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the United States was in the neighbor- with M-day, and these are the data which to try parliamentarily to remove 1965 hood of 70 percent, for the amount of deal with Mobilization Day; these are the and 1966 authorizations from the bill and economic aid is much less than the data which show the commitments of our have an authorization for no year but amount of military aid. When we con- alleged allies and what they are willing to 1964. We need a little time tonight to sider the total program for Greece and do when the shooting is about to start. put our parliamentary case in shape for Turkey—both military aid and economic Mr. President, you will be shocked to a plea for such action tomorrow. aid-it is clear that I am quite correct read this document. Under the heading For that reason, in a whispered conwhen I say that the United States has “Forces in Being, December 31, 1962,” versation with the Senator from Florida paid so much that, when we consider we find the country-by-country plans for (Mr. HOLLAND], I told him that I would the other NATO countries as a whole, M-day, the NATO program for M-day, try to avoid a vote on his amendment totheir payments have been only token the requirements up to the end of 1966. night. I believe that in the regular payments. When we consider West Ger- All I wish to say by way of generalization course of events there could be an early many's contributions aside from those is that we find deficiency after deficiency vote on his amendment tomorrow, but it from the rest of the European NATO on the part of ally after ally. We do not will not be held under any unanimouscountries, we find that West Germany even have from them commitments that consent agreement to vote, for, as I said has paid-but only for a small part of they will agree to live up to the require- earlier this afternoon, there will never the time in the neighborhood of 30 per- ments of M-day. So I do not understand be any such agreement while the bill is cent. However, let us not forget this why we should be asked in this foreign before the Senate. We do not need it. testimony by Mr. Bell, which is to be aid bill to aid them further.

We shall see what the lay of the land is found on page 639 of the hearings: If Mr. Holt, of the Foreign Relations parliamentarywise, and try to under

I would say 90 percent of military aid has Committee, will now come to my desk, stand what obstacles the powerhouse been paid by the United States.

I shall place this classified document in amendments have thrown in our way. I read further from that hearing:

his possession. I now return it to him. I pointed out again that they are parlia

I brought it to the floor of the Senate in mentary "powerhouse" amendments Senator MORSE. I think one of the trouble the hope that I could elicit some interest which are very effective. I commend spots you are faced with on this bill, which, on the part of Senators in informing the generalship of the

the proponents. I think, faces a strenuous drive for reduction, is this European field. Among others themselves--before they vote, some days After all, if they wish to be so shortthat I can mention is this last country I from now--on the question of further sighted as to try to accomplish the obam going to ask about because you have U.S. aid to NATO countries, for, in my jectives of their bill, their generalship been very patient, the chairman has been judgment, this document is dramatic ev- is very good. But losing a battle does very patient, and I will submit the rest of idence that we should vote to cut it; and not lose the war, although it sometimes my questions in writing.

I shall offer amendments that will give makes it tougher to win it. Then I proceeded to discuss Pakistan. the Senate an opportunity to vote to So we will do what we can to reduce I shall refer to that at a later time, when cut it.

the amount in the Mansfield amendI take up an amendment dealing with

I cannot tell the Senator from Minne- ments and, if possible, eliminate the Pakistan, because here, too, a very large sota [Mr. HUMPHREY] how pleased I am Holland amendment completely by elimicut in our aid needs to be made.

to have him on the floor while I make nating any need for fixing the amounts Mr. President, at this time I have con

some suggestions or proposals in regard for 1965 and 1966. But if we must fix cluded my speech on the NATO issue, to the further handling of this bill. I an amount for 1965 and 1966, and cannot and I have just had a whispered con- wish the RECORD to show, first of all, fix a lower amount than the amount versation with my very good friend, the that the Senator from Minnesota has proposed by the Senator from Florida, Senator from Florida [Mr. HOLLAND). made perfectly clear to me, over and we will rally behind him and vote for it. During the remainder of the afternoon, over again, that he does not agree with I address myself to the Senator from I plan to discuss procedure, if that ar- me on many of the stands I take on the Minnesota because it is now a quarter rangement meets with the pleasure of foreign aid bill.

after five. It has been a hard day. the Senate; and in a moment I shall Mr. President, our discussions at least More progress has been made in the proceed to do so.

show that the Senator from Minnesota cloakrooms than the work on the floor of At this point I wish to add to the does not consider the Senator from the Senate may show. The Senator from speech I have just concluded a further Oregon an ogre or obstructionist, or one Montana [Mr. MANSFIELD] conferred, reference to the "secret” document I who is suffering great internal and in- came back, and announced that he would hold in my hand. I shall return it im- trospective pains on the floor of the Sen- not withdraw the amendments. I told mediately to the staff of the Foreign Re- ate that causes an empathy reaction on him that that was his right, and that we lations Committee. I requested it from the part of others. I am only presenting would move on from there. I think it Mr. Marcy. His memorandum reads as my case. I am perfectly willing to let the would be a mistake for me to call for furfollows:

jury cast the verdict, but the jury will ther speakers tonight. It is late enough. Attached is information supplied by the not be here. The jury will be the people Those of us on the opposition have work Department of Defense in response to in- of America.

to do. quiries which we initiated in your behalf in I wish to get on with the bill. We are I should like to suggest, without my regard to NATO costs. Please note that this setting forth our general case against being required to call further speakers is classified “secret," and return to the Com- the bill. We must make our specific tonight-if any other Senator wishes to mittee on Foreign Relations when you have

cases now, amendment by amendment. say anything, he can say it—that we not finished with it.

