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famine in Russia. The Soviet people are to maintain its domestic system of ments difficulties and to alleviate our own not starving, and the Government has not collectivization.

internal agricultural problems. lost all of its ability to meet a food crisis.

EXPORTS POLITICAL, TOO

Finally, it should be stated unambiguously It could certainly divert some of its re

that it would be wrong to conclude that since sources from heavy industry to better agri

Second, the importation of wheat necessary to the Soviet Union in order for it should have no part of it. That is fallacious

the wheat deal is political, the United States cultural management, and it is still capable of providing the basic staples to meet Rusto meet its grain export commitments. These

and extreme. It would be a pity if we failed sian needs. commitments are important to the Soviet

to use the limited leverage that this particuEven if all the Western countries were leadership primarily for political reasons.

lar situation affords. to refuse wheat to Russia, no Russian would

Last year the Soviet Union exported ap

Since the Soviet Union wishes to buy wheat starve because of it. There is no doubt, proximately 7.8 million tons of grain, of which wheat constituted 4.7 million tons. The list position. By all means, we should go ahead

from us, it puts us in a favorable bargaining however, that certain kinds of foods would be in short supply, and this would create of clients shows clearly the political im

with the deal, but our approach should be considerable social and political difficulties portance of the exports: the largest con

very conscious of its essentially political for the Soviet Government. sumer was East Germany, followed succes

character.
sively by Czechoslovakia, Poland, Brazil and
OUTRAGEOUS APPROACH

Cuba.
The economic argument is more complex. The restriction that President Kennedy [From the Lincoln (Nebr.) Journal, Nov. 1,
The simple equation of profit and trade is wishes to impose on the reexportation of

1963) deeply rooted in the American tradition, American grain to these countries creates a DEMAND MORE THAN DOLLARS: TEACHER TALKS and it is not easy to convince an American technical impediment to such exports. The

ON WHEAT SALE that the Soviet approach to the problem is Soviet Union would not be able to ship them

A University of Nebraska professor Friday somewhat different. Yet as George Kennan American wheat directly. Nonetheless, the

called for the United States to demand conhas amply demonstrated in his book, "Rus availability of American wheat, and indeed of other Western wheat, would mean that

cessions besides dollars in any sale of wheat sia and the West,” the Soviet approach to

to the Soviet Union. the problem of trade is a highly political one. Soviet grain itself could be exported to the

Dr. Galen Saylor, chairman of NU's DeWriting about the Soviet attitude toward countries concerned. Hence the political

partment of Secondary Education in Teachers the West in the very early 1920's, Kennan problem would not be resolved by the pro

College, drew from his experiences teaching thus projected the Soviet reasoning on the posed restriction. subject of trade with the West:

The above comments should not be con

in Finland last year while addressing the

Lincoln Kiwanis Club. "We despise you. We consider that you strued as an argument against an American

Dr. Saylor noted Russia insists on politishould be swept from the earth as govern Soviet wheat deal. They are meant to sug

cal guarantees from Finland in order that ments and physically destroyed as individ gest, however, that this wheat deal ought to

the Finns may gain trade agreements with uals. We reserve the right, in our private, be viewed in a political perspective and that

the Soviets. if not in our official capacities, to do what U.S. negotiators ought to seek political con

“Why not turn the tables on Russia now we can to bring this about: to revile you cession from the Soviets in return.

that she needs wheat?” the professor asked. publicly, to do everything within our power Naturally, there would be no point in ex

"If she balks at our conditions, let her go to detach your own people from their loyalty pecting fundamental concessions. For ex

elsewhere for wheat. The sale of a mere fracto you and their confidence in you, to sub ample, it would be illusory to expect a

tion of our surplus wheat is not so imporvert your Armed Forces and to work for your Soviet acknowledgement of our position in downfall in favor of the Communist dic Berlin in return for our willingness to sell

tant as to justify a compromising, timid at

titude toward international relations on our tatorship. Russia some wheat; there is no political

part.” “But since we are not strong enough to equivalence between these two interests.

Dr. Saylor said that American people destroy you today—since an interval must However, on a number of marginal issues,

should impose conditions leading to a lessunfortunately elapse before we can give you there is no reason why the United States

ening of international tensions as an addithe coup de grace-we want you during this should not insist on a quid pro quo. interval to trade with us. An outrageous For example, it would seem ironical for tional basis for the wheat

deal. demand? Perhaps. But you will accept it

the United States to be enabling the Soviet nevertheless.

Union to maintain its collectivized agricul- [From the New York (N.Y.) Times, Nov. 3, “You will accept it because you are not free ture and its politically motivated grain ex

1963) agents, because you are slaves to your own

ports and at the same time for this country UNITED STATES GIVES SOVIET COMPROMISE PLAN capitalist appetites, because when profit is to endure continued Soviet harassment in its FOR WHEAT RATES-SUGGESTS PROVIDING involved, you have no pride, no principles,

access to Berlin. At the very least, our ne VESSELS FOR 20 TO 30 PERCENT OF GRAIN AT no honor. In the blindness that character gotiators could insist on a clear reciprocal A COST OF $18 A TON-RUSSIANS WEIGH izes declining and perishing classes, you will understanding of the technical arrangements OFFER--APPROVAL WILL END DEADLOCKwink at our efforts to destroy you, you will involved in Western access.

