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In 1954 Cameron County made south Itinerant beachgoers raised the forensic wants it? We like our Padre Island the way Padre Island accessible to everyone by span roof a few years ago when automobile traffic it is, relaxed and peaceful.” ning the Laguna Madre with the Queen Isa was closed off on the beach in Isla Blanca But there remains a whopping lot of isbella Causeway at Port Isabel. At the same Park. The action cut off the cavalier joys of land, with room for many things. time a system of county parks was instituted blasting the family lizzie through the sand The Cameron County Park Board is now on the island, which at the time contained to spend a day's outing living out of the receiving many requests from various enonly a few scattered fishing shacks. The car and leaving the litter for the sand crabs, trepreneurs who would like to put this beginning was timorous and inauspicious, seagulls and wafting breezes. But what was facility and that into the county parks. And but when the Cameron County parks got also accomplished was the making of prob- as South Padre Island's popularity grows, going, private development followed inevi ably the safest public beach on the Texas so will the requests, so that the major develtably behind, to the point that south Padre gulf coast. Parents can feel content to let opment problem of the future is likely to Island now boasts luxury resort hotels and the kids run and play through the sand and be that of separating the what's-good-forscores of private vacation homes.
surf of Isla Blanca Park with their own child- the-parks from the what's-bad, trying to This year the developmental growth has hood abandon. The surf and sandgoers are keep most of the development, as it were, on received added impetus, with three major constantly under the protective eye of well the pekoe side of the tourist's cup. projects for the two Cameron County parks. trained lifeguards, watching from high above There is simply no predicting how far it will the throng in candy-striped guard towers. go.
The safety record in Isla Blanca Park is CIVILIAN LEADERSHIP IN THE Long before the slender island was named impeccable.
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Padre, after a Spanish priest who was deeded The park's roster of public facilities is imthe land by the King of Spain, Spanish sea pressive already, but it continues to grow. Mr. THURMOND. Mr. President, going adventurers called the long barrier Now under construction in Isla Blanca more and more people are becoming conreef "Isla Blanca,” Spanish for “white island.” Park is the initial phase of a long-range cerned about the civilian leadership in The Cameron County Park Board has per development program. Construction on a
the Defense Department and the evident petuated the title in its initial park de marina and boatel near the foot of the
determination of this civilian leadership velopment on the extreme tip of South Padre causeway bridge in Isla Blanca Park was Island. Isla Blanca Park now offers com begun recently by a development firm. The to downgrade and ignore the advice and plete facilities for vacationers the year primary construction phase will establish a assistance of distinguished military exround, and more is in prospect.
marina with 30 boat slips and complete boat- perts on matters which are vital to our Just completed in Isla Blanca Park is a handling facilities, providing immediate ac- national security. I recall, Mr. Presi$125,000 recreational pavilion. The multi cess to the adjacent deep waters of the Gulf dent, that in 1961 I first raised the cry purpose facility houses the office of the park of Mexico, or a quick outboard run to the here in the Senate against what was director, as well as shuffleboard courts, vol favorite bay-fishing haunts of the Laguna popularly known as the muzzling of our leyball equipment and other recreational Madre. The firm envisions ultimately as provisions. It also doubles as a convention many as 400 boat slips for the marina in- military leaders by the civilian leaderand activity center, with the capacity for stallation.
ship in the Pentagon and also by the accommodating 1,000 persons at open con The firm holds option on additional park State Department. My efforts to present vention, or some 750 at banquet. Archi land for the construction of a marineland this to the public were hampered, riditecturally outstanding, the recreational pa exhibit, to be built across the street from culed, and ignored as much as possible vilion will answer a long-felt need on south the marina and boatel. It also plans to by many in the Congress, in the news Texas' pleasure island. It is the frosting on build an oceanographic research laboratory, media, and particularly by the civilian an already well-sampled resort and recrea- from which extensive research and explora leadership in the Pentagon and the State tion cake.
tory operations into the Gulf of Mexico can One hundred and seventeen trailer spaces be launched.
Department. are booked solid throughout the summer in All this in Isla Blanca Park.
Since that time, Mr. President, more the trailer park at Isla Blanca Park, with But there is a second Cameron County and more evidence has come to the fore easily three-fourths of that capacity utilized park.
to the effect that our military leaders the rest of the year. Complete trailer facil Five miles up South Padre Island from all are having to take a back seat to comities are available, with running water, elec this activity is Andy Bowie Park, named for puting machines and the civilian whiz tricity and sewer connections. The Cameron a former county commissioner. Until this kids who seem to make most of the deCounty Park Board is planning additional year it was undeveloped, open beach. Now cisions in the Pentagon these days trailer sites to meet the growing demand, as mobile home travel increases in popularity that extends 500 feet into the Gulf of Mexico through the Secretary of Defense. throughout the Nation. at one of the most choice fishing spots on
A distinguished military analyst, Mr. Summer and winter visitors who prefer the the lower gulf coast. Another private en- George Fielding Eliot, has written for more simple accommodations for beach terprise venture operating under lease from the American Legion magazine of Novacationing enjoy the overnight shelters of the Cameron County park system, the fishing vember 1963, an eloquent article on the Isla Blanca Park. With no glamor at pier contains a 200-foot T-head on the end, subject of "The Conflict in the Pentatempted, these facilities are the next step in water 18 to 20 feet deep. At that point gon: Does the Secretary of Defense Put above camping out. The shelters contain bunk beds for four people (with additional deep sea fishing the easy way without seå Housekeeping Ahead of National Secucots available) electric hot plates and a cold sickness. At the entrance to the pier is a
rity? That's the Question." water shower. Tenants use the central bath concession and bait stand, built out over
In view of the increasing congressional house facilities of the trailer park. As the water, where the general beach-going concern over the muzzling and downnearly primitive as they are, however, the public as well as the pier-fishing clientele grading of our military leaders, I believe 17 overnight shelters are filled throughout can have sandwiches and what-have-you that the Members of the Congress would the summer season.