Earlier this afternoon I had hoped that seek to obtain any agreements of any I have told Senators that it is avail- we could remove what we find to be a kind tonight, that the Senate recess, and able to them in the Foreign Relations very difficult parliamentary barrier that proceed tomorrow. If we cannot obtain Committee. I deplore the fact that its the Mansfield amendments have thrown an agreement on the Holland amendcontents are marked "secret." The in our way. We are at work and are ments, I suggest that the Senate vote on American people are entitled to know the making some progress in finding ways of the Holland amendments. Then we will contents of this document; and if they mollifying somewhat the parliamentary offer our amendment, which will be a did know them, I am satisfied there effects of the Mansfield amendments. I substitute for paragraph (b) of the would be some major revisions in this do not know whether we can succeed in Mansfield amendments. It is the amendforeign aid bill—as I have said before, accomplishing our objective, but we will ment that I discussed earlier this afterbecause what this classified report shows continue to try. We need a little time noon, which we think would probably is that we have no right to hope for any for that. The Holland amendment to have the effect of eliminating authorizabetter treatment in the future from our the Mansfield amendments is before the tions for the years 1965 and 1966. If not, NATO allies than the treatment we are Senate. If we have to live with the bill we will be told so by tomorrow, and we receiving now.

as it is, the Holland amendment is a will try to reword it so that we can acI have referred to this item, section great contribution to its improvement. complish that end. It may be that we (b) of this classified document. I shall If we cannot do better than the Holland shall have to follow the recommendation not read into the RECORD any of its con- amendment, I intend to vote for the of the Senator from Kentucky and offer tents; but this is the item which deals Holland amendment. But we are going a new section that would aménd the For

eign Aid Act of 1961 that seeks to drop Mr. HUMPHREY. The Senator from Mr. HUMPHREY. Then, the Senator the authorizations for 1965 and 1966. Oregon indicated that not only was there would take only a reasonable time toThat is the position of the Senator from objection, but that he wanted to look morrow? Oregon as of now. I shall await what- into the parliamentary situation with Mr. MORSE. That is all I ever take. ever course is followed by the Senate. reference to whether that amendment Mr. HUMPHREY. That means that

Mr. President, I suggest the absence might be modified or amended. That tomorrow there will be some votes. І of a quorum. seemed to be a reasonable request.

feel that with the assurances we have The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Mr. MORSE. If the Senator from had from the distinguished Senator from clerk will call the roll.

Minnesota will permit me to do so, I Oregon, tomorrow will be a very fruitful, The legislative clerk called the roll, shall be glad to make a progress report. productive day. and the following Senators answered to Mr. HUMPHREY. Very well.

Mr. MORSE. Today has been a very their names:

Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I send to fruitful day. [No. 205 Leg.]

the desk another amendment dealing Mr. HUMPHREY. I am sure it was; Aiken Hartke Muskie

with this subject. It splits the amend- but tomorrow will be even more fruitful. Allott Hayden Nelson ment I first offered and provides:

The fruit will be riper. Anderson Hickenlooper Neuberger

On page 1, lines 7 to 9, strike out “$975,000, Mr. MORSE. That depends on one's


000 for the fiscal year 1964, and $1,500,000,000 interpretation.

for each of the next two succeeding fiscal Mr. HUMPHREY. So the plan will be Boggs Humphrey Proxmire years," and inserting in lieu thereof "and

to have the Senate convene tomorrow at Brewster Inouye

Randolph $900,000,000 for the fiscal year 1964.”
Johnston Robertson

12 o'clock noon and proceed to the pendByrd, Va. Jordan, N.C. Russell

I ask that the amendment be printed. ing amendment, which is the Holland Byrd, W. Va. Kennedy Saltonstall

The PRESIDING OFFICER. The amendment, and also look forward to


amendment (No. 303) will be received having a number of votes. All Senators Case Long, La. Smathers

and printed, and will lie on the table. should be on notice. Church Magnuson Smith

Mr. MORSE. A discussion has taken Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, will the Clark

Mansfield Sparkman
McCarthy Stennis

place since the discussion earlier this Senator yield?
McClellan Talmadge afternoon. We want to verify the pro-

Mr. HUMPHREY. I yield.
McGovern Thurmond

posal overnight and be ready to offer it Mr. DIRKSEN. Does that mean that
Dominick McIntyre Tower

tomorrow, after the vote on the Holland there will be no votes tonight? Ellender Metcalf

Williams, N.J. amendment; and we believe that it would Mr. HUMPHREY. There will be no Ervin Miller Williams, Del.

do the job. In effect, it would amend the votes tonight. Fong Monroney Yarborough

act, so that what is called the continuing Fulbright Morse

Young, N. Dak.

