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will seek for improvement in our relations 4. Our purpose of cooperation can attract In Jamestown Island, in 1619, an with the Soviet Government, for a reliable support and understanding both at home

election was held to select a body of and extended easing of tensions, for the and abroad for the national space effort.

competent men to govern the island. “next steps"-in the direct sense-after the

On policy toward Europe

That was the first experiment in reprefirst small step of the limited test ban treaty. But the second proposition is that in this

5. Our loyalty to Atlantic partnership is sentative democracy on the North Amerpurpose and process the United States will a prerequisite of the growth of self-confi ican Continent. As the little colony of give no comfort or support to those who bedence and self-reliance in Europe.

Jamestown grew, it extended into a villieve that it is right or even possible to lie

6. Progress toward the unity of Europe is lage named “Williamsburg,” which bedown in trust with Communists and their essential to the coherence of the Atlantic

came the capital of the colony and the supporters in the free societies of the West or

community. in places where communism subsists only by

In Vietnam

seat of the English Governor. It also beforce and fraud, as most notably today in 7. Resolute perseverance in the effort

came the site of a college named for a Cuba.

against the Vietcong is essential to political British King and his wife-William and The first proposition hardly requires elab improvement in that country.

Mary-which would have been the oldest oration, I think, in the light of the Presi 8. U.S. concern for political improvement college in our Nation today but for the dent's own address at the United Nations. in Vietnam is a necessary part of our loyalty fact that the King went on a hunting trip We seek a reliable easing of tensions. We to the effort against communism there. when he should have mailed to the Govnever intend to be second in this honorable In our relations with communism ernor in Virginia the charter for the colsearch, and, while we will always insist on the proper rights and interests of our allies,

9. The search for honorable improvement lege, and because of that delay, Harvard,

in our relations with the Soviet Union is which was founded without a royal charand especially on the legitimate purpose of reunification which animates the people of

an essential part of our policy of opposing ter, became the first college to be started

Communists and their sympathizers in the Germany, we believe that there can be real

in our country. At the College of WilWest-it deprives them of the argument that progress toward peace and security between

liam and Mary were trained not only the West and the Soviet Union whenever the the responsibility for the cold war rests with

many of the leaders of the subsequent us. Soviet Government is really ready.

10. Alert and determined opposition to

Revolutionary period but some of the It is the other proposition which needs Communist force and fraud among us is an

greatest statesmen that the world has more emphasis. Too often in the past, at moments of lower tension or of surface cor

essential prerequisite to any sound and last ever known. Two of those statesmen, in

ing settlement with the Soviet Government, whom Virginia takes great pride, were dialty, freemen have been tempted to

which will never respect a West it can hope George Mason, the author of our Bill of suppose that a change in the atmosphere is the same as a reversal of basic Communist to divide or subvert.

Rights, and Thomas Jefferson, the au

I have come a long way through a number purpose. History since 1920 is littered with

thor of our Declaration of Independence. of complex issues, and it may be that I have the wreckage of such illusory hopes. The largest wrecks are those left from the period pressed my thesis too strongly in one in

And it was, of course, at Williamsburg stance or another. Moreover, there is always

that Patrick Henry, the sparkplug of the of the Popular Front between 1935 and 1939, the hazard that, in weighing conflicting

American Revolutionary War, made a but smaller and instructive shipwrecks of

considerations, one may unfairly tilt the famous speech in which he urged suphope occurred after the summit meeting of

port of the freedom-loving people of 1955 and even at the time of the aborted scales in favor of one's own notion of the summit of 1960. So now it is essential to

properly balanced position. So, in closing, Massachusetts who had complained of distinguish between the real and serious I would urge upon you not the specific wis

the onerous stamp taxes, including an hope of sustaining our progress toward less dom of the specific proportions I have sup

outrageous tax on tea and also of the critically dangerous relations with the Soviet ported but the general wisdom of the general Government, and the equally real and sericoncept that there is usually some truth in

fact that the British Government was what is urged by both sides in our great deous necessity of unrelenting hostility to

reserving for British ships all of the

straightest, finest trees to be found in the Communist subversion, whether sustained by bates on foreign affairs. And whatever may

be our attitudes on specific issues, the acceptforce, as in Cuba, or by political intrigue and

forests of Massachusetts. Soviet support, as among Communist parties lead to the generosity of spirit and breadth of

ance of this more general proposition can Therefore, as I said, John D. Rockethroughout the world.

feller, Jr., rendered a service not only understanding which are essential to susIn this case, as in the others, the danger

to Virginia and to all of the United tained good will and effective action in the of error comes from rigid rejection of either half of this double reality. There are some,

dangerous age in which, even in these days States, but to the world in investing of growing hope, we are required to live.