while enjoying the spendid vista of the waves find this article to be interesting and inEqually popular are the 32 open cabanas in rolling in below, with the unbroken and
formative reading. Therefore, I ask Isla Blanca Park. Fronting on the Gulf of seemingly endless sweep of Padre Island Mexico, the cabanas are daytime rental facili- stretched out beyond.
unanimous consent, Mr. President, to ties, available until 10 p.m. for lounging, The fishing pier is the first installation in have this article printed in the RECORD loafing, showering, barbecuing, and as a place the planned overall development of Andy at the conclusion of these remarks. to call home base during a day's outing at Bowie Park. Envisioned for the very near fu There being no objection, the article the beach.
ture is a complete tent and overnight trailer was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, Visitors who simply want a place to spread campground to be laid out with all proper as follows: out their picnic lunch in the shade enjoy facilities just across the sand dunes from the picnic pavilion and the patio at the bath the rolling Gulf of Mexico. Also in the
THE CONFLICT IN THE PENTAGON house, both just a short walk over the sand master plan is a camp and youth activity
(By George Fielding Eliot) dunes to the broad expanse of open beach center for the Laguna Madre side of Andy In the early spring of 1963, the lightnings in Isla Blanca Park. There, also, are picnic Bowie Park.
of press and congressional criticism played tables, set up under colorful sunshades.
Beyond that, there is no limit.
fiercely around the unbowed head of Robert Is it a vacationer's paradise? Perhaps so But the rumble of the tourist herds is S. McNamara, the dynamic and very tough and perhaps not, for so varied are the needs growing louder and louder across the hori Secretary of Defense of the United States. and tastes of our Nation's meandering zon, and as their influx grows, more facili The occasion of this violent outburst was pleasure seekers that one man's cup of ties are certain to be added. There are those McNamara's decision to award the contract orange pekoe might well be another's hem who say that with the Padre Island National for a new aircraft-called TFX for tactical lock. But the Cameron County parks on Seashore soon to occupy the middle 80 miles fighter experimental-to General Dynamics South Padre Island are constantly institut- of the island, the southern end, immediately of Fort Worth, Tex., instead of the Boeing ing changes and planning new facilities to adjacent, as it is, to Mexico and the lush Rio firm at Seattle, Wash. ; reach that happy state somewhere on the Grande Valley, will someday burgeon into This contract is not peanuts. It involves pekoe side, at least.
another Miami Beach. Others say, “Who the production of up to 1,700 planes for the
Navy and Air Force, and the total price tag sion which fell properly within the province hostile exploitation could be prepared in attached to it is estimated at $6 to $7 billion. of the civilian leadership of the Defense advance? It also involves 20,000 prime jobs in the pe Department. That was the McNamara story 2. Have overcentralization and overcivilriod 1963–1969. So when it was disclosed on TFX, in substance, and he stuck to it ianization already impaired the capability that Boeing's bid had actually been some determinedly.
of the defense establishment to react effecwhat lower than that of the successful Gen A little later in the spring, he again un- tively and in timely fashion to any sudden eral Dynamics outfit, outraged cries were derlined his determination to be master in emergency-especially one which might reheard both from the losers and from disap his own house. The Chief of Naval Opera- quire prompt transfer of authority and repointed politicians such as Senator HENRY M. tions, Adm. George W. Anderson, and the sponsibility to military commanders?
In JACKSON, Democrat, of Washington. The lat Chief of Staff of the Air Force, rugged Gen.
short, is the military being stripped of initiater immediately demanded a closed-door in Curtis B. LeMay, had not liked the TFX
tive which it must exercise in an emergency? quiry by the Senate's Permanent Investiga decision and had said so to the McClellan The one major crisis of the McNamara tions Subcommittee chaired by the redoubt committee in vigorous language. The 2- regime was the naval “quarantine” of Cuba able Senator JOHN L. MCCLELLAN, Democrat, year terms of both Chiefs expired in August. last year to compel the withdrawal of Soviet of Arkansas, ostensibly to determine whether Admiral Anderson was suddenly notified that
ballistic missiles from the island. Its hanfavoritism played any part in the decision. he would not be reappointed for a second
dling served to feed the anxieties over the Senator JACKSON hardly believed that Mc
term, as had been the usual custom; Gen destruction of military initiative. In the Namara had been influenced by favoritism. eral LeMay was reappointed for a single year
Cuban instance, the established system of What he did think is what many other only. Press and congressional comment military control was literally pushed aside anxious Members of both Houses of Congress linked this action to McNamara's discontent
in favor of a committee, largely civilian have been saying, openly for the most part with the TFX testimony of the two officers. in composition and chaired by the President and with increasing frequency--that Mc There followed subsurface rumblings in the in person, which met daily during the crisis. Namara is paying insufficient attention to Navy and Air Force sections of the Pentagon. It issued, through Secretary McNamara, the the views of professional military men and The Navy was already apprehensive about a most detailed daily orders covering such tends to make high-level decisions of great new McNamara order that the value of the
minute points as the exact type and scope military consequence largely on data supplied fleet as a whole must be restudied in rela
of aerial reconnaissance to be carried out by young, fast thinking civilian analysts tion to the cost of defending the fleet against each day, and just what steps should be whose military experience is zero.