BULGARIA MAY PURCHASE $8 MILLION IN compete with one another for our favor." Similarly, we could demand that the So

TOBACCO One may wonder, in the light of the 1962 viets lift their travel restrictions within Rus

(By William M. Blair) Cuban confrontation and Khrushchev's gen- sia. Indeed, a political quid pro quo should

WASHINGTON, November 2.-The United eral policy of "burying" us, whether this apbe sought in the case of other so-called non

States has moved to break the impasse on its proach has changed so very fundamentally. political, technical arrangements.

For many years, for reasons of political shipping rates that has held up sales of A NECESSARY FAILURE prestige and also as a precedent, the Soviet

wheat to the Soviet Union. To the Soviet leaders, the wheat deal is

A new proposal, which the Russians are Union has been very anxious to establish political because two very vital Soviet politi

Perhaps direct American-Soviet air links.

understood to be considering over the weekcal interests are involved. The first is the there is no reason to oppose such links, but

end, would involve concessions by both sides.

It includes a lowered U.S. cargo rate and a stability of the collective agricultural system it might be preferable to negotiate about itself. Over many years, that system has

division of $250 million worth of wheat bethem in the context of a reciprocal Soviet

tween American and foreign-flag vessels. failed to deliver the goods, at least insofar willingness to meet some of our political as the Soviet consumer is concerned. Yet objectives.

The sale of up to 4 million tons of wheat

has been blocked because U.S. cargo schedto the political leadership, the collective sys Of course, proponents of the purely "ecotem is essential.

ules have been $10 to $13 or more higher nomic" approach might say that if our posi

than foreign charter charges for shipments A recent critical reevaluation of the Stalin tion is too hard, the Soviet Union will buy

to Black Sea and Baltic ports. ist drive for collectivization, published in the wheat somewhere else. That may be Voprosy istorii, state quite categorically that true, but the argument is not entirely con

STIPULATION BY KENNEDY the collectivist system was necessary in order vincing. If the Soviet Union could easily President Kennedy stipulated that wheat to build socialism in the Soviet Union and buy wheat elsewhere, then why does it not sold to the Soviet Union and its satellites for the defense of the country. Mounting do so?

should be carried in American vessels, as consumer dissatisfaction with the inability It either wishes to deal directly with the available, supplemented by foreign ships. of the present agricultural system to produce United States because that would strengthen It is understood that the United States is adequately might, over the long haul, force the impression in the West and elsewhere of willing to provide a cargo rate of $18 a ton if the Soviet leaders to revise the agricultural an American-Soviet detente-an impression 20 to 30 percent of the wheat is carried in system. However, if the Soviet leadership which intensifies Western European fears American vessels. Payment for this amount finds other means of meeting domestic needs; concerning the American position; or, con would be in dollars or gold. i.e., imports paid for with gold, it can per ceivably, the Soviet Union does not see other The $18-a-ton rate compares with the $21 petuate the collectivist system.

markets so readily available and the Amer a ton recently offered by a group of trampCollectivization was abandoned in Poland ican wheat is thus of some economic impor- ship owners to move wheat to the Soviet and Yugoslavia because the leaderships had tance to it as well.

Union. The tramp-ship operators, whose no way out. By importing wheat, the Soviet One may safely assume that the Soviet unscheduled vessels ply between any ports leadership sees a way out, and hence the Union is not anxious to buy American wheat where cargo is available, recently reduced wheat deal is necessary to Moscow in order merely in order to reduce our balance-of-pay- their rate by $5 from $26 a ton.

FOREIGN SHIPS TO BE USED

ALCOHOL SALE POSSIBLE

Following this, John Hanson became a Presumably, the remainder of the wheat The Russians were also understood to be Member of the Continental Congress and purchase, 70 to 80 percent, would be carried interested in buying some 300,000 tons of its President. by foreign vessels at the world charter rate industrial alcohol, possibly for use in the History credits Hanson with helping of about $12.50 a ton. This amount of wheat manufacture of fertilizer. Premier Khru

to put Maryland into the Confederation would be paid for through normal commer- shchev has called on Soviet farm planners to

at a time when many residents of the cial credits of about 18 months.

produce more fertilizer to increase food The $18-a-ton figure was said to have been production.

State wanted to go it alone. It was later worked out with American tramp-ship A major surprise among the pending ap- recognized that Maryland's teamplay owners, whose vessels are regarded as most plications was for an $8 million sale of in the Confederation seasoned her for suitable by wheat shippers, at an unan tobacco to Bulgaria. It was said that Bul the Union later on. nounced meeting earlier this week in New garia, which grows tobacco, must need to

It was in his capacity as President of York. It was understood that ship repre

bacco to keep her mills running. The appli- the Continental Congress that John sentatives and officials of the Commerce De cation was made by the A. C. Monk Co. of

Hanson tendered Gen. George Washingpartment had agreed that ships or tankers of Farmville, N.C. larger capacities-16,000 to 20,000 tons The applications covering wheat were for

ton, on November 28, 1781, the thanks of could handle nearly 720,000 tons of the 100,000 long tons of wheat for $7,600,000 by the Congress for Washington's victory wheat.