over $73 million in the restoration of preoccupied with the danger of letting down

the Governor's Palace at Williamsburg, our guard against subversion, who believe

in the House of Burgesses, in which was that it is wrong to seek any improvement

framed Virginia's Bill of Rights, the resat all in the relations between the great COLONIAL WILLIAMSBURG powers. There are others who concentrate

toration of early buildings at the college their attention so sharply on the hope for

Mr. ROBERTSON, Mr. President, the which had been designed by the great improvement in our relations with Moscow whole world is indebted to the remark- English architect, Christopher Wren. that they disregard the need for respect to able foresight and unprecedented gen. And then in order that hundreds of our allies and wariness against a bogus at- erosity of the late John D. Rockefeller, thousands of visitors might get the inmosphere of general reconciliation which Jr., who decided to finance the restora- spiration to be derived from a personal would serve only the implacable underminers tion of Colonial Williamsburg. That has contact with "those early spots that of liberty among us.

been accompanied by the splendid de- cradled and defended the infancy of our BALANCING BOTH ASPECTS OF REALITY

velopment, as a national monument, by Republic," Mr. Rockefeller, through his I have finished with my five cases-one

the National Park Service of the nearby organization called Colonial Williamsjust settled and four still before us, but all of present importance. I want now' to offer Yorktown Battlefield and of Jamestown burg, built the Williamsburg Inn, the one general comment on all five

and to

lodge and the motor court, which can offer it as a suggestion only, with no at Students of history will recall that 50 offer accommodations for the tourists tempt at detailed demonstration. I believe years after the end of the Revolutionary equaled by few hotels and surpassed by that in each of these five cases the balanced War, the patriotic citizens of Massachu none in the United States or the civilized acceptance of both aspects of reality is in

setts dedicated a monument at Bunker world. fact essential to the purposes which seem

Hill, where members of the Massachu In order to facilitate the meeting of central to those who themselves emphasize setts State Militia had made a brave and only one side. Let me offer 10 sentences,

conferences at Williamsburg, Colonial without proof, in support of this suggestion. historic fight against better trained and Williamsburg recently built what it calls I think that:

better equipped troops of the British “the Conference Center.” Early last On the test ban

Army. On that occasion, Webster made month, the annual meeting of the Na1. The test ban treaty helps our security

an historic speech in which, among other tional Association of Supervisors of by enlisting hope as well as fear.

things, he said that as long as the James State Banks was held at Williamsburg, 2. Safeguards help toward disarmament by flows by Jamestown Island; as long as at which, incidentally, every State in permitting confidence.

the Atlantic washes Plymouth Rock, no the Union was represented. I addressed

vigor of youth, no maturity of manhood that meeting on the morning of October 3. Our national effort in space is the es

will cause our Nation to forget those 3 and was impressed by the beautiful sential underpinning of a plausible and self- early spots that cradled and defended carpet that was on the conference room respecting purpose of cooperation. the infancy of our Republic.

floor. When I asked for an explanation

On space

of the remarkable pattern that had Beat again and pour into hot buttered bak- raphy and tremendous distances we Canadibeen woven into that rug and also infor- ing dish. Bake 25 minutes in hot oven and ans tend to look upon Canada as not one but

five Canadas; The Maritime Provinces, Quemation as to where the rug was made, all serve from baking dish. I could learn was that the rug had been

bec, Central Canada, the Prairies and British


CORN PUDDING woven in my home county of Rockbridge by the Glasgow, Va., division of James Take 6 large, tender, milky ears of corn. traordinarily interested in the United States,

Canadians have, for a long time, been exLees & Sons, now a part of the Split the corn down the center of each row; textile empire of Burlington Mills. So, cut off the top and then scrape the cob well. and our media give a lot of attention to your

affairs. Beat 2 eggs and stir them into the corn. Add I wrote my friend, the very able and

But today the United States is making a

-1 efficient president of Colonial Williams- and one-half teaspoon of black pepper. Stir greatodsay on mownin Canada hint asma ner burg, Hon. Carlisle H. Humelsine, to tell in 1 pint of fresh milk and mix all together ing of apprehension. me why what appeared to be the great thoroughly. Put in a cold buttered pan

The subject of the news is not political, seal on the carpet showed the national about 4 inches deep. Cover the top with 2

defense or friendship. It is freedom-ecoemblem, the bald eagle, looking to the heaping tablespoons of butter cut in small

nomic freedom, without which so many other right, as in the great 'seal, is holding pieces. Bake in a moderately hot oven freedoms and principles go by the board. arrows in his right talon and the olive about 1 hour. Serve hot.

