly accept
full responsibility. other works which the same critics said have architect of our post-World War II con"very little light in them, very little humane- tainment policy. He is one of our wisest Congressional effort to bar military sales to
The entire concept underlying the recent ness, little of that ennobling clarity and sim- and best informed citizens in the whole Yugoslavia was in my opinion seriously misplicity which real art possesses."
range of problems relating to the Soviet conceived. The effort has already brought One drawing which drew considerable criti- bloc.
real damage to American interests in the concism was Ellen Raskin's crayon portrait of
I urge the Members of the Senate to frontation with Soviet power. For many F. M. Dostoyevsky, the Russian writer, done read carefully the letter by Ambassador years prior to 1961 Yugoslav military purfor a cover of the jubilee edition of his works. "In the first place, it is hard to call this
Kennan. I ask unanimous consent that chasing had been directed almost exclusively sketch a portrait; it is so primitive,” one
to the West.
he letter be printed at this point in the Soviet critic said. But the most important RECORD.
INCREASED DEPENDENCE thing is what we see in this drawing---not a There being no objection, the letter The insistence of the Congress that the giant of thought, not a great writer who was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, Yugoslavs be denied even obsolete and surknew how to uncover the most complex as follows:
plus items for which they were willing to pay secrets of the human soul, but some kind
cash has been a major factor in causing them of frowning peasant-forester with an angu
[From the New York Times, Oct. 16, 1963) to turn again to Soviet sources of supply. lar forehead and an excessively large head KENNAN BACKS SALES TO TITO_OPPOSITION The effect can only be to increase the dewhich looks like a hatblock set on stooped,
DECLARED HARMFUL TO THE CAUSE OF ANTI- pendence of their military establishmentnarrow little shoulders.
one of the largest military establishments in "And this pitiful little man, sitting all (NOTE.-The writer recently retired as
Europe outside of Soviet control-on Soviet crumpled up as if he expected someone to Ambassador to Yugoslavia. He is now a
sources of supply. In this respect, the effect hit him, is presented to thousands of readers member of the faculty of the Institute for
is analogous to that of the recent legislation as F. M. Dostoyevsky." Advanced Study.)
denying the Yugoslavs normal tariff treatUSIA officials say the criticism on the
ment for their exports to this country. To the EDITOR OF THE NEW YORK TIMES: whole has been fuller and better rounded
If, faced with such rebuffs from our side, than in previous years. Part of the reason
There was reported in your columns on the Yugolsavs still retain their independence,
October 11 a statement made by Senator seems to be the improved state of East-West
as I believe they will, this will have to be EVERETT MCKINLEY DIRKSEN and Represent- ascribed in the circumstances solely to their relations.
ative CHARLES A. HALLECK, criticizing Presi own fortitude and good sense, manifested in They suspect that the critics have been dent Kennedy for permitting, by an order of spite of, and in defiance of, the best efforts motivated by a desire to say some good May 14, 1963, the sale of $2 million of mili
of some of our legislators to put them in a things about the United States without en tary supplies to Yugoslavia.
position where they would have no choice dorsing the alien views on art. Thus, one
The President's action, they were quoted but to resubmit to Soviet leadership. critic's main theme was that he was "deeply as saying, constituted a circumvention of Why any Member of Congress, and particudisappointed” by the works.
congressional stipulations prohibiting mili- larly any congressional leader, would wish USIA officials admit they knew the ab- tary aid to Communist nations. The legis- this to be said of him—and how, in particustract and avant-garde works would shock
lators referred particularly to the provisions lar, he could reconcile it with a professed many average Soviet viewers-conditioned to
of the 1963 Foreign Aid Appropriations Act, devotion to the cause of anti-communisma steady diet of realism-but they said that which they described as flatly prohibiting escapes me. omitting such works would give Russians a military aid to Communist nations, though
GEORGE KENNAN. leaving economic aid to the President's disdistorted impression of American graphic cretion, subject to certain restrictions en
PRINCETON, N.J. arts, which thrive on nonrepresentational acted in 1961. forms.