Cargill, Inc., of Minneapolis and 50,000 long at Yorktown. Later, it was said, one other shipping line tons for $4,200,000 by the Continental Grain When John Hanson retired from pubhad offered to handle 200,000 more tons. Co. of Minneapolis. A long ton is 2,240 lic life he settled at Oxon Hill in Prince This would put the amount of wheat to go in pounds.

Georges County, Md. Thus John HanAmerican vessels at 920,000 tons, or about 23 The first application for cotton called for

son, the first President of the United percent of the projected total shipments. the sale of 375,000 pounds of cotton linters A survey by shipowners and Government at $17,500 to the Soviet Union. It was filed States "in Congress assembled” was

born, educated, worked, served his counofficials indicated that the 23 percent was by Reis & Co. of New York. about all that could be carried by the U.S. Export licenses already have been issued try, retired, and died in his beloved State flag ships now available.

for $7,900,000 in agricultural products since of Maryland. A division of the shipment between U.S. the President approved such sales on Octo Incidentally, a grandson, Alexander and foreign-flag vessels has been regarded as ber 9.

Contee Hanson, served in the U.S. Senate the most likely solution. If acceptable to

A check of licenses issued turned up a sale with distinction. the Russians, the Maritime Administration to East Germany of soybeans and tobacco.

In my opinion, Mr. President, it is well will set a guideline for U.S. shippers. In The total sale was $896,000. The other sales effect, the guideline would be a ceiling rate were of corn, soybeans, and soybean meal to for us to hold on to the memory of these of $18 a ton. Hungary

great men who helped form our great If the rate quoted by a shipowner to a

Nation, destined to lead the world. We private grain trader who negotiates a sale to

remember and honor John Hanson, of the Russians falls within the $18-a-ton THE 182D ANNIVERSARY OF ELEC

Maryland. schedule, the Maritime Administration would certify the ship as available. The Depart

TION OF JOHN HANSON, OF MARYment of Commerce then could issue an ex LAND, AS FIRST PRESIDENT OF STAY-IN-SCHOOL EFFORTS PAY OFF port license for the sale.

UNITED STATES IN CONGRESS AS-
There was speculation in trading circles on
SEMBLED

Mr. BAYH. Mr. President, in this 1st what concessions would be made to ship

session of the 88th Congress, I have atowners for meeting the $18 rate. It is known Mr. BEALL. Mr. President, today is tempted to identify myself with the efthat in the first meeting here of shipowners the 182d anniversary of the election of forts of this body to solve some of the with the Maritime Administration last week John Hanson, of Maryland, as the first great problems that confront our Nathe shippers sought a 10-percent increase in President of the United States in Con- tion's younger citizens. I have supported rates for shipments of surplus agricultural products under foreign aid programs.

gress assembled. That election came the Youth Employment Act, the ManUnder Federal law, 50 percent of foreign under the Articles of Confederation and power Development Act, the Vocational aid shipments must be made in U.S. ships. Perpetual Union. It preceded the adop- Education Act, the Juvenile Delinquency This requirement would not apply to the tion of the Constitution of the United and Youth Offenses Control Act, and sevproposed sale of wheat to the Soviet Union States and the election of George Wash- eral corollary pieces of legislation that, because it would be made by commercial ington as President by 7 years. companies.

while not directly affecting youth, will

It is the restrictive words "in Congress in the long run, greatly aid them. The shipowners argued that there had been assembled” that keeps John Hanson's All of these are good, sound programs rates since 1957, and that since then their name from the list of U.S. Presidents, that reflect a concern for the well-being costs, including labor, had risen. and from the No. 1 spot in that list.

of our Nation's most precious resource The division of the wheat shipments would

As a Member of the Continental Con- its youth. also placate foreign maritime nations. Sev- gress, John Hanson, of Maryland, was However, my remarks today are not to eral countries have informally protested that elected President of the Continental extol the virtues of any program of the "American bottoms” condition laid down Congress on November 5, 1781.

Washington origin. Today, I wish to call by President Kennedy was discriminatory

John Hanson should be remembered attention to what a group of aroused and contrary to U.S. endorsement of free trade principles.

and honored, not only as “technically" and dedicated citizens have done in order Several countries were considering a strong, the first President of the United States, to insure a brighter future for the young concerted representation, or informal diplo- but also for his part in helping to put people of Indianapolis, Ind. matic protest, to the United States on the Maryland into the Confederation and in All of us realize the importance of eduwheat sale. These included Britain, the the early formation of our Nation.

cation to our Nation as a whole and to Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain, Italy, John Hanson was born at Mulberry each individual.

each individual. The results of inadeNorway, Sweden, Denmark, Greece and pos- Grove, near Port Tobacco, Charles quate educational attainment are lower sibly Japan. Norway was one of the first to

County, Md., on April 3, 1715. After earning capacity, higher rates of unemprotest.