Young, Ohio authorization, so far as 1965 and 1966 are
Gruening Moss

concerned, would be repealed.

If we


satisfy ourselves that that is in line with Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, in our The PRESIDING OFFICER. (Mr. Mc the interpretation of the Senator from discussions of the foreign aid bill this GOVERN in the chair). A quorum is Massachusetts, that will be the purport week, many of the defects of this propresent. of our amendment.

gram are being pointed out. Although Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I ask Mr. President, I send to the desk, for I have criticized parts of this program, for the yeas and nays on the Mansfield

printing, the second part of the amend- I do believe that the Alliance for ProgDirksen "powerhouse" amendments. ment I offered earlier. That will be ress warrants and needs our continued

The yeas and nays were ordered. called up separately. It really has noth- support. I ask unanimous consent to inThe PRESIDING OFFICER. The

The ing to do with the Holland amendment. sert at this point in the RECORD two articlerk will call the roll.

The PRESIDING OFFICER. The cles pertaining to the Alliance for ProgMr. MORSE. Mr. President, before

amendment will be received and printed, ress authorization which were published the Senate votes, there should be some and will lie on the table.

in the October 22 issue of the Journal discussion.

Mr. MORSE. I have informed the of Commerce and the October 4 issue of Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, the

majority whip that it is our plan to pro- the Catholic Standard. pending question is on the amendment ceed without delay tomorrow with the There being no objection, the articles offered by the Senator from Florida.

Holland amendment and then to offer were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, The PRESIDING OFFICER. The the first Morse amendment, which we

as follows: Senator from Florida is correct.

think would improve the bill even beyond [From the Journal of Commerce, Oct. 22, Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I should the Holland amendment. I shall vote for

1963] like to ask the leadership what its de the Holland amendment because, in my

FORMER COLOMBIAN CHIEF HOPEFUL ON LATIN sires are for the remainder of the eve judgment, it is a great improvement.

РАСТ ning.

We think the Morse amendment would LONDON, October 21.-Ex-President of CoMr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, in improve the bill that much more. But lombia, Dr. Alberto Lleras Camargo, said tothe light of earlier discussion, now that there are other speakers, if it becomes

there are other speakers, if it becomes day he was very optimistic about the future the yeas and nays have been ordered on necessary to speak longer tonight. How

of the Alliance for Progress and hoped Britthe Mansfield-Dirksen amendments, and ever, we believe that that would be a

ain and other European countries could use

it as the framework for stepping up their aid the fact that the Senator from Oregon waste of time in the long run.

to Latin America. indicated that he wanted to discuss his Mr. HUMPHREY. As the Senator Mr. Lleras Camargo told a press conferproposal of another amendment with from Oregon looks ahead, Is it his pro ence he hoped that his trip to Britain at the some of his colleagues, there is no inten- posal that the Senate vote on the Hol

invitation of the British Council would help tion, as I see it now, to attempt to force land amendment, or

increase British interest in Latin America.

any substitute a vote. There may be some Senators therefor, tomorrow?

He said that in the past 20 or 30 years who have an item or two they wish to

British influence and interest in Latin Amer

Mr. MORSE. I assumed that that place in the RECORD; but, as I under- would be the order of business when the

ica had declined, but that the trend could stand, the pending business is the Hol- Senate convened tomorrow. If any Sen

be reversed through such practical measures land amendment. Is my understanding ator wished to talk about the Holland

as increased technical assistance, and in

creased trade. correct? amendment, he would make his remarks;

ALLIANCE FUTURE DISCUSSED The PRESIDING OFFICER The then the Senate would vote on the Mr. Lleras Camargo spoke at length about Senator is correct. amendment.

the Alliance for Progress and its future. He Mr. HUMPHREY. There is no inten

Following the disposition of the Hol

said he was very optimistic about its future tion to force a vote on that amendment land amendment, I propose to offer my

and considered that in its first 2 years it had tonight. amendment, or a modification of it, if

made tremendous steps forward. Mr. FULBRIGHT. Is there any ob a conference on the parliamentary situa

He told the newsmen that the Alliance jection to voting on the Holland amend- tion causes us to believe that that is but as a project of all Latin American States.

should not be seen as a purely U.S. venture ment tonight? necessary to accomplish what we are

Answering questions he said he thought Mr. MORSE. Yes. seeking to do.

it would be possible for European nations to


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help more, and that it would be a good thing SENATOR BARTLETT ADDRESSES Although it is my intention to speak if this were done through the framework of


about the Civil Aeronautics Board report the Alliance.

and the segment of the industry which is Mr. Lleras Camargo emphasized on several Mr. MONRONEY. Mr. President, I reported upon, it will not in my opinion occasions that no one could expect the Alli- ask unanimous consent to have printed serve any useful purpose to stand here and ance to work perfectly in 2 years. He said in the RECORD a speech by Senator E. L.