To put it very simply, U.S. investors and branch in his left-which is the reverse

business are now so extensively involved in of what appears in the great seal.

How To COOK AN OLD VIRGINIA HAM the Canadian economy that the situation has Mr. President, I ask unanimous con Select a 3- to 5-year old ham weighing become critical. As Canada continues to buy sent that I may have printed at this 12 to 18 pounds. Trim and wash carefully much more from the United States than she and soak overnight. Change water and add

sells to the United States, every passing year point in the RECORD a letter to me of Oc1 cup of apple vinegar and 1 cup of brown

aggravates the situation. tober 31 from President Humelsine, exsugar. Cover with water. Boil very slowly

U.S. investment in Canada is nothing new. plaining the pattern of that gold rug

5 or 6 hours, or until end bone is loose. After all, Canada is the United States bigat the Williamsburg Conference Center. Leave the ham in the water in which it was gest customer. Two-thirds of all Canada's

Mr. President, perhaps this is a felici cooked until water is cold, then skin. Put international transactions are with the tous time to make available to many ham in bakingpan and bake to a nice brown. United States. Canada has always welcomed

outside capital, but today its proportions American citizens who have not yet had

and its drain on the economic stability of an opportunity to enjoy the wonderful

Canada are too great. Canada is living befood that is served at the Williamsburg CANADA'S EXPORT PROBLEM yond her means on a dangerous scale. Inn and the other places of entertain

Mr. BOGGS. Mr. President, a distin

Our two countries have always had their ment in Williamsburg, recipes of some

differences and always will, but like a family guished Canadian industrialist last week we settle our disputes by compromise or of the wonderful dishes that have come

summed up Canada's need for larger exdown to us from our colonial ancestors.

mediation. ports to the United States in an imI therefore ask unanimous consent to

This economic situation goes much deeper have printed in the RECORD at this time

portant speech before the Advertising than a family dispute. Many Canadians see Club of Washington, D.C.

their sovereignty in jeopardy. the following recipes taken from the 1962 President's report of

How is this feeling possible when the counIt was my privilege to meet the speak

Colonial Williamsburg:

er, T. J. “Ted” Emmert, president and tries have been so close for so many years? There being no objection, the letter Canada, Ltd. I was impressed by him of cigarettes he smokes. chief executive officer of Hawker Siddeley and very often the only way you can tell a

Canadian from an American is by the brand and recipes ordered to be printed in the personally as well as by the message he RECORD, as follows:

The U.S. people haven't changed, that's delivered.

true, but their stature in Canadian affairs WILLIAMSBURG, VA.,

We in the United States have long rec- has changed.

October 31, 1963. Hon. A. WILLIS ROBERTSON,

ognized Canada as a good and friendly Canada's annual average deficit with the U.S. Senate,

neighbor. With this in mind we need United States is now running at $1.5 billion, Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C. to consider seriously Canada's problem of which is the equivalent in the United States

of a deficit of $20 billion annually with one DEAR WILLIS: You are a most observant economic imbalance in her business rela

trading partner. visitor. tions with this country.

To the United States with a gross national The sunburst pattern in the gold rug at Mr. Emmert's speech is the opinion product of around $600 billion, Canada's the conference center is derived from the of an industrial statesman, and I rec $1.5 billion problem is negligible. But to Nova Constellatio patterns in silver, which ommend heartily to my colleagues that Canada with a $44 billion gross national were represented in perhaps the first U.S. coinage. They were designed for Gouverneur it be carefully read. I ask unanimous product it is economic survival.

Our Minister of Finance said this month: Morris to carry out his ideas in a decimal consent that the text of the address be

“The Government of Canada is determined coinage system. As the proposed denomina

included at this point in the RECORD. tions and coins did not advance beyond the

to give priority in its economic policy to There being no objection, the address

measures that will bring order, stability, and pattern stage, the pieces are all dated 1783 was ordered to be printed in the RECORD,

better balance in our international trade and are extremely rare. In the original pat- as follows:

payments. This will not be easy. It will tern an eye appeared in the center of the sunburst which we have omitted.