The latest effort to reach some sort of pursuing an academic course in school ployment, dependence upon public aid agreement was made in a meeting at the

and engaging in farming, he became a and higher rejections for military service. Department of State with Sergei A. Borisov, member of the Maryland House of Dele While this is realized, statistics still First Deputy Trade Minister of the Soviet gates. Here he served for nine terms. tell us that 30 to 40 percent of the pupils Union. The United States was represented John Hanson was elected to the Mary- currently in the fifth grade will not reby Under Secretaries George W. Ball of the land Senate in 1757 and served in the main in school to receive their high State Department, Charles S. Murphy of the Senate until 1773. He moved to Fred- school diplomas. Therefore, if present Department of Agriculture and Franklin D.

erick County and was quite active in trends continue, we as a nation will have Roosevelt, Jr., of the Department of Com- pre-Revolutionary matters. He was a 742 to 8 million high-school dropouts in merce. It was also learned that at least six more

delegate to the General Congress in An, this decade. export licenses had been filed with the Com- napolis in 1774, and was a member of While the Indianapolis problem is not merce Department for shipments of wheat, the Maryland Convention of 1775 which as great as it is in larger metropolitan soybeans, tobacco, and cotton to Communist issued the declaration known as the areas, Indianapolis women realize that countries.

Association of Free Men of Maryland. unless this problem was met head-on,

it would soon assume alarming propor The returning dropouts who had person “We read about others going back to tions.

to-person counseling are enrolled as follows: school,” a 24-year-old mother of three said. Therefore, a stay-in-school project Arlington, 2; Attucks, 58; Howe, 3; Manual, And we decided we couldn't wait any longer was initiated. Its purpose was to en

2; Northwestern, 1; Shortridge, 6; Tech, 66; to finish high school. We want to be betWashington, 11, and Wood, 7.

ter able to take care of our families." courage would-be high school dropouts

Many of the others are enrolled in evening Mrs. Addison Dowling, one of the 28 volunto continue their education. The proj- schools at Attucks, Tech, and Washington. teer women who worked last year on a pilot ect was sponsored by the Indianapolis Some dropouts whose families moved were project in which 28 dropouts returned, has News and under the skillful guidance of assisted in enrolling in Marion County helped to rehabilitate an entire family. Mrs. Margaret Moore. Mrs. C. B. La schools and elsewhere in Indiana. Dropouts I can't fail,” the teenage girl in the family Dine is chairman of the stay-in-school from Broad Ripple with whom volunteers told Mrs. Dowling. “Because you care so committee. worked returned to other schools.

much." Under their direction, 107 women re

One Indianapolis dropout, through help of Miss Belle Ramey, another former teacher ceived dropout lists from Indianapolis City, and another in Germany. a volunteer woman, is enrolled in New York who has helped with the pilot project and

this year's big-scale program, went to three public high schools. These volunteers

Names of dropouts were listed by princi schools to help her three pupils register. immediately wrote letters to prospective pals of all Indianapolis high schools and Mrs. David Cook, Mrs. L. R. Mottern, Mrs. dropouts in order to determine the cause given to the News stay-in-school committee. Hugh Gibson, Mrs. William Weisell, Mrs. of their failure to return to school. Per Personal letters were mailed by the women Bruce Richards, Mrs. Floyd Hughett, and son-to-person visits were then carried volunteers to all these dropouts. Enclosed other women can take credit for getting out. If lack of proper clothing, or money

in the letters were stamped, addressed return more than one youth back in school. Sara for lunches, bus tickets, or books, was

cards listing many reasons for dropping out C. Ewing aided nine dropouts this fall in the cause of leaving school, these funds

of school-need of a job, clothing, lunches, returning to pupil status.

bus tickets, books or fees, glasses, remedial or supplies were provided. Part-time reading, babysitter, advice on career, etc.

STUDY TABLES ARE ARRANGED jobs were found for those needing them. Dropouts were asked to check their needs in

All 107 women plan to follow through with

the young people assigned to them and asRemedial reading facilities were made order to return to school.

sist them to stay in school. available to slow readers.

The entire project has required no public Mrs. Ernest Campbell heads a group of The results-257 would-be dropouts funds. Women's clubs, church groups, so

former teachers who have offered to tutor in the Indianapolis area are in classes rorities, and other organizations have made

these young people during the year. this very minute due to the hard work contributions from bazaars, chili suppers,

Twenty-nine parent groups have offered of these civic-minded women. candy sales, benefit style shows, book reviews,

to set up study tables in their areas and and apron sales. As I see it, there are two things of sig

keep on the lookout for potential dropouts

Seven organizations have chosen aid to nificance about this program. First, the dropouts as a year-round project.

in elementary and high schools.

Leaders of the stay-in-schol committee entire project required no public funds.

CLOTHING PROVIDED FOR MANY

have been asked to speak to caseworkers of Local initiative and foresight supplanted

Sixty-three youths who stayed at home the children's division, Marion County Dethe use of taxpayers' dollars. Second, many days because they were ashamed of partment of Public Welfare, Wednesday the comprehensive nature of this pro

their clothes are in classes now with attrac morning. Miss Helen Heady, director, said, gram, coupled with the extra effort of tive and serviceable outfits.

“I'm sure the workers can help to encourage the volunteers insured success. A care Mrs. J. C. Fix, chairman, Mrs. Russell Jus

children to work harder and take more inful reading of this article shows that tice, Mrs. Harvey Shawver, Mrs. Robert Udell,

terest in school.”

Camp Fire leaders of the Central Indiana the Indianapolis public school system, Eva J. Lewis, and other volunteers manned the press, the Indiana Literacy Council,

a room provided for clothes at the YWCA, Council who will meet Tuesday also have 329 North Pennsylvania. More than 2,000

asked the volunteer stay-in-school women private tutors, women's clubs, church items of school clothes have been given by

to speak on "Stay-in-School Pointers." groups, and sororities were well mobiindividuals and groups.