air attack. The Air Force, already smarting taken to inspect each Soviet ship departing The McClellan investigation, as far as re under the RS–70 decision and the Skybolt Cuba with a deckload of missiles. vealed, has focused on the point that in the cancellation, foresaw not only the eventual The responsible operational command was TFX decision, McNamara set aside the re disappearance of manned aircraft as nuclear the Atlantic Command under Adm. Robert peated and unanimous recommendations of
delivery systems but also a challenge to their L. Dennison, with which officer Mr. Mcthe military evaluation boards, all of which close-support mission by the swift expan
Namara should normally have communicated favored the Boeing offer as promising su sion of the Army's own aviation.
through the Joint Chiefs of Staff by means perior performance. Leaks from the investi
The Army has made notable gains under of a directive embodying the President's gation resulted in headlines playing up this McNamara (with a strong assist from Gen.
orders. The details of execution should have feature, and leaks from other interested Maxwell D. Taylor, now Chairman of the
been left in Admiral Dennison's experienced sources-some in the Pentagon itself-added Joint Chiefs of Staff). It rejoices in new
and able hands, and in those of his naval to the clamor.
weapons, 16 combat-ready divisions instead task force commanders and the ship skipSimilar charges of ignoring military advice of 11, and a prospective increase in global pers—a course far more efficient and far safer had already been leveled at McNamara in mobility with the expansion of airlift. than trying to run the show from a Washregard to his refusal to go ahead with the
But the Army shares with the other sery
ington committee room practically on an RS-70 long-range strike plane, his cancellaices the gathering anxieties as to the weight
hour-to-hour basis. tion of the Skybolt airborne missile, and accorded to professional experience in top
The consciousness that the Secretary of his delay in advancing the Nike-Zeus antilevel decisions. The Anderson-LeMay crack
Defense was breathing down his neck was missile missile from a research project to down suggested ominously that McNamara certainly no help to Admiral Dennison. The production status. Any notions that the would not tolerate any future military ques
constant stream of minutely detailed orhearings would cause the stubborn Secretioning of his judgments.
ders—not always either responsive to a tary to change his decision about TFX were
“Maybe," some military long-range think
changing situation or consistent with prewrong. ers in the Pentagon began to reason, "out
vious instructions—was no help to the comInstead, he fought back with his usual
right opposition isn't the best way of dealing manders who were actually dealing with the vigor. "Fighting Bob is at it again," said with the McNamara phenomenon. He's got
situation at sea and in the air. Time, quoting McNamara's angry statement a hard head, and whatever impression we
It may be urged that this was a very to the McClellan subcommittee that its leaks make is quickly offset by public admiration
special instance, one in which the President and partial releases of testimony had "needfor his courage and the growing notion that
himself felt so deep a sense of responsibility, lessly undermined public confidence in the he's doing a job that has long needed doing.
where the Soviet reaction was so uncertain integrity and judgment of the highest of Let's turn our attention to improving com
and potentially terrible, that the tightest ficals of the Department of Defense.” munications--with the Secretary himself and
kind of personal Presidential grip on the McNamara had much more to say. He the whole crew of civilian analysts and re
controls was an inescapable requirement. produced-as he generally does—carefully searchers he sets such store by. Our real But allowing for that, was it not the duty prepared and "quantified" answers about the
object ought to be to find a way to hitch up of the Secretary of Defense to protect the merits of his decision. He had never taken the McNamara drive and energy to the mili.
integrity of the military chain of command his eye off his target: one plane for both tary values that he doesn't yet fully accept. in passing on the President's orders, instead Navy and Air Force, not two planes as the Let's admit that analysis has some very real of taking personal charge himself? services both wanted. This would save up values and try to get the Secretary's civilian "Certainly, in principle," an officer comto $1 billion in production and maintenance analysts to admit-as some of 'em are begin- mented. “But although the principle incosts and simplified spare parts inventories. ning to that it also has its limits, beyond volved has been developed from the military Some modifications between the Navy and which judgment and military experience experience of 25 centuries, there's just no Air Force versions would be permitted, but must be relied on."
means of communicating it to McNamara so General Dynamics came closer to real "com
This "creed of New Hope,” as skeptics that he'll accept it. He's simply incapable monality" (or two-service plane) than did
promptly dubbed it, has shown some prom- of realizing that there can be times when the Boeing. Boeing's design did promise better ise, but it has not healed all the wounds, decision of what to do next is much better performance in some respects, but both de
nor allayed the deep-seated misgivings, born left to a three-stripe destroyer skipper standsigns satisfied the basic military require of even deeper seated military instincts, ing on his bridge looking at a situation than ments of the services. which torment many veteran officers.
to Bob McNamara sitting in Washington with The real decision turned on McNamara's
These misgivings revolve around two ques
all the miracles of modern communication at judgment, reinforced by that of both service tions which bear directly on the security of
his service." Secretaries. Their choice boiled down to the Nation.