Your business is advertising and selling mean some changes in the way we do things."

and very largely, so is mine. Normally I am He said also: “The direction we must take The heraldic eagle appearing in the rug advertising or selling on behalf of my own is clear and unmistakable. We will

proceed was used in 1797 on dimes, dollars, half

company. eagles, and eagles. In those coins, the rela

carefully in seeking and applying solutions. tionship between the eagle, the arrows, and

But today, the product is Canada, the We will bear in mind the interests of our the olive branch were reversed as you de

country I have chosen to live and work in friends and neighbors, but there can be no tected from their position in the Great Seal

In size, Canada ranks next only to Russia question about the compelling need for and in modern coinage.

and our operating companies which are from effective action."

the Atlantic to the Pacific are 4,200 miles To Canadians the economic facts are loud You have raised an interesting question, and I think we probably ought to have these apart-or the distance from Chicago to Paris. and clear and dangerous. The danger of reanswers published in some form in the con- California, and from Windsor we look north Windsor, Ontario, is parallel with northern lying on the flow of foreign capital into

Canada as an offset to trade imbalance was ference center as the derivation of the rug to Detroit. Our northern frontier is the brought rudely home last year when the designs is, I think, most interesting. Accept my very best wishes. Arctic Circle.

flow stopped. The result was an extreme exIn this tremendous landmass we have a change crisis. Sincerely, CARLISLE H. HUMELSINE.

population of only 19 million about the The logical question here is: How did Cansame number of people living in New York ada get herself into this position? Well, I State.

guess we can blame the war and the boom Our form of government is based on the years that followed, when we changed from SPOON BREAD

British system, as free and representative as a primary producer to a manufacturer. Stir 1 cup of corn meal into 1 pint of boil your own. Canada is an equal partner in the The cry was “ Canada can make it.” Liting water, which contains one-half teaspoon British Commonwealth and subservient to erally hundreds of new factories sprang up of salt. Stir 1 minute, remove from fire and no one.

every year in a phenomenal industrial expanadd 2 tablespoons of butter. Beat well, add Although we have full nationhood, and sion. Many of these factories were subsidi4 beaten eggs and beat in 1 cup of cold milk, complete political entity, because of geog- aries of U.S. and oversea companies.

In 1938 primary industries such as mining “Basically," he said, "certain problems arise selves, and they respect us when we stand and agriculture accounted for over 40 per on our North American Continent because up for what we believe to be our rights, as cent of the dollar value of Canada's total pro- politically the dividing lines run east and they are always zealous in defending what duction. By 1960 that figure had slumped to west, whereas economically they run north they believe to be theirs." 26 percent, and today secondary industry and south."

And having lived on both sides of the accounts for three-quarters of the dollar This is of real concern to enlightened in- border, I believe that this is true. volume of Canadian production,

dustrialists on both sides of the border, but Canada has had to pay the price for this I am sure that in the course of time some

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Is rapid progress and today U.S. interests con- practical solution will be found for this there further morning business? If not, trol well over half of all Canadian industrial problem.

morning business is closed. enterprises, including some 45 percent of From my own experience in the farm manufacturing. While this circumstance equipment business where there are no duty could be viewed with alarm and contrib- barriers, I found that both Canadian and

AMENDMENT OF FOREIGN ASSISTute to our current economic difficulties it has United States agricultural equipment con

ANCE ACT OF 1961 speeded up the development of Canada and sumers and manufacturers benefit by the provided the high standard of living we free north and south flow of their goods.

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The enjoy today.

The question now is: Where do we go Chair lays before the Senate the unfinWe should remind ourselves that it was from here?

ished business, which will be stated. European investors who provided the finan First. Canada is not looking for handouts. The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. A bill (H.R. cial strength for the development of the She is not a recipient of foreign aid—but 7885) to amend further the Foreign AsUnited States when she became an inde is in fact a giver.

sistance Act of 1961, as amended, and pendent Nation. Yet America has retained Second. What she seeks is a better oppor for other purposes. her economic independence. Naturally, Can- tunity to sell her secondary products in the

The Senate resumed the consideration ada is equally anxious to retain hers--and I U.S. markets. She feels she has earned that feel sure she will. right by her "wider door" policy with the

of the bill. A further problem has been the youth and United States, and is still earning that right.

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The inexperience of Canada's new secondary in Third. Canada doesn't want a better mar question is on agreeing to the amenddustry in export markets. Often it has been ket share through charity. Her goods should ment of the Senator from Florida (Mr. a matter of timidity; sometimes restraint by be marketed in the United States on quality

be marketed in the United States on quality HOLLAND] to the so-called Mansfield the parent company, especially in attempt and price.

amendments, which were offered by the ing to penetrate the U.S. market, or neglect Fourth and probably the most important.

Senator from Montana on his own bethrough complacency in the boom years of Canada needs better U.S. education and unthe domestic market.

derstanding of her position, her role in North half and on behalf of other Senators. Geography has also added to Canada's American affairs, and acceptance of her new The amendment will be stated. dilemma. Much of the population of Canindustrialization.