OTHER CITIES ASK INFORMATION lized.

A 17-year-old who had been classed as a

Requests for the pattern used by IndianThe wide-range causes for the drop- "slow learner” was fitted with his first pair apolis women are being received almost daily outs demand nothing less than a compre of glasses.

from across the Nation. hensive approach to the problem. This "I can see for the first time since I was in L. M. Livingston, principal of North Vermethod was complemented by the many the sixth grade,” he told his volunteer non High School, has asked Mrs. LaDine, extra hours of difficult and taxing work counselor.

Mrs. Marshall Lincoln, and Margaret Moore of the 107 volunteers.

Arrangements for nursery school were to speak to high school teachers and volunMr. President, I ask unanimous con

made for the 4-year-old child of a teenage teer women at North Vernon on October 8.

mother who wanted to return to school in We hope you'll let us use your plan in sent to have this article reprinted in the order to support the little boy.

Crawfordsville,” Judge Howard A. Sommer CONGRESSIONAL RECORD for the benefit of

Thirty-three jobs, part-time and 40-hour of Montgomery Circuit Court, said. “We any and all who wish to help youth help week, have been obtained for returning drop want you to come to Crawfordsville to talk themselves. I ask Members of the Sen outs who could not return to school without with volunteers.” ate to join me in congratulating these means to help themselves or needy families. Mrs. David W. Martin, Fort Wayne, first dedicated, hard-working women.

Mrs. Harold E. Rodden, employment chair vice president of the Indiana Federation of There being no objection, the article

man of the volunteer project, worked with Clubs, and Mrs. Parke Jessup, Westfield,

personnel directors of retail stores, indus education chairman, have reports from eight was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, tries, and other firms, in placing the youths. counties where the Indianapolis plan is to as follows:

be initiated. Club women will help to get

HELP IN READING PROVIDED STAY-IN-SCHOOL EFFORTS PAY OFF

dropouts back in school. Two high school graduates, whose names

Congressman DONALD BRUCE, Member of (By Margaret Moore) inadvertently appeared on the dropout list

the House Committee on Education, has Personal counseling by volunteer women provided by schools, were aided in obtaining asked leaders of the movement to testify has prompted the return of 157 dropouts to college scholarships.

before the committee in Washington. Indianapolis schools.

Twenty-one returning dropouts are receiv

Congressman WILLIAM BRAY, of MartinsIn addition, more than 100 other youths ing assistance in remedial reading by volun

ville, said, “there's no parallel to the Indianreturned to classes last week as a result of teer teachers headed by Dr. Margaret Fisher, apolis person-to-person plan in the United personal letters written by volunteer women, president of the Indiana Literacy Council.

States. We could lick the national dropout and phone conversations with dropouts. Inability to read was one of the chief

problem by initiating this program through A total of 107 women, volunteers in the causes of dropouts counseled by the volun

women's groups across the country.” News stay-in-school drive, are responsible for teer women. Many have been placed in spe Gov. Matthew E. Welsh has asked the the success of the project. The person-to cial classes.

Indianapolis women to make their returnperson program required weeks of work in "I couldn't read in the fifth grade,” an to-school plan available to two State groups. cluding home visits, arrangements for cloth 18-year-old girl told Mrs. O. U. Mutz. "And “The Indiana Legislative Advisory Coming, lunches, bus tickets, books and fees, re I didn't learn in the sixth or seventh. No mission on Dropouts and the Indiana Youth medial reading, and employment. body seemed to care then.”

Council will welcome your assistance," he Mrs. C. B. LaDine, president of Seventh Seventy-five percent of the returning drop said. “I suggest you meet with both groups District Federation of Clubs, is chairman of outs told women volunteers that lack of di and help them solve the statewide problem." the stay-in-school committee.

rection and personal counseling caused them Pierre Salinger, Press Secretary to PresiThe project was carried out in cooperation to leave school.

dent John F. Kennedy, wrote to Mrs. Linwith Indianapolis public schools, and needs Five young married women, neighbors in coln from the White House this week asking of youths were established through inyes a five-block area, returned to evening school for full information on the Indianapolis tigation. through help of interested women.

plan to refer to the President.

Dr. Phillip D. Gaffney, of the Education Richard Moos, of Hondo, is even closer to There being no objection, the excerpt Department, Arizona State University, has home, in El Salvador where he is busily en- was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, requested information about the return of gaged in trying to show the natives literal

as follows: dropouts in Indianapolis for his classes in ly how to make better hay. It seems there education. is no haymaking in the little country despite

The poll tax is a barricade to voting. The lush growth and long dry spells. Moos is records prove it. It is a startling fact that using new grass varieties and trench silos

of the 11 States with a poll tax requirement ABILENE REPORTER-NEWS RE- to change all that.

for voting since 1920, all 11 States had the 11 PORTS ON TEXANS IN THE PEACE "Minding the store" in Washington is a

worst records for low percentage of people CORPS covey of Texans who operate the business voting in the entire United States in na

tional elections in 1958 and again in 1960. end of the Corps. Moyers, who is second in

Let's take 1960 first. Mr. YARBOROUGH. Mr. President, command to Director Sargent Shriver, is con

A State-by-State

breakdown of voter percentages in votes cast I am pleased and proud that my fellow sidered one of the outstanding men in Gov

in November 1960, for presidential electors, Texans are playing such an important ernment. At 28 he was one of the youngrole in the Peace Corps, one of the greatest Presidential appointments in history to

shows the 11 States 'with a poll tax history be confirmed by the Senate.

since 1920, have the worst 11 State voting est successes of this administration. In order to share with my colleagues of Texas and won a Rotary International Moyers was graduated from the University records in this order, and I quote from

Census Bureau figures: the work Texans are doing in the Peace scholarship for a year's study abroad. He

North Carolina, 40th with 54.3 percent of Corps, I ask unanimous consent that the was information director for the Southwest

adults voting.