This description of the legal situation is THE NEXT STEPS TOWARD PEACE The exhibit is one of several that have been not accurate." The act referred to did indeed sent to Russia as part of the Soviet-Ameri- inhibit aid to "Communist” nations; but the Mr. MCGOVERN. Mr. President, the can cultural exchange agreement.
authorizing legislation empowered the Presi- Department of State Bulletin for CIX1320
October 21, 1963, includes a thoughtful, a year ago. Certainly also we can agree of violation or evasion and also against the carefully reasoned statement by Mr. Mc that much remains to be done. As we meet, danger of unwarranted relaxation in our de
discussions are proceeding both with our al fense. As the debate developed, the PresiGeorge Bundy, special assistant to Presi
lies and with the Soviet Government on a dent and his administration were always dent Kennedy, entitled "The Next Steps wide range of possibilities. So this is not ready to respond to requests for reassurance Toward Peace: Some Notes on the TWO- the time, and I am not the person, to at on this point, and in successive statements, Legged Process." Mr. Bundy, as the tempt any general prediction.
culminating in the President's letter to Members of the Senate know, is a key What I want to do instead, and what I Senator EVERETT MCKINLEY DIRKSEN of official in the administration charged think may be more useful, is to offer a de September 10,3 it was made plain that with especially with responsibility for na- scription of one aspect of the reality of in this limited treaty the United States will, tional security affairs.
ternational affairs which is likely to be char because it must, maintain strong weapons His article is an appeal for the bal
acteristic of many of the next major events laboratories, an energetic program of under
in our affairs. What I want to suggest is ground testing, a readiness to resume tests anced judgment in the formulation of that, when there is a debate on these great in the atmosphere in the event of violation foreign policy positions. He centers his issues among us, there is almost always both of the treaty by others, and of course a full remarks on five major foreign policy an element of truth and a danger of error constitutional respect for the rights and obissues: First, the partial nuclear test in each of the opposed positions. And I ligations of the Senate if at any time this ban; second, our adventure in space; want to suggest further that, precisely be treaty should be amended. third, our policy toward Europe; fourth, cause we are now entering a period in which The limited test ban treaty, then, is an our involvement in South Vietnam; and less apparent, it is important in thinking relaxation, tension is lower and the sharpness of danger opportunity for hope but not a reason for
and the national fifth, our hope for improvement in
consensus about these issues not to ignore one aspect which has emerged rests upon both hope Soviet-American relations.
of the truth in concentration on another. and vigilance. It is this balanced spirit In each of these problem areas, Mr. The most general form of this proposition, which has governed both the executive Bundy calls for a balancing of our hopes of course, is that all steps toward peace branch and the Senate, and it appears very for peace with our determination to be rest upon adequate readiness for defense, plainly in the eloquent statements supportvigilant in the face of a potentially dan at every level of force. The prospect for ing the treaty made by such leaders as Sengerous enemy. He pleads for an apprepeace now is better than it was last Septem ators [MIKE] MANSFIELD, DIRKSEN, and [J.
W. FULBRIGHT. The best advocates of disciation of the viewpoints of our fellow ber; the major cause of this improvement is
the resolution displayed by the people and armament, like Senator [HUBERT H.] HUMcitizens who may happen to be in dis
Government of the United States in the PHREY, have always understood the requireagreement with us on any given issue:
crisis of October 1962. The indispensable ment of vigilance, and determined supportError comes mainly not from support of connection between military strength and ers of our nuclear strength like Senator one's own position but from suspicions of the maintenance of peace is obvious--and [JOHN 0.] PASTORE, have understood the the other man's frequently forgotten.
necessity for hope.
It is crucial to the understanding of inter But not everyone in the country observed Mr. Bundy says. He adds:
national affairs that we should never sepa the same balance, and in the national deWhere danger comes is not in these equal rate the idea of peace from this requirement bate there were on each side errors of excess. ly right perceptions of important phe of vigilance in defense. It follows that, when On the one hand, in their emphasis on nomena but in the human tendency * we think of steps toward peace, we should hope, some of those supporting the treaty to suppose that one's own reality is the not think only of disarmament, or inter were inattentive to the problem of safeonly reality, so that the observation of the national agreement, or cooperation among guards and appeared to believe that it was other man is somehow misleading.