The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. On page 1, in ada is resident in the large new industrial I do not fear Canada's ability to com line 8, of the amendments (No. 280) subbelts along the Great Lakes and on the U.S. pete successfully in the United States under mitted by Mr. MANSFIELD, on behalf of border.

fair ground rules. Canada can compete. himself and other Senators, the followAs a result, these people who are the pace

There's no doubt about that. setters in Canadian standards of living are Today we sell a lot of goods in certain ing amendment (No. 290) is proposed:

namely, strike out the figure "$1,500,directly under the full onslaught of U.S. U.S. markets. But many other markets are

000,000" and insert the figure "$975,influence. Through television and radio, virtually closed to us. magazines and all other methods of com

We are constantly studying the U.S. mar

000,000". munciation—a field in which Americans are ket and we accept the challenge.

Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I expert-the desire for U.S. standards has For example, in order to do business U.S.- suggest the absence of a quorum. spread-and this is good.

style, our company opened a subsidiary in The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The Today a Canadian in Ontario has his own

Chicago 14 months ago staffed entirely by clerk will call the roll. home, his new model car, his refrigerator, Americans. This is an engineering and as

The legislative clerk proceeded to call his washing machine, his television and all sembly plant for the production of power

the roll. the other material things expected in the packages using industrial gas turbine enUnited States. gines developed and manufactured by our

Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I The only trouble is that while the individ

Orenda Engines Division, which has been ask unanimous consent that the order ual Canadian may be able to meet the pay: of this year we will have about $2 million

in business for nearly 20 years. By the end for the quorum call be dispensed with. ments for all these things, his country can't

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. WithInvested over here, in hopes of getting it out objection, it is so ordered. meet the bills without borrowing. And

and some more back by penetrating your there's a limit to what can be borrowed

Mr. HOLLAND obtained the floor. market with a first-class product at competisafely. tive prices.

Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, will As a nation we are now committed to

Next year, Canada hopes to export more

the Senator yield? Industry. But because of our much smaller

than $6.8 billion worth of goods and serv Mr. HOLLAND. I am glad to yield. domestic market, industrial Canada today ices, and undoubtedly an increasing pro Mr. MANSFIELD. The amendment must look elsewhere to sell her goods. Quite portion will be in manufactured goods of the Senator from Florida is the pendnaturally her eye turns first to the immense

which are showing some encouraging imU.S. market.

ing business. I ask unanimous consent provements. In order to balance trade something has

that I may suggest the absence of a

Generally, however, we are looking and to go. Either Canada lowers her standard must look more to the U.S. market. And

quorum, with the understanding that of living by cutting imports or she balances

when a Canadian industrialist looks at the the Senator from Florida will not lose the books by selling more to the United

American market one thing happens—his his right to the floor. States—$1.5 billion worth annually to be mouth waters.

Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, I apexact. And the people of Canada are not

A fractionally greater share of that vast preciate the courtesy of the Senator from willing to accept the first alternative.

market can solve Canada's greatest economic My own company operates internationally; problems.

Montana. I shall be happy to accept it, Our divisions and subsidiaries are not afraid

if the Senate gives permission for a

Good relations between Canada and the to compete in any market. That is why we

United States are vital for the future pros- quorum call, provided that in doing so I do a fair amount of business abroad. We

perity and perhaps even the survival of do not lose my right to the floor. don't win them all, but of sales totaling both countries. Therefore, we must not only

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. With$1.3 billion in the last 5 years, about $200

seek to encourage a better understanding out objection, it is so ordered. million has been earned in foreign markets.

of the problems which have arisen and may Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I I am all for opening more trade doors

arise, but also to develop solutions which and closing fewer. Restrictions cripple ini

now suggest the absence of a quorum. are in the common interest of both countiative, expansion, and progress. In this day tries.

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The and age no nation can sit on its hands be

It may well be in the future that Canada

clerk will call the roll. hind a high protective wall and survive. The

will appear to be adamant in many matters The legislative clerk proceeded to call Europeans found this out. while wrestling with her problems.

the roll. I was pleased to note that in a speech If this is disturbing I would ask you to Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I given the other day, Gen. E. W. Rawlings, remember the words of Vincent Massey, first ask unanimous consent that the order U.S. Air Force, retired, one of your distin Canadian citizen to become Governor Genguished military men and now a leading eral of Canada and former Canadian Am

for the quorum call may be rescinded. industrialist, pointed out to à Toronto audi- bassador to Washington, who says in his re

The PRESIDING OFFICER. (Mr. ence that one of North America's chronic cently published biography: “Americans do WALTERS in the chair). Without objecproblems is a matter of geography.

not dislike us when we are loyal to our tion, it is so ordered.

Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, before authorization in the amendment for 1965 the $1,500 million ceiling in the authoriurging my amendment upon the Senate, to $975 million, and accomplish the same zation for the year 1964. For 1965 and and before the distinguished chairman of thing as to the $1,500 million authoriza- 1966 my amendment proposes a ceiling the committee leaves the Senate Cham- tion for 1966.

in the authorization of $975 million, inber, let me say that I appreciate the fact Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, will stead of $1,500 million, as would be the that the majority leader, the minority the Senator yield?

case if the amendments of the leaderleader, the chairman of the committee, Mr. HOLLAND. I yield to the Sena- ship, as written, were to be adopted. and the ranking minority member have tor from Ohio.

Mr. LAUSCHE. It is the argument of tried to deal realistically with the prob Mr. LAUSCHE. Am I correct in my the Senator from Florida that, if there lem presented this year in offering their understanding that in the existing au- is legitimacy in the argument that we amendments. They show a realistic ap- thorization there is allowed $1,500 mil- are to reduce the amount, we should beproach to the thinking of the country lion for the fiscal years, separately, of gin the reduction in some way at the which, I am sure, is strongly in favor of 1964, 1965, and 1966?

present time, rather than increase or a substantial reduction in the foreign Mr. HOLLAND. The Senator is cor- allow the larger sum to remain for 1965 aid program. Senators who have joined rect.

and 1966. Is that correct? in offering these amendments are prob Mr. LAUSCHE. The amendments of Mr. HOLLAND. The Senator is corably in closer touch with the problem fered by the Senator from Montana (Mr. rect. I think we should show our intenthan other Senators-certainly much MANSFIELD], on behalf of himself, the tion to the people. It would be an apcloser than I am. I appreciate their ef- Senator from Illinois (Mr. DIRKSEN), preciated act on the part of Congress, if, fort, and I want to support it. I hope and other Senators, would reduce the in regard to this program, we not only that I shall be able to support it. But $1,500 million authorization for the fis- reduce it this year, but also look to the there is one feature in it which has cal year 1964 to $975 million, but would future. If we reduced the ceiling for seemed to me to be not realistic and not allow the $1,500 million authorization, 1965 by $525 million at this time, and showing an understanding of what I be- respectively, for the fiscal years 1965 and for 1966 by the same amount, namely, lieve is in the minds of other Senators, 1966 to continue. Is that correct?

$525 million, I think it would begin to and certainly in the minds of the great Mr. HOLLAND. They would not show to the country that we really are majority of our people that is, that we merely allow it to continue; they would working toward a reduction, and, we hope are hoping not merely for a reduction reauthorize the amounts. If the amend- soon, an elimination of this program. of the program this year, but for con- ments offered by the leadership had Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the tinued reductions and for an end to the referred only to 1964, they would not Senator yield? program at as early a time in the future have been as objectionable in this re Mr. HOLLAND. I yield to the Senator as possible.

spect as they are; but they include these from Oregon. The Senate has noted, I am sure, in words, and I read now the words to be Mr. MORSE. I wish to raise a point the amendments offered by the majority inserted in the present authorization: or two with regard to the Senator's and minority leaders and the distin

For the fiscal year 1963, $975,000,000 for amendment in relation to the Mansfield guished ranking members of the For the fiscal year 1964, and $1,500,000,000 for amendments. One of the “gimmicks” of eign Relations Committee, including, in each of the next two succeeding fiscal years. the Mansfield amendments is the proviaddition to the ones I have already men

sion that seeks to commit the Senate to tioned, the Senator from Alabama (Mr. work upon that part of the Mansfield the Senator know any reason why we

I believe the Senate has the duty to an authorization for 1965 and 1966. Does SPARKMAN] and the Senator from Ver- amendment by saying that we are should not limit the authorization to mont (Mr. AIKEN] that on line 8 of page not merely hoping to reduce the large 1 of the printed amendments there ap

1964? amount authorized for this year, but are pears a reauthorization of the entire looking forward, with equal hope, to the would be an appropriate way to approach

Mr. HOLLAND. That, of course, amounts included in the Development next 2 succeeding years. Loan Fund, by existing law, for the 2

the problem; but there is a problem

I am sorry I have no evidence on which years 1965 and 1966.

stated in these amendments, in which to make a request for less than $975 milThe reduction for this year to $975 lion for each of those future years, but of $1.5 billion for 1965 and 1966. So far

there is a proposal for a reauthorization million from the $1,500 million previ- I know that with a ceiling of that amount ously authorized for this year is, I think, for 1965 and 1966, a reduction in the pro- he thinks it would be a great mistake

as the Senator from Florida is concerned, a realistic reduction. I am glad the leaders have proposed it. But I think there place than it would with a ceiling of should retain that huge authorization for

grams would be much more likely to take for the Senate to go on record that we is even more need for a reduction in the $1,500 million, as under the present law. the years 1965 and 1966. I think we authorizations for the ensuing 2 years,

Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the ought to begin to work our will toward 1965 and 1966. Senator yield?

a substantial reduction of the program It would be incomprehensible to me if

Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, will the

for the future by cutting the ceiling for the Senate, knowing of the hopeful at- Senator let me pursue that thought?

those years from this part of the protitude of the country that the Congress

Mr. HOLLAND. Yes. I yield to the should not only reduce the program, but Senator from Ohio. Then I shall yield Fund, from $1.5 billion to $975 million.

gram, that is, the Development Loan end the program at an early date, would to the Senator from Oregon.

Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, let me reauthorize at this time the whole $1,500

Mr. LAUSCHE. If the amendment of tell the Senator what I believe to be a million included in the original act of the Senator from Florida were adopted, great mistake. It is to have in the bill 1961, as the authorizations for each of it would mean that the amount which any language that authorizes expendithe years 1965 and 1966.

has been recommended for authoriza- tures for 1965 and 1966. The Senate I do not believe there is present in the tion in fiscal year 1964 would also be the ought to face what I call a "sleeper” Senate an intention to reauthorize that amount for fiscal year 1965 and fiscal proposal in the amendment. There is very large amount for the Development year 1966, which is $975 million. Is that no doubt that the proponents of foreign Loan Fund for 1965 and 1966. correct?

aid know that foreign aid is in serious I call attention to the fact that, if the

Mr. HOLLAND. The Senator is cor- trouble in the United States. I am amendments offered by the leadership rect. That would be the authorized satisfied that most of the proponents of were adopted, they would, in fact, re- amount for the 2 following years, mean- foreign aid know that if foreign aid went authorize the $1,500 million authoriza- ing that that would be the ceiling for to a referendum vote by the American tions for 1965 and 1966.

those years.

This year the authorized people, it would be overwhelmingly deBecause I think we should not do that, ceiling is $1,500 million. The amend- feated. The American people have had but should show the deliberate intention ments offered by the leadership would enough. of the Senate to reduce this program for reduce that amount, which was already That does not mean that the Amerithe future, and to look to an even greater reduced by the committee to the budget can people would note vote for some reduction than we have offered in the ed amount I believe the budgeted reasonable foreign aid program. Howamendments of the leadership for this amount was $1,060 million, or something ever, I believe that the American people year, I have offered my amendment, like that to $975 million. They have are satisfied that the foreign aid prowhich would reduce the $1,500 million accomplished those two reductions from gram is unreasonable, unjustified, and

uncalled for. The American people are Congress, pass what our wisdom as of I should like to ask the Senator a propreparing to strike it down. They are now indicates should be the authoriza cedural question. I have been asked to going to strike it down in a variety of tion for 1964. I do not believe it ought attend a meeting of Democrats being

to extend beyond that period for 1 day. held in the majority leader's office, apsome Senators and Representatives in I make the suggestion because I want the

I make the suggestion because I want the parently to ask me some questions about 1964, when they come up for election. Senator from Florida to know that I my position in connection with the pend

I hope it will be remembered that the would like very much to find myself in ing bill. I cannot very well leave the senior Senator from Florida said so on agreement with him as far as possible.

agreement with him as far as possible. floor to do that, because the Senator's the floor of the Senate today, and will He is making a contribution by the amendment might be adopted in my remember it when we take a look at the amendment that he has offered. How absence. results of the 1964 election. The people The people ever, it does not go far enough.

Mr. HOLLAND. I certainly would not are going to strike them down. Some Mr. HOLLAND. The Senator is al call it up while the Senator is away. of us believe that we had better wait and ways frank. I always like to be in agree Mr. MORSE. I understand that. Unlet the people decide what we should ment with him, not only because he less I made an arrangement, it could do for 1964 in the election of 1964, be- is my seatmate, but also because of his be adopted in my absence. My present fore we proceed with the Mansfield brillance and his broad grasp of so many intention would be, after the Senator amendments to authorize for 2 addi- problems.

finishes his argument, and before action tional years $112 billion of foreign aid. I invite his attention, with some te is taken on the amendment, to have a That is my first point. merity, to the fact that if the course he

live quorum.

That would take long My second point is that I believe any suggests is followed, it will leave as a enough so that the meeting, which I one who will study the foreign aid pro- part of the law the authorization now understand will not take very long, could

be held and Senators could return to gram knows that we ought to reduce outstanding, which is for a billion and the number of countries that are rea half dollars for 1965 and a billion and the floor.

Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, I am ceiving aid. We cannot justify con- a half dollars for 1966. tinuing to pour foreign aid funds into We have a precious opportunity to in sympathy with the situation in which countries which are as well able to sup- bring the authorized amount down. I the Senator from Oregon finds himself. port themselves as we are to support am suggesting it be brought down by I ask unanimous consent that I may ourselves. They have no right to more than a billion dollars by the yield the floor for the purpose of sugreceive any additional money from the amendment which I am suggesting. I gesting the absence of a quorum, and United States. Before we finish with the am also stating that I do not propose to that I may have the floor upon the condebate we shall present our evidence to vote for any reauthorization of these clusion of the quorum call. I give notice

that this will be a live quorum, show our reasons for believing that this huge amounts if they are left in the is already true of most of the NATO amendments proposed to us as the re Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, will countries. We shall propose a reduc- sult of some very careful study, I am the Senator withhold his suggestion of tion in most of the foreign aid money sure, by the distinguished Senators who the absence of a quorum? that is intended to be poured into a offer them. We shall find ourselves in Mr. HOLLAND. I am glad to with

hold it. number of countries, because they are the position of facing a billion and a able to support themselves and should half dollar authorization for next year, The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there not be getting a subsidy from the Ameri- because it is already on the books, and objection to the unanimous-consent recan taxpayers.

a billion and a half dollar authorization quest of the Senator from Florida? There is in the bill an authorization for the year following, in connection Mr. HOLLAND. I withdraw my reof a billion and a half dollars for the with the Development Loan Fund. quest. The distinguished minority lead

I believe there is a wonderful oppor er, being always able to take care of next 2 years. I know what the proponents of foreign aid will say. They tunity to show to the country that the every situation, will, I think, take care will say, "We have it in our pockets.” Senate is not merely performing an op

Senate is not merely performing an op- of this one in such a way as to enable I believe that next year the entire eration on this year's budgeted request,

eration on this year's budgeted request, Senators who are members of the other foreign aid program ought to come but is also laying a predicate for a great

but is also laying a predicate for a great- party to attend the caucus. before us as a matter of necessity.

er diminution of the program in the Mr. President, I amend my request

future. It can be said that the people are not

that there be a quorum call by withgoing to do anything to stop Congress

I am sorry, as I have already said, that drawing the part relating to the sugges

tion that there be a live quorum. I sugfrom going into foreign aid if it wills I cannot intelligently fix any other figure

gest the absence of a quorum. to do so. The Senator from Flordia for 1965 and 1966, other than to take

The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there knows, as well as I do, that the Senate the diminished figure which is proposed to be put in the bill for 1964, which I objection to the request of the Senator

from Florida that he retain the floor usually; it has enough to do to handle believe is real progress, because it sug

at the conclusion of the quorum call? the calendar of bills that automatically gests the elimination from the program

of a total of a billion and fifty million The Chair hears none, and it is so orcomes before us.

dollars in the authorization for the next dered. The clerk will call the roll. If an authorization bill does not come 2 fiscal years.

The legislative clerk proceeded to call before us, no one will go out to dredge

I am sure, knowing how the Senator the roll. one up. I would propose to strike all

Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I ask the language on line 8, page 1 of the from Oregon feels about the whole pro

unanimous consent that the order for Mansfield amendments “And $1,500,- gram, that he will admit that this is a

the quorum call be rescinded. 000,000 for each of the next two succeed- very meritorious objective in itself.

Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I admit The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without ing fiscal years."

objection, it is so ordered. I do not believe we ought to vote for that it is a meritorious objective. Apan authorization for fiscal years 1965 What we propose to do is to repeal the parently I did not make myself clear. Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President

The PRESIDING OFFICER. Under and 1966. We ought to pass only on

authorization in the existing law for the unanimous-consent agreement, the 1964, and then take a look at what the 1964 and 1965. We propose to repeal it, Senator from Florida was to retain the situation is for 1965 after the American and to have nothing but the authoriza floor at the conclusion of the quorum people have taken a look at the elec

tion for 1964 remain in the bill. We call. Is there objection to allowing the tion. Thank God, we have the kind of do not believe there should be any con

Senator from Ohio to proceed? democratic system in our country under tinuing authorization beyond this year. Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I ask which the people can go into the voting The committee in its report has sug unanimous consent that the Senator booth and register their dissent from ac- gested that the entire foreign aid pro from Ohio may proceed, notwithstandtions of Congress, by retiring a few Sena- gram be reconsidered. We want to

We want to ing the request of the Senator from tors and Representatives who ought to encourage that recommendation, by Florida. be retired. The American people are repealing the authorization provision The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without entitled to have us, in this session of beyond 1964.

objection, it is so ordered.

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