Tennessee, 41st with 50.6 percent of adults following article by Ned Curran in the Baptist Theological Seminary in Fort Worth

voting. Abilene (Tex.) Reporter-News be printed before joining the then Senator JOHNSON'S in the RECORD. staff in 1959.

Florida, 42d with 49.8 percent of adults

voting. There being no objection, the article HARDIN-SIMMONS UNIVERSITY GRADUATE

Louisiana, 43d with 45.7 percent of adults was ordered to be printed in the RECORD. A trio of Texans help publicize the Peace voting. as follows:

Corps at home and abroad. Deputy Associate Texas, 44th with 43.4 percent of adults

Director for Public Affairs is Lloyd Wright, of voting. PEACE CORPS IS TEXAS FLAVORED

Hale Center; Phillip D. Hardberger, of O'Don Arkansas, 45th with 41.7 percent of adults (By Ned Curran)

nell, is communications director; and Ruth voting WASHINGTON.-Even the Peace Corps has Schumm, of Dallas, is a special feature writer. Virginia, 46th with 34.4 percent of adults a Texas look.

Wright, who helps direct recruiting and voting. From Deputy Director Bill Moyers to a 76- information and advertising, is a Hardin South Carolina, 47th with 31.5 percent of year-old volunteer from Dallas, the Corps is Simmons graduate, president of the Hardin. adults voting. shot through with nearly 160 Texans. And Simmons University Student Council in Georgia, 48th with 31.3 percent of adults Vice President LYNDON JOHNSON is Chairman 1952–53. He is also a former publicist for voting. of the Peace Corps Advisory Council. Texas Baptist organizations.

Alabama, 49th with 31.2 percent of adults The real Peace Corps image, of course, is Hardberger, another Texas Baptist alum voting. being formed by the volunteers of which nus, is a Baylor graduate and possessor of Mississippi, 50th with 25.6 percent of there are a total of 5,466 overseas. Of these, a varied newspaper and writing background. adults voting. 153 are Texans, ranking the State 11th in Miss Schumm was formerly with the Wash

Of these 11 States, Alabama, Arkansas, the Nation as a wellspring for Peace Corps ington bureau of the Dallas Morning News Mississippi, Virginia, and Texas still have a workers.

and then a member of Vice President JOHN- poll tax. Of the remaining six with a poll The Texas corpsmen are scattered from SON's staff. She is one of Washington's best tax history, Tennessee abolished the poll tax Pakistan to Nigeria and represent almost as known newspaper women.

as a voting requirement in 1959; South Carodivergent areas of this home State. Their

lina in 1950; Georgia, 1945; Florida, 1937; hometowns stretch from El Paso to Baytown.

Louisiana, 1934; North Carolina, 1920. Perhaps the most unusual Texan in the

gardless of why an individual State may have Corps is 76-year-old Ralph Cole of Dallas. A TEXAS HAS OPPORTUNITY TO RE decided to impose a poll tax, there is absocivil engineer before he became a volunteer, PEAL ITS POLL TAX ON NOVEM- lutely no question that it has served as a Cole is now in Pakistan doing the same kind BER 9

shackle on the potential voter, a barrier to of work. He is not above a little diplomacy

the ballot box, a blockade on a full voter either, according to a Peace Corps report. Mr. YARBOROUGH. Mr. President, participation, and continues to do so where Cole is asked continually by the Pakis- this past weekend, Saturday, November

it is in effect. tanis why the United States keeps giving 2, I had the pleasure of speaking at an

By contrast, some of the States with higher arms aid to India without insisting on set antipoll tax rally in Corpus Christi, Tex.,

turnout of adults voting for President in tlement of the Kashmir border dispute be- sponsored by the league of women vot

1960 are: tween India and Pakistan. Cole's stock an

Idaho with 80.6 percent of adults voting. swer is that “they're doing it all without ers and other groups. This meeting was

New Hampshire with 80.6 percent of adults also addressed by the mayor of Corpus voting. my permission."