Military opinion is nearly unanimous that this: With General Dynamics we have a rela
1. Is the development of decisionmaking McNamara's basic difficulty from the first tively reliable prospect of getting a steady machinery which is tailored to the needs and
day he took office has been just this baffling flow of satisfactory aircraft according to capabilities of "a very special kind of Secre
inability to communicate with professional schedule; with Boeing we are less certain tary of Defense with a most unusual array of
military men. He thinks fast and learns inabout timely delivery and are not even sure
credibly fast in terms of facts and figures, their lower cost estimates will not be offset assistants” producing a defense establish
but not in terms of intangibles. He has an by production bugs besides their less satis
ment which can be readily and smoothly energy and drive which have been described factory meeting of the "commonality” retaken over by Mr. McNamara's successor in
as "ferocious." He is impatient with answers quirement. So stated, this was a decision office? Will not the inevitable change, when to question which are slow in coming or which turned less on the military qualities it comes, result in an interval of relative
which do not seem to him sufficiently reof the two designs that on production pros chaos which an alert enemy might well an, sponsive or precise. pects and McNamara's favorite yardstick of ticipate, and which (if it occurs as the result “If you can't explain your answer, you cost effectiveness. It was, therefore, a deci- of an election) might be so predictable that don't understand the problem,” is one of
his maxims. He has not disguised his dis- tary men and their motivations which was service Secretaries of Army, Navy, and Air satisfaction with competent military associ- the key to Gates' close relationship and easy Force, in association with their Chiefs of ates who have given him answers drawn communication with the services and the Staff. from the depth of their experience, but who Joint Chiefs, as had been the case with In the McNamara chart, the Assistant Secare hard pressed at times to produce con- Robert A. Lovett and James Forrestal in retary of Defense appears directly under the vincing, detailed, hot-off-the-griddle sup- earlier times.
Secretary of Defense, above everything else, porting explanations that can be mathe McNamara had his own view of the special showing visually the new domination of the matically "qualified.”
interests of the services—“knocking heads Secretary's immediate staff over all the reMore and more he has tended to depend together” was not his own way of putting it, mainder of the Defense Establishment. The on answers provided by quick-minded ci- but it was his concept of how to deal with Joint Chiefs of Staff and the military departvilian research analysts drawn from civilian service differences of viewpoint. This view ments occupy opposite ends of the third line, institutions such as the Rand Corp. and the started the new Secretary off with a certain together with the new Defense Supply AgenInstitute of Defense Analyses. These are on distrust of military judgments as being pre су. .
Colonel Kintner reserves judgment as the whole freewheeling young men who re dominantly merely pro-Army, or pro-Navy or to the interpretation of this chart as a guide gard the most sacred concepts of the military pro-Air Force. Experience has begun to to the future, suggesting that it might be profession with skepticism, and what they erode this distrust, but it is still not wholly "more charitable" to call it a "Freudian slip are pleased to call the military mind with eliminated. Combined with his tremendous * * which unconsciously reflected the inunconcealed disdain.
self-confidence, this has led McNamara to ner attitude of the new defense team." McNamara's favorite measuring stick for insist on "finalizing” all important decisions An equally graphic illustration was furthe validity of any proposal is "cost effective- himself. His almost incredible capacity for nished the writer by a military friend who ness.” He thinks in terms of dollars and of hard work enabled him to make good on this is not stationed in the Pentagon but has figures. Ideas which don't lend themselves resolve.
occasional reason to visit it. "Every time to those terms he regards with suspicion. The writer will not soon forget the distress I get back there," he reported, “I find that Considering the enormous financial burden with which a very senior Army officer told of the spaces occupied by various functionaries which today's defense requirements impose McNamara's court order regarding ROAD of the Office of the Secretary of Defense have on the Nation's taxpayers, no Secretary of reorganization of Army divisions—a huge spread a little farther in both directions Defense can ignore the dollar valuation of Army-wide concept that was fairly well under around the E Ring. It won't be too long his decisions. There are, however, troubled way when McNamara took over.
before the three service Secretaries and the military men in high Pentagon assignments "Before this is approved,” the Secretary Chiefs of Staff are all relegated to the inwho believe that McNamara can hardly be snapped, "you are going to have to convince side offices which are doubtless considered induced to consider any argument which me of the need for every man, every weapon, the appropriate status-symbol of their recan't be evaluated in dollars and figures, every vehicle.” The general simply could not duced importance.” that he tends to dismiss military judgment believe that any one man could find time and That the status of the three service Secand experience as “emotion" unless it can energy to make decisions in such detail and retaries had indeed been sharply downbe mathematically expressed. Also he likes go on doing it,"It just means that the deci- graded can hardly be questioned. fast answers—as one officer puts it, "he gives sions will actually be made by some half Nominally they still have some degree of the impression he'd rather be rapid than baked civilian analyst or maybe a junior offi- independence, as Congress always has inright.” But another officer admitted rue cer in the Secretary's office instead of being tended they should. fully, “It's our own fault if we're in trouble. made by the Army staff.”