seek to attain a high popularity rating with that the beginning was bound to be difficult, BARTLETT, an able and distinguished col

you by denouncing the Civil Aeronautics because in Latin America more was needed

Board and its works. than money—the human resources had to be league of mine on the Aviation Subcom

During my years in

Washington I have found the members of developed, and technicians formed. mittee, delivered at the fall quarterly

the CAB to be in the main reasonable men, regional meeting of the Association of

informed men, men desirous of encouraging FIVE-YEAR VISTA

Local Transport Airlines in Honolulu, this great transportation system which is He said he was certain that in 5 to 10

Hawaii, on November 1, 1963. His re even yet so relatively new. These years in years it would accomplish what it was aim

marks concern the publicly announced Washington have passed for me with suing to do.

personic speed; almost one-fifth of a century On the issue of the role of military ele

plans of the Civil Aeronautics Board to ments in Latin America, he said when mili

has gone by since I first took the oath of reduce drastically the subsidy paid to

office in the U.S. House of Representatives tary coups did occur they were a setback for local service airlines.

as Delegate from the then territory of the democratic process in Latin America and I concur wholeheartedly in his views.

Alaska. This was at a time when the DC-3 not for the Alliance for Progress. He said They deserve careful and thoughtful

was still predominant in the domestic comthe Alliance as such was not designed to study by all the Members of the Senate. mercial skies. Many things have changed protect democratic regimes but to help them

There being no objection, the address since then. During that time there have develop. was ordered to be printed in the RECORD,

been many changes in the membership of Mr. Lleras Camargo also spoke of Colom

the Civil Aeronautics Board. And, since for bia's difficulties over coffee.

as follows: He said the

the moment we are talking of men rather Latin American States had shared the tax


than things, let me publicly record the fact, free U.S. market with African producers, and (Address by Senator E. L. BARTLETT, of Alaska) namely, that airlines in the category in in this way were helping African states.

Since the last quarterly meeting of the

which yours are found have never had a betHe said that at the same time as coffee Association of Local Transport Airlines,

ter friend, a more understanding and effecprices had dropped the cost of imported something has transpired. Something has

tive advocate than in the days when your machinery and manufactured goods had in happened that has caused comment, con

executive director and general counsel, Gen. creased, so that Colombia was also supportcern, and searching for cause and effect in

Joseph P. Adams, was a member of the CAB. ing the high cost of living in the United and out of the aviation circles. I do not

What would you have done had you been States. refer to the announced decision of Mr. Khru

a member of the Civil Aeronautics Board shchev not to race us to the moon. I make

and were confronted by this passage from

the President's transportation message to no allusion to what happened to the New [From the Washington (D.C.) Catholic York Yankees. I am not here to call to your

the Congress, dated April 5, 1962:
Standard, Oct. 4, 1963]
attention my views on the 1964 Republican

"I am asking the Board to develop by THE SENATE AND THE ALLIANCE presidential nomination-although that

June 30, 1963, a step-by-step program with Among the many problems to come before doubtless would be of great interest to you

specific annual targets to assure sharp re

ductions of operating and I could add a dividend by revealing to

subsidies * the Senate is the question of foreign aid.

within periods to be established by the The House has voted to slash $998 million you the name of the man who, in my judg

Board for each type of service or carrier?" off President Kennedy's foreign aid request, ment, will cop the Democratic nomination. a figure far beyond the recommendations of No. It is none of these things. It is the

Would you have failed to heed that inpaper written for the Civil Aeronautics

struction? Of course not. You would have General Clay's special committee. This aid

honored it, just as the CAB did. The report cut, if the Senate allows it to stand, will Board, duly approved by the Board, pub

was made. It suggested subsidy reductions force a change in our aid policy. In particu- lished, filed, but not forgotten, relating to lar, the proposed cut in aid for Latin Amer the local service airlines.

over a 5-year period. In sending the report You will have heard of it. In an uncertain

to the President, Chairman Alan S. Boyd ica endangers the continued existence of the

stated: “The Board intends to proceed with Alliance for Progress. world, this is one thing of which I am cer

implementation of its program as soon as Latin American countries have not hidden tain. Indeed, I suspect every member of

practicable, and subject to such revisions their displeasure at the House's aid cut this element of the industry has parsed or

as may be indicated after consideration of vote. Latin American papers, even those sought to parse every sentence in the report friendly to the United States, have noted and could, blindfolded, insert every comma

your views and the views of Congress.” that the U.S. aid to the entire Latin American and period in its proper place if such were

Logically, realistically, and at the same area will be only slightly higher than the to be erased—and I have reason to believe

time with appropriate consideration of the

demands upon the Public Treasury being Soviet aid to Cuba alone.

some might like to erase the entire report The House's aid slash is opening up a dis with no power of recall, absolute or partial,

made by the subsidy program, I desire to

suggest here that "implementation” will not trust for the United States at a time when left to anyone anywhere.