In case Cole runs out of answers, the Christi and a number of other speakers. Utah with 79.9 percent of adults voting. Peace Corps has at least one Texan in India Texas has an election on November 9,

South Dakota with 78.8 percent of adults to balance things out. Joe Pena of El Paso 1963, and on the ballot will be a proposed

voting. is involved in a unique enterprise with three amendment to the State constitution to

California with 70.6 percent of adults other volunteers. They have set up their allow a vote for or against repeal of the

voting. own machine tool factory in a small town poll tax as a prerequisite for voting in voting,

New York with 67.6 percent of adults and are attempting to mass-produce farm equipment.

elections. The league of women voters Back in 1958 the same 11 States with a With only a gas station job during high has performed a distinguished public poll tax history at sometime since 1920, still school as background, Joe has joined the oth- service in Texas in bringing this vital ranked as the 11 with the lowest and worst a co-op that is fast becoming a boom in the the fight for repeal. ers in setting up the miniature factory as issue to public attention, and in leading voting record. At that time there were only

48 States. The position of the 11 poll tax heavily agricultural area.

States changed a little, but they still had Those of us who have worked for years the worst voting percentage turnout of the EDINBURG NURSE

for abolition of the poll tax as a shackle 48 States. Here is how they ranked in the In the neighboring new Federation to Malaysia, Marilyn Billimek, a nurse from

on the voter of low income are pointing November 1958 election, in votes for U.S. Edinburg, is plying her trade in a hosout that vast confusion will result in

Representatives:

North Carolina, 38th with 24.7 percent of pital. The most trouble, according to Mari- Texas when the Federal amendment the adult population voting. lyn, “to keep from spinning my wheels in try- passes, if Texas retains a poll tax on the Virginia, 39th with 19.8 percent. ing to find workable substitutes for ordinary State level.

Tennessee, 40th with 18 percent. things like cleansing tissue and diapers."

Because there is some national inter

Florida 41st with 17.4 percent. There are two Texans in Brazil, slightly

Texas, 42d with 14.5 percent. closer to home, Nelson Jacob of Goliad and est in the outcome of Texas' November

Alabama, 43d with 13.2 percent. John S. Alfred, of Baytown. Both are in 9 election for or against repeal of the

Louisiana, 44th with 10.4 percent. agricultural extension work and Jacob dou- poll, I ask unanimous consent to have Georgia, 45th with 6.9 percent. bles as an English teacher in a remote ham- printed in the RECORD, an excerpt from South Carolina, 46th with 6.4 percent. let. Commenting on the graduation custom my remarks at an antipoll tax rally held

Arkansas, 47th with 5.8 percent. in his school in which the students choose

Mississippi, 48th with only 5.3 percent. their sponsor both for graduation and a in Exposition Hall in Corpus Christi, dance afterwards, Jacob reported that he was Nueces County, Tex., on November 2, the lowest, though 6 had repealed their poli

The 11 States with a poll tax history ranked picked by the "ugliest girl in the class.” 1963.

taxes, some a generation ago. Once a State

suffers voter discrimination for a long period of the enactment of this bill. The pri- for national seashore status. A restudy of of years because of the poll tax barrier, the re

mary reason for preservation of a nat- the island was made in 1947 and again the moval of that barrier does not result in all ural resource in its primitive state is to

recommendation was for administration by adults voting immediately. Years are re

the National Park Service for public use and quired before the majority of adults, barred insure its availability to the public for

enjoyment. The complete survey of the from voting by the poll tax, acquire the habit all time. However, the economic benefits

Atlantic and gulf coasts in 1954 and 1955 of voting after that poll tax shackle is cast are important, too.

again pointed to Padre Island as a national off. Texas needs to cut down the poll tax One of the reasons we were enabled to seashore. In December 1957, National Park bars, and to begin the job of training her pass the Padre Island bill in the Senate Service authorized a study to "detemine defpeople for full voter participation. History and House and later to win enabling leg- initely and finally the feasibility of such a by many people and organizations to rid a islation in Texas was the foresight and project.”

Congressional legislative action begun in majority of adult Texans of the generations- hard work of many people in Texas. A

1958, was climaxed when President John F. old habit of not voting.

good example is Cameron County Judge Kennedy signed the Padre seashore bill into I am coauthor of the proposed amendment Oscar C. Dancy, who worked not only in law on September 28, 1962, almost 30 years to the Constitution of the United States his home territory, but who came to after the first studies recommending the area. (the impending 24th amendment), which Washington several times at his own ex

The law authorizes the Secretary of the Into vote in Federal elections for Members of pense to testify in hearings on the Padre terior to acquire lands and waters within a Island bill.

described area encompassing somewhere near Congress, the Vice President, and President.

237,600 acres, including a large amount of This amendment, which required ratification

Cameron County has also been respon

State lands. by three-fourths of the States before becom sible under Judge Dancy's leadership for

The law provides that State and county ing a part of the Constitution, has already 40 years for development of a part of owned lands may be acquired only with been ratified by 36 State legislatures. Padre Island not included in the 8112 the consent of the State. To this end, the Ratification by only two more States are miles of national seashore area. To il Texas legislature enacted, and the Governor needed, and this amendment will be a part lustrate the economic benefits already approved in April 1963, legislation consenting

to the acquisition and directing the school will be a part of the Federal Constitution by accruing in my home State as a result of March 1964, before the next elections in

land board to convey to the United States, increased tourist interest in Padre Island,

the State lands (except minerals) within the Texas and the Nation. But this amendment even though the Federal Government has

authorized seashore boundary. Formal will apply only to Federal elections; it will only recently begun acquisition of the transfer of the deed to Texas-owned land in not remove the poll tax requirement in elec open beach, I ask unanimous consent to the seashore area to the Federal Government tions for candidates for State or local office, have printed in the RECORD two articles: was accomplished on August 23, in Austin. for Governor or the State legislature.

First, "Seashore Beckons Padre: Na Congress has appropriated $1.5 million If the Federal amendment is adopted and tional Mecca" from the Houston Chron

to start immediate acquisition of private we are faced next year with the prospect of a poll tax requirement on the State level icle of September 8, 1963; and "Padre property within the seashore area.