nations. We should think also of successful somehow not in the spirit of the treaty that
resistance to subversion, of proper planning the United States should make clear the Mr. President, I think Mr. Bundy for the defense of the free world, and of our need for vigilance. And on the other hand, would agree that Members of the Senate
own strength and health as a free society. some of those most concerned about safeoften pressed hard for a particular point The specific cases on which I wish to com guards and vigilance were blind to the real of view without apparent concern for ment are related to these areas too, and I hopes represented in the treaty and unwilla conflicting viewpoint because of a hope you will agree that it is right to think ing to entertain the possibility that any conviction that a corrective is needed to of all of them as elements in our national agreement with the Soviet Union could con
ceivably be in the interest of both sides. a generally accepted position. Such
position. Such pursuit of peace. zeal for one's own personal insight or
THE LIMITED TEST BAN TREATY
I am not now debating the overall merits
or demerits of the treaty as such, but only bias is perhaps a necessary quality of As I say, my central proposition is that in
pointing out the hazard of a one-sided conpolitical effectiveness. nearly all of these great matters, where feel
cern for either its dangers or its hopes, taken But I am grateful that high in the ings become strong and difference of opinion
alone. councils of Government where final polbecomes evident, there is some truth on
The limited test ban treaty is more a every side and also some danger of error. icy decisions are made, there is a man
beginning than an end in itself. It may One way of stating the problem of statesof Mr. Bundy's intellect and emotional manship is to see it as a matter of the reso
or may not lead onward. But it does indeed
offer the four kinds of hope of which the balance-one who is capable of looking lution of arguments in which both sides are
President spoke, and it does indeed require clearly at all sides of vital issues. In partly right and each runs a risk of error.
the safeguards he has stated. So when we this highly dangerous nuclear age, there Before I apply this proposition to current is
sift the arguments, we find much to keep is a desperate need for restraint, mod sues, it may be helpful to begin with the re
from both sides; and what it is wise to reeration, and objectivity in decisionmak cently concluded debate on the test ban
ject, in the main, is the conclusion or attiing. treaty. That debate is familiar, I am sure, to
tude which rests primarily upon a total most of us, and it happens that it illustrates I ask unanimous consent that Mr.
rejection of the concerns of others. Those my point quite neatly. Bundy's article be printed in the RECORD
supporting the treaty uncritically have been The central arguments for the test ban
wrong mainly where they have too much at this point and I commend it to my treaty, as the President put them in his first
resisted the concerns of those more cautious colleagues. report to the country, are four in number:
than themselves. Those who have opposed There being no objection, the article first, that it can be a step toward reduced
it root and branch have erred mainly in was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, world tension; second, it can be a step to
neglecting or underrating the reality of the as follows: ward freeing the world from radioactive fall
hope it represents. My suggestion is that out; third, it can be a step toward preventing there has been more truth in the affirmative THE NEXT STEPS TOWARD PEACE: SOME NOTES
the spread of nuclear weapons; and fourth, beliefs of both sides than in their criticisms ON THE TWO-LEGGED PROCESS
it can limit the arms race in ways which of each other. (By McGeorge Bundy, special assistant to strengthen our security far more than the And what I wish to do next is to suggest the President 1) continuing of unrestricted testing. These
that this same conclusion has some validity We have all heard a great deal in recent
four arguments withstood the test of na in four other fields; our adventure in space, months about steps toward peace, large and
tional debate, and the vote in the Senate our policy toward Europe, our effort for freesmall, and in taking them as my topic I do
records the consensus of the country that, in dom in South Vietnam, and our hope for not intend to try to say what the next sum, they justify the treaty.
improvement in relations with the Soviet steps may be, or even whether we can now
Yet at the same time, and in the same Union. look forward to rapid progress in the fulspeech, the President took note of the re
U.S. POSITION ON COOPERATION IN SPACE fillment of hopes we share with other men
quirement that under this treaty the United everywhere. Certainly we can agree that States should observe and maintain a sub
I take the problem of space first because in there is more reason for hope than there was stantial vigilance, in defense of its interests
a measure it is the simplest. Here we have and those of all freemen, against the risk
a single national policy with two major 1 Address made before a World Affairs Conference at Albany, N.Y., on Sept. 30. 2 Bulletin of Aug. 12, 1963, p. 234.