be "practicable" within the foreseeable futhe Alliance for Progress needs strong back As a member of the U.S. Senate Commerce

ture. I speak as an individual Senator. I ing. The work in Chile has shown that the Committee's Aviation Subcommittee, I have

speak as one who is not affronted or afcombined effort and determination of gov for the last couple of weeks, among other

frighted when the word "subsidy' is uttered. ernment and private groups can bring a things, been in fairly regular attendance at

Admittedly, this statement is not true insonation to the beginnings of true freedom the hearings called by my friend, Chairman

far as many others in and out of Government and economic prosperity. MIKE MONRONEY, on the proposed supersonic

are concerned. They look upon subsidy of But the Alliance needs the help of U.S. transport airplane. During this time I have

whatever nature as an evil not to be tolerdollars, too, especially now when it is in its learned much of which I was ignorant be

ated. But history reveals that every nainfant stages. The cut in aid to Latin Amer fore. Among the things I have learned is that

tion at whatever time has had to employ ica demands careful thinking. At stake is the the minimum skin temperatures on this ve

this device, not only for the benefit of the future of Latin America. It is up to the Sen hicle when it is way up yonder will be in

immediate recipients, but for the benefit of ate to make this future possible by restoring the neighborhood of 450° F. It is my sug

the many, or all. Subsidy payments of one that aid cut and thus continuing the work gestion now that this temperature does not

kind or another have been made since the of the Alliance for Progress. exceed, and in fact may be lower than, cer

early days of this Republic. They are being J.M.O'C. tain temperatures which came into being

made now. They will be made in the future. immediately after publication of the CAB

They will be tolerable and justified and dereport.

fensible so long as the public interest is SUBCOMMITTEE MEETING DURING My appearance before you today is in served. I maintain and will hold the view SENATE SESSION ON WEDNESDAY

plural capacity. Because the people of against all comers that the subsidy program

Alaska—thank goodness—have so ordered it, for the local service air industry is not only Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, I I am here as a U.S. Senator and, more spe justified but is imperatively necessary. ask unanimous consent that the Sub- cifically, as a member of the Aviation Sub There is not one of you who would not precommittee on Manpower and Labor of committee. Perhaps when the records are fer to be in the position of my friend Bob the Committee on Labor and Public searched it will indeed be proved that I am Reeve—that is, off subsidy, rather than on. Welfare may be permitted to meet dur

a charter or early member of ALTA. Finally, You are working to that end. That is your ing the session of the Senate on Wednes

for the purposes of this discussion, I am goal. You will reach it. But you cannot do one who has had an interest in aviation

so within a 5-year period. If there were to day, November 6.

originating long ago and who for a variety be "implementation" of the CAB report, The PRESIDING OFFICER. with- of reasons frequently uses the local transport starting now, my prediction is that sheer out objection, it is so ordered. airlines.

chaos would result.

Before coming over here, I had a long talk referred to him before. He is Senator MON Where does your tax dollar go? Well, 75 with myself and told myself that my speech RONEY. Unable to come here himself in percent or 80 percent of every dollar you must not have undue concentration placed response to your invitation, and knowing I hand over to the Federal Government goes upon Alaska, tempting as the subject is. had been asked in his stead, he wrote out and for defense, for explorations in space, for But Alaska, and Hawaii no less, offer a per- requested me to read this message:

veterans' benefits, and for interest on the fect example of what would happen with "Congratulations on another dynamic and national debt. There is one thing of which such an abrupt withdrawal of Uncle Sam's successful year of service to the smaller com we can be mighty sure: Should the budgfinancially helpful hand. It is a truism that munities of this Nation-a year which has etary cut amount to $11 billion or whatever, Alaska has only about 5,000 miles of roads shown substantial gains in revenue passen not one single dollar will come out of any of even though it is two and a quarter times as gers, mail, express, and freight ton-miles. the categories mentioned above except posbig as Texas. It is a truism that there is no "In reviewing the accomplishments of the sibly, although not probably, reductions will American-flag carrier of the maritime serv local service carriers I am again heartened by be made in space now that the Soviet Union ice except insofar as that service is provided the fact that your dependence on subsidy is has publicly bowed out of the moon race. by State-owned ferries in southeastern decreasing. This is a tribute to the vigor So where will the reductions be made? Alaska. It is a truism that more often than and initiative of management which con Obviously, they will have to come from the not in Alaska if you don't fly, you don't tinues to provide vitally needed air service to other 20 or 25 cents of your tax dollar. travel. It is a truism that not a single our smaller towns at less cost to the Gov And, believe me, should this come to pass, Alaska local carrier now on subsidy could ernment with some profit, although prob subsidy payments of the kind we are so survive for a year or even perhaps a month ably not enough in your opinion, to the concerned with now will be among the first without subsidy. Without it, the airlines carriers.

to be whacked. If up to this point the CAB would fold and people who want to travel "While I realize you are still not out of report should have been principally an exand need to travel couldn't. Certainly, the the woods financially, the trend is encourag ercise in accommodation, then it likely same situation exists in Hawaii, where the ing. I am confident you will exhibit the would turn out to be a matter of brutal fact. only connection for people from one island same initiative in succeeding years as you The Congress has determined that it is in to another is by air. To a lesser extent, but have in the past, and that both profits and the national interest that the local service to a very considerable extent, this same state service will improve immensely.