A superintendent, a land acquisition officer and no poll tax on the Federal level, Texas Island's Siren Song,” from Texas Game

and a chief park ranger, together with their will gain a doubtful distinction; it will rank and Fish, October 1963.

clerical help will be the nucleus of the seafirst as a State of election confusion.

There being no objection, the articles shore staff until sufficient land has been If the Texas poll tax is not repealed on

were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, acquired to begin development. November 9, each person who wants to vote as follows:

Early stages of development will stress fain Texas in the 1964 elections will have to

cilities for picnic and camping areas, fishqualify under two sets of qualification re (From the Houston (Tex.) Chronicle,

ing piers, trailer parks, marinas, and visitor quirements, one in Federal elections, the

Sept. 8, 1963)

centers. other in State and county elections. There

PADRE: NATIONAL MECCA

Concession stands, overnight accommodawould be two separate ballots, two separate

CORPUS CHRISTI.—Confident Texans expect tions and other private development projballot boxes, two different qualified voter

that 80 miles of seashore area in its natural ects are expected to be built outside the park lists. We would have confusion confounded,

state will soon become dotted with thousands area. and chaos at the ballot box. The failure to

of vacationers, sportsmen, campers, bird The National Park Service is expected to repeal the Texas poll tax amendment would

watchers, and photographers. The newly build roads into the seashore area from each make voting in Texas the most difficult gov

authorized Padre Island National Seashore end of the island with access spurs to the ernmental effort since Reconstruction days.

Area is destined to spark unprecedented beach, campgrounds, and other visitors' It would deny democracy and promote chi

tourist activity for the Lone Star State, facilities. canery and confusion.

especially around the Gateway City-Corpus
It would be hard to tell who should vote
and, afterwards, who won what election. We

Christi-a booming resort area in its own
right.

[From the Texas Game and Fish magazine, would have thousands and thousands of

October 1963] The seashore area, to be in full swing by people going to the polls to cast a vote for 1965, is expected to be a tourist magnet for

PADRE ISLAND'S SIREN SONG their President, only to find they cannot vote the entire State. Travel spokesmen feel it

(By Jack Galloway) for Governor. Confusion would reign.

will draw thousands of new visitors from all For a straightforward election in the best

The silver shaft of waveswept sand stabs over the United States, Canada, and Mexico its way 117 miles down the southern Texas traditions of the American people, the poll

to the bustling resort metropolis of Corpus coastline. Honed by the endless caress of tax amendment should be repealed, and all voters enabled to vote for all officers with

Christi where almost 200,000 permanent resi the surf, whetted by the salt breeze and temone qualification, on one ballot at one ballot town visitors and convention delegates an

dents already welcome some 100,000 out-of- pered by the fire of a blazing summer sun, box, as Texans have been accustomed to

the knife-blade profile of Padre Island is nually. doing.

cutting deeply into the hearts of vacationers The Padre Island National Seashore is on from throughout the Nation. the south Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico

Steeped in history and luxuriating in lovePADRE ISLAND

ISLAND NATIONAL SEA- between Corpus Christi and Brownsville. It liness, the very sands themselves seem to SHORE RECREATION AREA PROM- is bounded on the

west by the warm waters whisper the echoes of Cabeza de Vaca, ISES BOTH RECREATIONAL AND fowl and fish, and on the east by the Gulf kawa Indians. But these early travelers left

of Laguna Madre, with its exceptional water- Pineda, Padre Balli, and the cannibal KaranECONOMIC BENEFITS of Mexico.

little of lasting note behind, save an occaMr. YARBOROUGH. Mr. President,

The island, a 110-mile-long strip of sand sional handful of Spanish coins uncovered the achievements of this administration

that hugs the Texas gulf coast, is no more by indefatigable beachcombers, and a his.

than 4 miles wide and, at the crest of one of and the 87th Congress in conservation of its numerous dunes, is only a few feet high.

torical flavor that adds its own special lure

to this semitropical island playground. hundreds of miles of seashore in three

The National Park Service of the Depart Now the island is being discovered for the new national seashore recreation areas, ment of the Interior has set aside three other umpteenth time, this time by the modern exceeds the record of any previous Con- public areas for seashore recreation: Cape day band known as tourists, and it appears gress in this field. Padre Island, Cape Hatteras, N.C.; Point Reyes, Calif.; and Cape likely that their mark will prove indelible. Cod, and Point Reyes were added to the Cod, Mass.

On Padre Island's southern tip, the influx national seashore heritage.

Official interest in Padre Island as a na of La Belle Touriste is bringing permanent As author of the Senate bill which led

tional seashore dates back to 1934 when a and lasting change. But no one is complainto establishing of the National Seashore under the emergency conservation work prosurvey of the Texas gulf coast was made ing; it's a long island, with lots of room.

The responsibility for this change rests Recreation Area on Padre Island, off the gram. At that time the island was recome primarily on the needs of the vacationing gulf coast of Texas, last year, I have been mended as a national beach park. In 1940, public itself, but more directly on the operapleased to see borne out the promise of another study was made of the Texas gulf tion of what is perhaps the most ambitious economic benefit to my State as a result coast, and Padre Island was recommended county park system in the entire State.

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