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of human relations engineering is intro Mr. ELLENDER. Mr. President, I thorization of $87,500,000; and under duced into the process.

rise to support the Holland amendment the appropriation made for the fiscal Efforts of unions and industries to cushion

to the Mansfield-Dirksen amendments, year 1963, we had unused authorization the effect of technological change by special but I point out several things which in the amount of $525 million. funds for this purpose have been only partly successful. One of the first, in the packing- may not be understood by some of the I wish to make it perfectly plain that house industry, produced only 8 retrained opponents of this measure. I did not although I believe the Holland amendpersons out of 431 laid off. The Pacific Mari- hear anything said on the Senate floor ment is a step in the right direction, neytime Association, in agreement with the about these matters.

ertheless, even though that amendment Longshoremen's Union, has set up a fund When the authorization for the De to the Mansfield amendments were by which profits from greater efficiency sta velopment Loan Fund was granted in adopted, come next year Congress would bilize weekly earnings and sweeten retire

the 1961 act, under section 202 it was have authority to increase the $975 milment pay.

provided that for the first year the ap lion by as much as an additional $612,Unquestionably, technological advancement can introduce new jobs as it obliterates propriation would be $1.2 billion, and 500,000. old ones. Prof. Walter Buckingham, a labor

for the 4 years following 1962 it would I thought I would bring that point to mediator, says most of the jobs held by be at the rate of $1.5 billion.

the attention of the Senate, so Senators workers in the United States today "would As I understand the Holland amend- would know about it in advance of the not exist if it were not for technology." ment to the Mansfield-Dirksen amend- vote on the Holland amendment to the Yet, to return to Mr. Snyder, this seller

ments, it seeks to make the authorization Mansfield-Dirksen amendments. of automation believes that in time machines

for 1965 and 1966, $975 million a year. will do most of the work of humans. "Peo

THIRTY-SEVEN SENATORS HAVE SPONSORED OVER ple—living, breathing, feeling, and thinking I invite the attention of Senators to the

TWENTY-FIVE SUBSTANTIVE AMENDMENTS TO people” he says, “somehow will have to fact that if that action is taken, the

FOREIGN AID BILL learn to do nothing in a constructive way.” $975 million, under that limitation, will Many of them already have found enriching not be the only amount which can be ap

Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, it is uses for the leisure. propriated for that purpose, because the

most surprising that the press, radio, and Will machines further shorten the work authorization bill contains the follow

television, in reporting the very vital week and leave even the employed with time ing proviso:

debate on foreign aid, which now has on their hands? Will a few be busier than

been going on in the Senate for the past ever correlating the functions of the ma

Provided, That any unappropriated porchines? And will some unhappy thousands, tion of the amount authorized to be appro

5 days, has not brought home to the even millions, find themselves left out of priated for any such fiscal year may be ap

American public the important fact that such an economy altogether? To avoid this

the debate is in great measure centered propriated in any subsequent fiscal year last possibility, the President's Committee

during the above period, in addition to on how the program is administered and on Labor Management Policy says, “Achieve

the amount otherwise authorized to be ap will be administered, rather than on how ment of technological progress without sacri- propriated for such subsequent fiscal year.

many dollars are to be authorized for fice of human values requires a combination I wish to call to the attention of the the foreign aid program. of private and Government action consonant Senate the fact that in 1962, although

From reading the reports appearing in with the principles of a free society."

there was an authorization of $1.2 bil the daily press or from listening to them The PRESIDING OFFICER. If there lion, the amount actually appropriated

on the radio and television, it would be no further morning business, morning was only $1,112,500,000—leaving for fu seem as though the entire Senate has business is closed.

ture appropriation $87,500,000; and dur been engaged in a numbers game about

ing the past fiscal year, 1963, although whether the overall amount to be auAMENDMENT OF FOREIGN ASSIST

the Senate could have appropriated for thorized should be $4.5 billion, $4.2 bil

this purpose $1.5 billion, it actually ap- lion, $3.8 billion, or $3.5 billion. ANCE ACT OF 1961

propriated only $975 million-thereby Mr. President, with the concession The PRESIDING OFFICER. The leaving the sum of $525 million which made by the Mansfield amendments, Chair lays before the Senate the un could be appropriated either this year thus lowering the figure to $3.8 billion, finished business.

or in fiscal year 1965 or in fiscal year the Senate is now engaged in these long The Senate resumed the consideration 1966.