For text, see ibid., Sept. 30, 1963, p. 496.
strands. The first is our national effort to But I think it clear that once again the tinuing consideration which is going fordevelop the technical, industrial, and human great hazard is in the tendency to think of ward in Saigon under the leadership of resources which are necessary for the exten- “either-or" instead of "both-and." There Ambassador (Henry Cabot] Lodge, and also sion of man's capacity from the earth to- is a belief that somehow there must be in Washington. ward outer space. This wide undertaking is either an Atlantic or a European focus to Yet it is not wrong, I think, to suggest that symbolized as it is stimulated by the na- the policy of the Western nations. And in this case again there are two propositions, tional decision taken 2 years ago to aim at the argument rages over the head of re both of them true, and two kinds of error the landing of a man on the moon within ality, between men who fear that the great which can result from an unwillingness to this decade. But it is the wider program and ness of Europe may be somehow drowned accept them both. And again both proposipurpose, and not the single personal adven- in the Atlantic and men who seem to be tions have been stated clearly by the Presiture, which shapes our policy and justifies lieve that the Atlantic partnership may be dent. The first is that the object of Amerithis effort.
endangered by growing strength and unity can policy in this part of the world is to Parallel to this national effort, and steadi- in Europe. The policy of the United States assist in a most difficult and important ly sustained over a 5-year period, is our pur- is to reject this false choice—to assert, in struggle against Communist subversionpose of cooperation in space. This purpose every field and on all occasions, the inter military, paramilitary, and political. The was dramatically reaffirmed by the President locking and mutually supporting ideas of commitment of the United States to the 10 days ago in his address to the United Na Atlantic partnership and European unity. independence of South Vietnam goes back tions; 4 there he urged that we should ex The clearest and most authoritative state many years. This commitment was intenplore the possibility of joining with the ment of this position is in the President's sified and reinforced 2 years ago, and since Soviet Union, even in sending men to the address at the Paulskirche, in Frankfurt, on then a major cooperative effort has been moon. And again, it is the broad purpose June 25 of this year,5 and I cannot do better carried forward with increasing energyof cooperation, and not only the possible than to quote to you these sentences which and at least until recently with increasing sharing of a single great personal adventure, state the double commitment of our policy: success-by Americans working closely with which is at the center of our policy.
"We are partners for peace-not in a nar the people and Government of South VietThe question which has been raised in this row bilateral context but in a framework of nam. It is the policy of the United States last week is whether there is somehow a Atlantic partnership. The ocean divides us to sustain that effort. contradiction between the national effort and less than the Mediterranean divided the Yet it would be folly for the United States the purpose of cooperation. The position of ancient world of Greece and Rome. Our to neglect, or to regard with indifference, your Government is that these two under- Constitution is old and yours is young, and political developments of recent months takings are part of a single program, each re- our culture is young and yours is old, but which raise questions about the ability of inforcing the other. As the President put it in our commitment we can and must speak the Government and people of South Vietlast week in a letter to Representative AL- and act with but one voice. Our roles are nam to support each other effectively in BERT THOMAS: "This great national effort and distinct but complementary-and our goals their contest with communism. The Presithis steadily stated readiness to cooperate are the same: peace and freedom for all dent has made it clear that the United States with others are not in conflict. * We men, for all time, in a world of abundance, is not indifferent to these events and regards do not make our space effort with the nar in a world of justice.
them with great concern. It is and must be row purpose of national aggrandizement. "The future of the West lies in Atlantic the policy of the U.S. Government to make We make it so that the United States may partnership-a system of cooperation, inter clear its interest in whatever improvements have a leading and honorable role in man- dependence, and harmony whose people can it judges to be necessary, always of course kind's peaceful conquest of space. It is this jointly meet their burdens and opportunities with a proper regard for responsibilities great effort which permits us now to offer throughout the world.”
which rest in the first instance upon the increased cooperation with no suspicion any That was the Atlantic commitment, but people of South Vietnam. where that we speak from weakness. And the President went on to Europe:
It is no secret that observers of the scene in the same way, our readiness to cooperate "It is not in our interest to try to domi in South Vietnam have often differec sharply with others enlarges the international mean nate the European councils of decision. If in their interpretation of events. From these ing of our own peaceful American program that were our objective, we would prefer to differences there have come divergent recin space."