For a service Secretary to be able to comOur Joint Staff-Joint Chiefs of Staff system But the general wasn't quite right. Robert mand the respect and loyalty of his own is the best and most reliable setup for fight McNamara has managed to find the time to service, he must be able to champion the ing and winning a war that the mind of man deal personally with the ROAD decisions as views and objectives of that service with has yet devised, as the Germans and Japa with many others equally detailed. Some some effect. He must not merely be a transnese learned to their cost. But in peacetime, times he does make snap judgments which mission belt for carrying out the wishes of without the prodding of a war, the system he sticks to stubbornly and which are not the Secretary of Defense. often moves slowly. McNamara is a man always fortunate—as when an adviser came McNamara's first Secretaries of the Army who can't wait patiently for his answers, so in with a paper suggesting that in applying and the Navy (Elvis J. Stahr and John B. he sets his whiz kids digging at lower the somewhat flexible ROAD concept to the Connally, Jr.) have both left the Pentagon echelons for facts and figures and alterna National Guard, an average strength of 88 because they could not stomach the downtives, and by the time a finalized JCS paper company-sized units per division might be grading of their historic offices. Mr. Stahr gets to his desk he already has a paper of a useful rule of thumb.
has subsequently expressed anxiety lest “the his own drawn up by these bright youngsters “Whereupon," the adviser relates, "the trap leadership of the military services might bewith more or less advice from subordinate clicked shut on me. Mac had a figure, and come stultified and its identities and initiamilitary people. Because it's written in the that was it. Now no National Guard diyi tive lost to the Government. * The Determs in which McNamara thinks himself, he sion can have either more or less than 88 partment of Defense is too big to be run may like this paper better than the JCS pro company units no matter how much better by only a few people, and (anyway) there duction. The job that we professionals have a different number might fit its mission and just are not enough McNamaras.” to do is to get McNamara to understand that its local circumstances. The cardinal virtue Granting that Mr. McNamara has met frethere are limits to what theoretical analysis of ROAD-organizational flexibility—is to quently with the service Secretaries since can do for him, that it is only an aid to this extent denied the National Guard be he took office, Mr. Stahr went on to say: human judgment and not a substitute for it.” cause the boss just doesn't think in terms of “The frequency of these contacts, however,
The new Secretary took over the Defense military values which can't be fed into a led to continuous intrusion on his part in Department on January 21, 1961, amid a computer."
many small details of the administration barrage of press comment-to which this Nevertheless, Secretary McNamara's deci. of the services." Mr. Connally has been writer contributed—that asserted with a sionmaking machinery is not entirely a one somewhat more reticent as to his expericonfidence based on past experience that a man show. It couldn't be and get the work ences, though he is reported to have told a brandnew Secretary with no military expe done.
friend that he went to Washington thinking rience except a wartime hitch as a statistical The Office of the Secretary of Defense has that he was to be Secretary of the Navy and officer in the Air Force would certainly take a grown and grown as more and more people left when he discovered otherwise. year or two to get the hang of his job and are required to feed papers, information, and Mr. McNamara also meets with the Joint become anything like effective.
computerized data into the McNamara per Chiefs of Staff more regularly than any preMcNamara was sternly resolved to prove sonal-decision mill. . A graphic illustration vious Secretary of Defense except Mr. Gates, otherwise—and he was completely confident of what this may mean is presented by Col. but the difficulties of communication and of that he could do just that. "He didn't un William R. Kintner in the Naval Review, viewpoint already referred to have made derestimate the size of the job," a civilian two charts contrasting the organization of these meetings far less productive than they aid remarked. "He just figured that he was the Defense Department (Gates model) on ought to be. equal to it despite its appalling dimensions.” January 1, 1961, and (McNamara model) in Unquestionably, there has grown up a feelMcNamara was also aware that strong pres March 1961. In both charts, the Secretary ing of deep mutual distrust between the prosures had been brought to bear on the incom of Defense is at the top of the pyramid. fessional military officers on the one hand ing President to reappoint, at least for the There all similarity ends.
and the civilian scientists and analysts on time being, the last of President Eisenhower's In the Gates chart, the next line below the other. This feeling is exacerbated by three Secretaries of Defense, Thomas S. the Secretary of Defense was occupied by a the often disdainful attitude of the civilians, Gates, Jr. Gates in his single year of office civilian-military balance. On one side of the or occasional loss of temper by one of the had displayed great ability and certainly pos
center line were the Joint Chiefs of Staff with military when it is demanded of him that he sessed the full confidence of the military. the unified and specified commands below reduce to a mathematical formula a military McNamara promised himself that he would
them (according to the established military value-judgment which cannot be measured prove to President Kennedy that no mistake
chain of command). On the other side were in that fashion. Every civilian analyst had been made in the final decision. He, two separate civilian-ruled areas, the Office knows that he must satisfy the standard Mchowever, can hardly have understood the
of the Secretary of Defense with its Assist- Namara requirement that “for every prohandicap under which he would suffer—his ant Secretaries and other senior officials, and posed expenditure, there must be a proven lack of that "visceral understanding" of mili the three military departments with the benefit; and for every benefit, the cost must
be measured and all possible alternatives Here is a new form of family recrea one enjoys having people around. He also examined to determine whether the same re- tion which I am convinced will become
told how some of the guests enjoyed helping sult can be attained by expanding existing increasingly popular in the years ahead, with farmwork. This summer the family
from Detroit helped with baling the straw way: Show me the benefit; show me the and I commend the Mason-Lake Soil and has.