carriers be subsidized. The subsidy program ment applies all across the Nation. Railroad "I am also confident that subsidy will be has, in my view, worked extremely well. The passenger trains are removed from service maintained at a level adequate to enable you local carriers now provide 80 percent more just about as rapidly as the railroads can to achieve these goals. With a continued

service for each subsidy dollar than they did arrange it. Between points now served by the increase in traffic and a more intense effort 10 years ago. Over the last 10 years the local carriers, it is generally possible to travel to obtain a new aircraft suitable for your

available seat-mile costs have been held conby bus or by private car, even though the needs, I am optimistic about your future. stant, while unduplicated route miles have compass heading must be changed many "I am hopeful, too, that 1964 will be the

more than doubled, increasing from 28,500 times on many journeys. But the fact re year when a new short-haul aircraft will

to 52,000. A strong local service network mains that this air service is essential, no move from paper designs into the shop and

benefits the communities served, the region, less, in the first 48 States as it is in the two onto the production line.

the trunks, the economy, and the Nation. newest. I simply cannot believe that the "Best wishes for another year of success

I want to repeat here at this stage of the Appropriation Committees of the Congress ful operations and improved service.”

proceedings that I, at least, see no point at or a substantial number of Members of Con To me, one sentence above all others stands

all in picking up the cudgel and using it to gress would be deaf and unresponsive to the out here. It is the one which is phrased in

thump the collective head of the CAB. That

agency, in issuing the report which gave so outraged cries which would arise border to this manner: "I am also confident that subborder, from ocean to ocean, if the recom sidy will be maintained at a level adequate

many of us the shivers, responded to a

command. mendations in the CAB report were to be to enable you to achieve these goals."

The transportation message was sent to come effective now. It cannot be. Logic and I bring you another greeting. It is from

the Congress, as mentioned, in the spring of need dictate otherwise. WARREN G. MAGNUSON, U.S. Senator from

1962, a year and a half ago. It has been As Senator MONRONEY put it, “It is hardly the State of Washington, chairman of

considered by the Congress. It is being conour will to support any move which will the Senate Commerce Committee and aviastrike a severe blow to the small- and middle tion's good friend. Senator

sidered by the Congress. The likelihood is MAGNUSON

that this examination will continue for some size communities of America and jeopardize keeps a vigilant and friendly eye on the avithe future of the local service airline." Sen

little time. The subject is complex, the ation industry not only in his capacity as ator MONRONEY speaks with the voice of chairman of the legislative committee but

subject is vital to our economy and to the knowledge and the voice of authority. also as chairman of the Senate Independent

national interest.

Chairman Boyd was careful in his letter After all, the basic purpose of the local Offices Appropriations Subcommittee which

of transmittal to the President to note that service airlines is to serve-to serve the pub

doles out the money to the CAB, the FAA, lic, to provide efficient, and convenient trans and by whatever roundabout routes to the

the Board would not proceed with its rec

ommendations until after the views of the portation, and to create a demand where no local service carriers. No one knows better demand existed before, making new passenhow essential your segment of the industry

President and the “views of the Congress” gers for themselves and feeding now passenis.

had been obtained. Senator MONRONEY has

given more than a hint of what his view is. gers to the trunklines.

With your permission, I am going off on

Add mine to his, and you have right there a The primary purpose of our Federal sub a brief tangent which will take us off course

fiftieth of the U.S. Senate. There will be sidy program is to help the local service carfor a bit on a subject which to my way of

others. Neither the CAB report, nor the riers in these tasks. thinking is closely allied with what we are

President's transportation message, can be The initial goal of the CAB should not be talking about here today. There has been

considered as the policy of the National Govthe reduction of subsidies but rather the some talk about tax reductions. There has

ernment until it has been approved by all strengthening of the local service carriers. been some talk that these should not be

concerned. It has not. Strengthened local carriers will provide im

made without an accompanying and like reproved service to the public and in time will duction in Federal spending.

I would say that time itself will solve the

I feel very require less subsidy from the Government. strongly that there is a general fallacy in problems that so earnestly and properly enCAB thinking as reflected in its recent rethis line of reasoning and a specific fallacy gage the attention of those in the admin

istrative and legislative branches of the port to the President seems to get the thing which relates directly to you. To start with, backward. As I read the report, the under

Government and in the industry. Time, tax reductions are being urged principally

as a means whereby the economy may be lying, undoubted principle adopted seems to

and not precipitate action, will suffice. I be nothing more than a determination to

honor the desire of the administration to stimulated, business may grow, industry may meat ax the subsidies.