see Europe divided and weak, enabling the ommendations for policy. There is nothing It is right then, we believe, to press on United States to deal with each fragment discreditable in the existence of such differwith the space program of the United States individually. Instead we have and now look ences. In a situation in which easy soluand to press on also in the effort to find forward to a Europe united and strong tions do not exist and in which commitments wider paths to greater cooperation. In this speaking with a common voice, acting with of purpose and hope are high, it is only policy we accept great parts from each of two a common will—a world power capable of natural that there should be a tendency in kinds of arguments—those urging we must meeting world problems as a full and equal each observer to emphasize the part of the be strong in space, and those urging that we partner.
truth to which he is nearest. If a particumust miss no opportunity for cooperation “This is in the interest of us all. For war lar antisubversive effort is going well, the with the Soviet Union.
in Europe, as we learned twice in 40 years, man who is working on that effort is bound At the same time, as in the case of the destroys peace in America. A threat to the to see that part of reality as very large. If debate on the test ban treaty, it is also nec freedom of Europe is a threat to the freedom in the cities there is repression and alienaessary to reject some parts of the two differ- of America. *** And that is why we look tion of public support, men living in those ent arguments. On the one hand, we do not forward to a united Europe in an Atlantic cities, with responsibilities more civil than believe that the very limited progress which partnership—an entity of interdependent
partnership an entity of interdependent military, will feel a special and intense conhas been made so far in real cooperation parts, sharing equally both burdens and cern. Where danger comes is not in these with the Soviet Union in any sense justifies decisions and linked together in the tasks equally right perceptions of important phea weakening or slackening in the national of defense as well as the arts of peace.” nomena but in the human tendency, here space effort. To abandon or attenuate our Here again, as in our previous examples, as in each of my preceding examples to supclear national commitment to a major effort there is truth in both concepts, and error pose that one's own reality is the only reality, in space, on the strength of hope and good comes mainly from hostility to one or the
so that the observation of the other man is will alone, would be as wrong as accepting other. It is not necessary, in the construc somehow misleading. a test ban treaty without proper safeguards. tion of the new Europe, that the ties of The requirement upon statesmanship, once On the other hand, we must also reject the partnership across the Atlantic should be
again, is to seek ways of meeting both the notion that the national program in space is
cut. Still less is it required, for the effec need for effective prosecution of the struggle somehow weakened or endangered by a
tiveness of the Atlantic community, that and the need for a workable relation between peaceful program of cooperation. We have there should be any hostility to the idea of the people and government of a friendly not entered space only in fear or in hosEurope. This is what American policy has
country. No one can say that this task is tility. Our strength and our readiness to recognized; it is also what the greatesť men
easy. No one can even say it is certainly meet any hazard—in this and other areas
of Europe have understood and preached. possible. But what can be said, and what do not require that we turn our back on THE SITUATION IN SOUTH VIETNAM the President has said already, is that the every prospect of cooperative effort. In this
The difficult situation in the troubled
United States will not shrink from this reinstance, then, as in that of the test ban country of South Vietnam is one which I
sponsibility or attempt to make it easier than treaty, there is truth on both sides of the have even less desire to discuss, in substan
it is by pretending that only one part of it argument, and error comes mainly not from tive terms, than the other questions I have
is important. support of one's own position but from
taken as examples. The important mission UNITED STATES RELATIONS WITH SOVIET UNION suspicion of the other man's.
of Secretary [of Defense Robert S.] MC Finally, returning to the wider arena, I ATLANTIC PARTNERSHIP AND EUROPEAN UNITY
Namara and General [Maxwell D.) Taylor come to the question of our relations with I turn now to the politics of Europe. This is only just ending, and it would be wholly
the Soviet Union. And again I offer two problem is more complex, and the subtleties inappropriate for me to comment on the
propositions. The first is that we must and of a full-scale argument are impossible
course of action which may be chosen in here; I must content myself with a sketch. the light of this mission and of the con
* See p. 624.
7 For background, see Bulletin of Jan. 1, 4 Ibid., Oct. 7, 1963, p. 530.
5 Ibid., July 22, 1963, p. 118.
1962, p. 13, and Sept. 30, 1963, p. 498.