The Eikenberrys belong to the Farm VacaUnder such a system it is far easier to wash in supporting this new source of income tion and Holidays, Inc. There are 202 farms out existing projects while still in the de- for rural families.
in the United States that belong. Last year velopment stage than it is to initiate new Mr. President, I ask unanimous con there were two farms from Michigan that projects and keep them alive until they sent that this newsletter article describ- belonged, now there are seven. reach the stage of actual production of mili- ing the Eikenberry farm be printed in the
“This is a growing thing,” said Mr. Eikentary hardware. Few indeed are the military
berry. RECORD. novelties that the McNamara regime has
There being no objection, the article produced so far; but its path is well marked by the tombstones of projects which have was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CERbecome the victims of cost effectiveness—at as follows:
TAIN NATURALIZED CITIZENS times against a substantial weight of mili
FARM VACATIONS IN MASON COUNTY tary opposition.
Mr. HART. Mr. President, on October Vacation farming heralds a new type of Here is the very nub of the public question
income for the American farmer. It might 30 the Washington Post commented ediwhich underlies the present conflict in the best be thought of as a byproduct of the
torially on the change in citizenship laws Pentagon. It is a well-worn cliche to term
farm. On a vacation farm, paying guests which has been proposed by the disthe Department of Defense "the biggest busi
come and live on the farm for a vacation. tinguished junior Senator from Rhode ness in the world”—but it is not a business
Pioneering in this type of farming in Mason Island, Senator PELL. in which the annual profit-and-loss figures
County, is the Carl Eikenberry family. On As the editorial notes, the Supreme are the final criteria of success or failure.
their farm the guests live right with the Its success is measured by the degree to family. Mrs. Eikenberry cooks the meals and
Court presently is considering this diswhich it continues from year to year to con
the guests can observe the farming operation crimination against our naturalized citiserve the safety of the Nation. and chores that are being done at the time of
zens which requires special residency Remembering always the continued prestheir visit.
standards if they are to retain their ence of formidable enemies, the constant like
The Eikenberry's own a 116-acre farm. United States citizenship. lihood-indeed the certainty-of future at
They have 55 head of dairy cattle, a 312-acre I know that I am joined by many of tempts at surprise (as in Korea and Cuba),
orchard and a large family garden. After ob our colleagues when I indicate support how far should cost-effectiveness and busiserving this farm operation one might de
not only for this change but also for ness-type analyses be depended on to come
scribe it as a typical family farm. That is up with the right answers? Acknowledging
changes in other provisions which tend what makes it a good vacation farm. Many the very real value of these processes within persons that live in the large cities were
to limit the privileges and rights of U.S. prudent limits, is there not a point beyond raised on farms. They miss the quiet rest
citizens for those who are naturalized which military judgment and instinct, born
ful farm life of their youth. Vacation farm- citizens. of experience, must be given priority? If we
ing allows them a chance to enjoy rural liv The junior Senator from Rhode Island do have another war of even limited dimen ing again and also gives the vacation farmer is to be commended for his leadership, sions, it is from the military chiefs that the an additional income.
pointing as he does to injustices which Nation will expect the decisions that will Last June, Mr. Eikenberry was assisted by continue to exist in our citizenship laws. mean victory or defeat. A system of peace the Soil Conservation Service in developing time decisionmaking in which military judg a complete soil and water conservation plan
His role in support of immigration rement and initiative are consistently subordi for his farm. For his cropland a rotation
form rightly has attracted national atnated to financial and housekeeping consid was selected. It was based on two needs: tention and praise. The repealer which erations is hardly a system which develops a (1) The type of crops needed for his farm is the subject of the editorial is but a healthy interplay of initiative and responsi- operation; (2) the type of rotation that can part of the many constructive suggesbility between civilian and military leaders. be used safely on his fields. Other soil and
tions made by Senator PELL. This is one of those rather rare situations water conservation practices Mr. Eikenberry
Mr. President, I ask unanimous conin which compromise could provide a happy will use on his cropland will be soil testing, sent that the editorial from the Washsolution. The rather significant success lime and fertilizer application, cover crops, already achieved by military officers on duty and crop residue use. He will renovate his ington Post of October 30 be printed at in the Pentagon in improving communica pastureland for top production. Selective
this point in my remarks. tions and restoring mutual confidence be- cutting will be done in his woods to improve There being no objection, the editorial tween military and civilian personnel at what the quality of his timber. Three wildlife was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, may be called the second and third echelons areas will be improved to encourage small as follows: of decision has already been noted. But the game and songbirds. This will be done by
RELIC OF ISOLATIONISM top level remains-and at the top level stands planting shrubbery and pines for food and Robert S. McNamara with his powerful per cover.