reduce the outflow of tax dollars paid by thrive, and unemployment may decline. This would be on account of the injection of dol

way of subsidy. But I submit that to A couple of "public service" ribbons are tied around the meat ax but the blade relars into the economy by taxpayers accord

change the rules of the game while the game mains as sharp. ing to their own needs and desires instead of

is in full play would be to inflict grievous It is the CAB's hope-and this is a nice having those dollars grabbed by the Govern

economic losses upon the general economy ment. If tax reductions are made on the

far surpassing in amount the total of the thought—that the coming year's local seryorder of $11 billion, and Federal spending is

subsidy payments. Time will take care of ice subsidies can be reduced as new revenues increase.

this if for no other reason than that our popto be decreased by like amount, it seems These revenues, says the Board, clear to me that the one would cancel out

ulation is increasing so very rapidly. With will exceed new costs by 100 percent. They

300 million people in the United States by never have in the past, but the CAB thinks the other, that the gain made by the tax

the turn of the century, as the census exthey will in the future. It is a nice thought reduction would be exactly offset by the lim

perts tell us will be the case, there will be so but it is one upon which it is difficult to itation on Federal spending. But I should

many people flying to so many places that build a nationwide policy. not trouble you with my economic conclu

by then, in my judgment, history will record At this point, I take especial pleasure in sions in this regard were it not for one matter how useful a Government-assistance propresenting to you an especial greeting from which very specifically might affect the local

gram, already ended, was in helping to estaban especially knowledgeable man. I have service carriers.

lish and to maintain until the time came it

could fly on its own, a transportation facility putting that issue on the shelf for another the major nuclear powers-the U.S.S.R., so vitally important in so many areas.

year. However, the subject of China may Britain, and the United States--as a "dirty And by then surely American ingenuity well be prominent in American discussions fraud" and indicated that China

poses will have developed and long since will have of foreign policy in the months ahead for to go ahead and develop nuclear weapons had in service aircraft designed and built to there is mounting evidence that the Ken of its own. Peiping charged Soviet submeet every need of the local carriers. After nedy administration might welcome a na version in the Sinkiang-Uighur autonomous all, this should not be beyond the capacity tional debate looking toward a somewhat region, and in central Asia. China also of the Nation which even now is preparing more affirmative U.S. approach toward main shows signs of stepping up its own subverto launch and fly a supersonic airplane in a land China.

sive activities in southeast Asia, while a decade or less.

It is now more than a decade since our clash of Sino-Soviet interests in India alJust as the bird is born to fly, so was the traditional China policy was reversed. In ready has taken place. More conflicts of airplane built to remain aloft. And just as the 19th century, the United States fought national interest between the two Comthe mother bird instructs her young how to hard to win acceptance of its envoy in Pei munist powers are likely to come over such fly, let us as a nation remember that while ping, and struggled to gain access to China's

pivotal countries as Indonesia and Japan. the glamour and the drama attach to the market. Daniel Webster and Adm. Alfred T. The Sino-Soviet quarrel has been starkly plane flying at Mach 2.2 or Mach 3, there are Mahan alike looked upon China as offering reflected in the economic field. After the some earthlings who will always need to be a great potential outlet for American goods. calamitous economic plunge that resulted taken through the sky at lower altitudes for As the century ended, Secretary of State from its attempted great leap of 1958, China, shorter distances by none other than local John Hay evolved the open-door policy to through prodigious effort, succeeded by 1962 service carriers,

further our trade aims. East Asia was in restoring agricultural production to about Our friends in the CAB have performed viewed as the New Frontier of that era, to what it was in 1957. But the population had their function. They have submitted their be opened up to absorb the surplus produc increased by 60 to 75 million in the meanreport. That chore has been accomplished. tion of an ever-expanding American economy. time, leaving China with a worse food shortNow let us all sit down together, passengers, Since 1950, however, a diametrically op age than that of 5 years earlier. Steel proindustry, and Government and, guided by posite policy has been developed. The duction dropped from a peak of an estirealism, and necessity, join in improving United States, which had worked for a cen mated 15 million metric tons in 1960 to less this local service, in stabilizing it, in taking tury to break through China's Great Wall than 10 million tons in 1962. Not only have it off subsidy at the earliest possible time of exclusionism, now endeavored to build new starts in industrial construction been but not before then-and in the meantime a barrier designed to keep China "contained.” drastically curtailed, but important projects performing those services which we simply The Kennedy administration, following its already under way, such as the Sanmen hycannot do without. As a fare-paying pas predecessor's policy, does not maintain dip droelectric plant on the Yellow River, have senger, as one U.S. Senator, as one mem

lomatic relations with Peiping. It contends been suspended for want of machinery ber of the Aviation Subcommittee, I as that it enjoys relations with the rightful which was to have come from the U.S.S.R. sure you of my earnest desire and intention Government of China by virtue of its al China's overall foreign trade in 1962 was to cooperate. Let us go on from here to liance with Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists substantially lower than in 1960. Estranged where we ought to go. Let us go without on Formosa. It prohibits the travel of from the Communist bloc, excepting Albania recrimination. Let us go without industry Americans to mainland China on the facile and North Korea-neither a pillar of ecoattacking Government or Government at- ground that protection is not available to nomic strength-China is turning now to tacking industry or the public attacking

our citizens where diplomatic representation trade with countries it has hitherto exeboth. Let us, especially, join in the fullest is lacking. Finally, Washington imposes a crated as imperialist-Great Britain, France, measure of cooperation. Let us keep that complete embargo on trade with China. West Germany, and Japan and our own bird flying