Sometime within the next few months the sonality, and his vast—and often justified In addition to seeing the regular opera
Supreme Court will decide whether Congress self-confidence. tion of this dairy farm, the Eikenberry's
may impose on naturalized citizens penalties Can Secretary McNamara be brought to have provided means for recreation and re
that may not be inflicted on native-born understand that there is a limit to the value laxation for their guests. Badminton, citizens. Meanwhile, however, Congress also of quantified analysis in reaching the mo croquet, and horseshoes can be played on has the issue before it in the form of a rementous decisions which are his to make? the lawn. Besides cooking the meals, Mrs.
pealer introduced by Senator CLAIBORNE Can he be convinced that beyond that limit Eikenberry makes homemade butter and PELL. If Congress would hasten to correct he must accept the considered judgment of bakes bread for the guests. Next year they
this grave injustice to naturalized citizens, military professionals whose wisdom is drawn plan horseback riding and a program for the difficult constitutional issue would not from sources foreign to his own experience? butterfly collecting. A walking trail is have to be decided.
If he can, Robert McNamara's place in his planned for the future with the identifica The case which the Court has consented to tory as one of our truly great Secretaries of
tion of trees along the way. Fourteen dif hear is that of Angelika L. Schneider, who Defense seems assured. If he cannot, the
ferent kinds of trees have been found along came here from Germany at the age of 4 and American people must walk with danger in the proposed trail.
was naturalized while in college. Having the years that lie ahead.
The guests at the Eikenberry farm this grown up in this country, she has an attachsummer were two families from St. Louis, one ment to it, but since 1956 she has been living family from Pennsylvania, one family from in Germany with her husband, a German
Detroit, and a young girl from Indiana. The attorney. Under the Immigration and NaOPPORTUNITIES FOR FAMILY FARM guests usually stay for 1 week, however, they tionality Act of 1940 she has forfeited her VACATIONS
will take them for weekends or overnight. citizenship by living in her native land for
This summer the Eikenberry's just advertised more than 3 years since her naturalization. Mr. HART. Mr. President, we have for families as guests, but next year they Similarly the law provides that a naturalheard a great deal in recent years about will accept groups of children as well as ized citizen living abroad in any foreign land the opportunities for family farm vaca families.
for 5 years loses his citizenship. Since Contions.
“We feel that it is a good farm supplement gress could not impose any such harsh penalA few days ago the Mason-Lake Soil
and we thoroughly enjoyed having the ty on a native-born citizen, there is a good Conservation District newsletter came to
guests” said Mr. Eikenberry. “We haven't deal of substance in the argument that this
traveled extensively and we find this a good reduces those who are naturalized to secondmy desk telling of such opportunities on source of travel experience” he added. class citizenship. In 1913 the Supreme Court the Carl Eikenberry farm in Mason Mr. Eikenberry feels to be successful with asserted that "under our Constitution, a County, Mich.
vacation farming it is most important that naturalized citizen stands on an equal foot
ing with the native citizen in all respects country is that only a very small percentage risen to an annual rate of more than $588 save that of eligibility to the Presidency.” of Negroes are adequately prepared for the billion and disposable personal income is at
The present Court may or may not find kinds of jobs that American industry will a new high of more than $400 billion anthis view controlling, but any conscientious need to fill in the years ahead.
nually. legislator should be able to see that it is
ARE AMERICANS LIVING IN TWO COMPARTMENTS? unreasonable punishment to deprive a citi
Mr. President, in the interests of
Several months ago the traveling interzen of his rights as an American for merely spreading information about automa- viewer, Samuel Lubell, observed that while living abroad for a few years. It is said that tion, and with the sincere hope that it older workers in stable industries were doing this unreasonable provision stripped citizens will be carefully read by my colleagues, well, many younger workers "have been virship from 1,200 Americans in a recent 12- I ask unanimous consent that the article tually walled out *** by seniority rights month period. Why the irrational haste to referred to from the Christian Science
and high fringe benefits.” disclaim citizens who cherish their acquired Monitor be printed in the RECORD.
Does this mean that, unless steps are allegiance to this country? Regardless of
There being no objection, the article by Prof. Andrew Hacker, of Cornell Uni
taken to prevent it, a situation described what the Court may decide, Congress ought to repeal this harsh and self-defeating relic
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, versity, is taking shape? To the American from the isolationist years. as follows:
Political Science Association, September 6, [From the Christian Science Monitor, Nov. 5, Dr. Hacker said, “It may well be that two 1963]
Americas are emerging, one a society proAUTOMATION AND THE DISINAUTOMATION AND THE DISINHERITED-TECH
tected by the corporate umbrella and the HERITED NOLOGY MAKES MORE JOBS, IT IS TRUE, BUT
other a society whose members have failed to Mr. BOGGS. Mr. President, the story NOT ALWAYS, OR OFTEN, FOR THE PEOPLE
affiliate themselves with the dominant in
WHO ARE DISPLACED of automation, its promises as well as its
If such a situation is to be avoided there problems, is being covered in increasing "There is general agreement that automa
will have to be some hard thinking, plandetail by news media of our country. tion is a more serious threat to employment ning, and doing about it in the United This emphasis is well placed. Automa- than was the industrial revolution.” In this
States. There are remedies but they are tion, which has as companions people striking statement, Richard L. Worsnop, of
not automatic. Congress and State legislaout of work and people in need of trainEditorial Research Reports, speaks the views
tures have hardly caught up with the age ing, may well be the overriding economic leaders and government authorities. of some businessmen as well as of labor
of the typewriter, let alone the computer. problem to face the United States this
John I. Snyder, Jr., board chairman of
Some remedies are nonpolitical. For excentury. U.S. Industries, Inc., a company that makes
ample, does all research have to be directed What occasions my comment today is automatic machinery, admits, “We're using
toward using mineral and other inorganic
resources? Why not more research and the sobering article, “Automation and sophisticated machines to destroy jobs.” His
development toward devising industries that the Disinherited,” which is carried in the company is financing a foundation, cosponsored with the International Association of
can utilize relatively unskilled or semiskilled November 5 edition of the Christian Sci
hands? Ingenuity has found use for once ence Monitor, a fine newspaper which Machinists, to study problems of technological displacement.
waste materials from bones and sawdust to consistently carries articles of worth.
John F. Henning, Under Secretary of
cinders and bagasse; why not for surplus huIt begins by quoting Richard L. Wor- Labor, estimates that 2.2 million jobs a year
man resources? Industry already does vast snop of Editorial Research Reports, who are eliminated in the United States by in
amounts of training and retraining; but a says: creased output per man-hour due largely to
company can afford this only where there
is a prospect of use within its own orgaThere is general agreement that automa- technological progress. This means that
nization. tion is a more serious threat to employment new jobs need to be found for 40,000 disthan was the Industrial Revolution. placed workers a week besides new workers.
Much of the need in an age of rising It is because of the magnitude of the vention creates new jobs as it wipes out old
The classical contention has been that in
technology is for a spread of elementary edu
cation, then for more and better vocational economic change which is accompany ones. But as applied to automation, or
education, and finally for retraining proing automation that I have long advo- "cybernetics,” Mr. Snyder declares this is “a
grams where an obsolete skill must be recated a White House conference on au- myth.” And Mr. Worsnop sums up the placed by a current one. tomation, a conference which would evidence thus:
HOPE IN EDUCATION AND REHABILITATION have local community education about
“Ideally, displaced workers should be the
This calls for more schools such as one in automation as its most important prod- So far, just the opposite has been true. Reader's Digest by Lester Velie—an elemen
first to share in the benefits of automation. New Haven, Conn., described in the October uct. Only after automation was studied Workers who have managed to hold on to tary school that has made itself a 16-hourat local levels would delegates meet in their jobs in automated factories find workWashington to sift the best ideas for liv- ing conditions and fringe benefits improved.
a-day community center in a slum neighboring conditions and fringe benefits improved. hood and sparks an interest in learning ing with the changes of automation and Many of those who have lost their jobs to
among Negro families hitherto without hope. for making the most of them for the machines are likely to remain unemployed,
It calls also for such initiative as has good of the public as a whole. Passage or employed only part time, for the re
been displayed in Chicago, where the Cook of S. 185 would bring about the White mainder of their lives.”
County Welfare and Rehabilitation Service House conference we need.
MINERS: FROM PAYROLLS TO DANGEROUS "DOG last year placed in jobs 12,000 persons forI mentioned that people in need of
merly on the relief rolls. It did this by a training are companions of automation,
One of the regions where displacement of
basic literacy program and evening vocationand so they are. For this reason we need this sort has taken a most heavy toll is de al or high school courses which welfare regreatly expanded programs of education scribed by Homer Bigart in the New York cipients were required to take. In addition, Times. In the Cumberland Mountains of
5,000 relief clients were put on work projects for employment in this country. eastern Kentucky tens of thousands of idle
for the city, county, or State. Automation, unemployment, and
miners, replaced by coal-cutting machines, The problem of idle human resources is training also have a vital tie-in with the face a winter of grinding poverty. "Three complicated by the fact that in some States need for jobs if minorities in this coun- generations of living on handouts,” he re compensation is being paid to persons in try are to improve their lot. In this con- ports, has eroded their self-respect and "re fairly comfortable circumstances while in nection I am proud to mention the po
sulted in a whipped, dispirited community." others the compensation payments have been sition on hiring practices emphasized 2
In one county even Government surplus exhausted by workers whose families are days ago by Henry B. Du Pont, a director has no funds to fetch and distribute them. employment is remote if not nonexistent.
foods are not available because the county hungry and for whom the prospect of reof the great Du Pont Co. in my State.
Able-bodied men, barred from the relief rolls, Among workers with displaced skills, such Mr. Du Pont said:
leave their families so the women can quali as notably the coal miners, one of two needs Our policy—and every branch of the com- fy for aid to dependent children (ADC). exists. Either new industry must be brought pany is aware of it—is not to discriminate These, as described by A. H. Raskin in the to them or they must be retrained and enagainst any employee or applicant for em Saturday Evening Post, are "the once-proud abled to move where employment is assured. ployment because of race, creed, color, na men whose high wages and industry-financed The latter course involves some kind of tional origin, or ancestry with respect to pensions made them the soot-smudged aris sustenance payments. hiring, promotion, demotion, transfer, re tocrats of American labor only a dozen years
LABOR-INDUSTRY FUNDS ONLY PARTLY cruitment, termination, rates of pay, or ago.” Today some of them "scratch out a
SUCCESSFUL other forms of compensation and selection perilous subsistence” in played-out pits or for training. "dog holes” where the coal seam is too thin
Automation, through its economies, does Mr. Du Pont added: for effective mechanization.
create new market demands and ultimately
All this takes place while Department of new jobs—but they are not generally for Unfortunately our experience right here Commerce statistics show that the gross na the same people, or even the sons and daughin Wilmington as well as elsewhere in the tional product for the country at large has ters of the same people, unless a great deal