The policy is thus one of total noninter northern neighbor, Canada.
course. The United States also campaigns The United States for the past decade has

in the world community against China's exerted the strongest possible pressure TOWARD AN AFFIRMATIVE AP

admission to the United Nations. Hoping against its friends and allies to refrain from PROACH TO CHINA

to achieve “containment” of China, we have such trade with China. It is noteworthy Mr. McGOVERN. Mr. President, for

substituted the closed-door for the open that of China's big non-Communist traddoor policy.

ing partners only one, Great Britain, has many years I have felt that our policy

But winds of change are blowing in recognized the Peiping regime—but all perwith reference to the Chinese mainland the Sino-Soviet relationship, upsetting the mit their citizens to visit China and all are is a sterile, shortsighted approach that premises on which our present China policy

premises on which our present China policy prepared to do business with her. American is against our best interests. I wonder is based. In July, world attention turned to

pressure has consequently won only minor how long we can maintain the ostrich the meeting of Chinese and Soviet delega successes to date, at the price of arousing like position which ignores a nation

tions at Moscow which was called to settle strong resentments and finally defiance embracing one-fourth of all the human great Communist powers.

differences that had risen between the two among our allies. Now, with the breach be

The conference tween Moscow and Peiping forcing China to beings in the world. Does such a policy broke up in a fortnight with the dispute seek other sources of supply and become a advance American security?

unresolved. In its bout with Moscow, Pei more profitable customer for the trading naSome of the questions that have con- ping obtained satisfaction for none of its tions, the American “Chinese Wall” policy is cerned me, are raised by Mr. O. Edmund demands.

more futile than ever. Clubb, former director of the State De The Soviet Union, instead of brandishing Various big international traders have been partment's Office of Chinese Affairs, in

its nuclear weapons against us in the in carefully but persistently exploring the poan article appearing in the November nihilation for itself, as proposed by Mao ternational arena and braving nuclear an tential of the Chinese market. China has

been buying grain abroad since 1961. In the 1963 issue of the Progressive magazine. Tse-tung, has signed a pact with the United first half of the present year, China purI ask unanimous consent that this

States and more than a hundred other coun chased 1,300,000 metric tons of wheat from article entitled "Toward an Affirmative tries which reduces the danger of nuclear France; in August it contracted for the purApproach to China" together with a brief confrontation. Instead of pouring from its chase of 2 to 3 million tons from Canada for reference to former President Truman's none-too-copious cornucopia a wealth of delivery over a period of 3 years. After

a break in trade relations in 1958, China and recommendation that we offer wheat to goods and services for the benefit of "so

Japan began trading again in 1961. In 1962, China, be printed at this point in the cialist” China, the U.S.S.R. is giving aid to

"bourgeois" India. In spite of such hereti their two-way exchange amounted to about RECORD.

cal acts against Peiping doctrine, and in the $80 million; this year it is expected to total There being no objection, the article face of subjection to Mao Tse-tung's worst $150 million, and a Japanese firm has just was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, thunderbolts and fulminations directed sold China a $20 million vinyl plant. as follows:

against him as the greatest "revisionist" early 1963, the British sold some Vickers TOWARD AN AFFIRMATIVE APPROACH TO CHINA

of them all, Nikita Khrushchev still remains prop-jet transport planes to China (after on his pedestal.

carefully removing American-made naviga(By O. Edmund Clubb)

The character of the new relationship de tion equipment). This summer, three Brit(NOTE.-O. Edmund Clubb, formerly Direc- veloping between China and the Soviet Union ish companies opened the first British trade tor of the Office of Chinese Affairs of the is now becoming clearer. Evidence of reap fair in Peiping. The British chargé d'affaires, State Department, is an author and lecturer praisal and adjustments in the power strat who presided at the opening, said that a subon Asian affairs at New York University and egies of the two Communist giants has been stantial increase of Sino-British trade was was visiting lecturer at Columbia Univer discernible ever since the summer of 1960, "both possible and desirable." And to resity from 1959 to 1962. He has had 20 years when the U.S.S.R. pulled its technicians and place oil supplies previously obtained from of experience in East Asia, including assign- blueprints out of China and began to re the U.S.S.R. at high cost, China now buys ments as consul general at Vladivostok and duce assistance to its nominal ally. More some oil from Western countries. Peiping.)

evidence of a massive Chinese reaction to This all adds up to a major reorientation The General Assembly of the United Na all this has become available since the break of China's trade. Peiping will not find the tions has once again refused to approve down of the July discussions. Peiping has adjustment easy, or fully satisfying. Indusmembership for Communist China, thus denounced the test ban agreement among trialized countries such as Britain and Japan

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