hours of debate over $300 million. Howof the bill (H.R. 7885) to amend fur

So the amounts left over from 1962 and ever, much, much more is involved in ther the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, 1963 aggregate $612,500,000. Therefore,

this debate. as amended, and for other purposes. even though the Holland amendment to Those of us who are in favor of the The PRESIDING OFFICER. The

the Mansfield-Dirksen amendments were foreign aid program are attempting to question is on agreeing to the Holland to be adopted, Congress could appro do on the floor of the Senate that which amendment to the so-called Mansfield- priate as much as $612,500,000 over and

the administrators of the AID program Dirksen amendments to the committee above the $975 million contained in the should have

should have done long before thisamendment. The Holland amendment Holland amendment.

tighten up the administration and obto the Mansfield-Dirksen amendments

Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, will jectives of the AID program so that our will be stated. the Senator from Louisiana yield?

foreign economic and military aid will The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. On page 1, Mr. ELLENDER. I yield.

hit the mark rather than be scattered line 8, of the Mansfield-Dirksen amend

Mr. FULBRIGHT. There would not be to the four winds. ments, it is proposed to strike out “1,- any additional amount, because it is lim This is the story that should be told 500,000,000” and insert in lieu thereof ited, by the Holland amendment, to $975 to the American people. As a matter of $975,000,000". million.

fact, Mr. President, it is misleading to Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I

Mr. ELLENDER. No; because the Hol give the people the impression that the suggest the absence of a quorum.

land amendment does not eliminate the sole issue is how much money would be The PRESIDING OFFICER The

proviso. The Holland amendment mere authorized to be appropriated for the clerk will call the roll.

ly changes the figure “$1,500,000,000" to foreign aid program this fiscal year. The legislative clerk proceeded to call "$975,000,000"; but the proviso in sec

Most of us are concerned also indeed the roll.

tion 202 still remains, and I point out more—with program substance: how the Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I that even though the Holland amend program has been administered, what ask unanimous consent that the order

ment were to be adopted, for the fiscal pitfalls from the past can be avoided in for the quorum call be rescinded.

year 1965, Congress would have a right the future, what parts of the program The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without to provide—if the Mansfield-Dirksen should be emphasized or deemphasized, objection, it is so ordered.

amendments as thus amended were and what guidelines and principles can be Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, on adopted—in addition to the $975 million laid down in the authorization bill to the question of agreeing to the Holland provided for by the Holland amend

provided for by the Holland amend- give congressional directive to the entire amendment to the Mansfield-Dirksen ment, $612,500,000. I repeat that this program. amendments, I ask for the yeas and nays. results from the fact that under the We are concerned-and properly so

The yeas and nays were ordered. 1962 appropriation we had unused au that whatever amount is appropriated

utimately, be it $4.5 billion or $3.5 bil- PROXMIRE, and Mr. McGOVERN would thrown a constitutionally elected governliön, or less, it be properly, efficiently, and take care of this wasteful and actually ment? Amendment No. 265 by Mr. wisely spent. The American people destructive expenditure.

MORSE would tend to stop the overthrow should not be misled into believing that Should foreign assistance be given of legally constituted governments by what is going on in the Senate debate Yugoslavia even though that nation military juntas. is merely an argument about "how makes no payment for property nation Should aid assistance be withheld much" but that it is an argument about alized or should such foreign assistance from Indonesia which is threatening aghow effectively and wisely whatever is be stopped until Yugoslavia makes gressive war against its neighbors and appropriated will be expended.

acceptable payment? Amendment No. when the economic situation is going I have listened to radio and television 236 by Mr. DIRKSEN seeks to resolve that

236 by Mr. DIRKSEN seeks to resolve that from bad to worse? Amendment No. 266 and read the papers in vain to read or question.

by Mr. PROXMIRE, if adopted, would tend hear something which would give an im Should development grants for capital to discourage aggression and subsidizing pression opposite to the one that we are projects be made only if the recipient of unstable dictatorships. arguing-merely about money totals. As finances at least 25 percent of the cost? But the fact remains, Mr. President, of the end of business on last Friday, Amendment No. 241 by Mr. ELLENDER that 37 Senators have sponsored or cosome 50 amendments had been intro raises this issue.

sponsored amendments to the foreign aid duced. Well over half of these amend

Should military aid to African coun- bill. This indicates the deep feeling of ments do not-I repeat the word "not"

tries be limited to $25 million a year and the Senate that the time for reforms in deal with how much money would be not be available to meet internal security the administration of the foreign aid authorized. They deal with how the pro- requirements or should there be no spe- program is at hand. The time to act is gram should be administered.

cial restriction on how much military aid now. Here are descriptions of some of these can be given to the African nations so

We hope that in the future the press amendments:

as to permit the support of special police will give a little more emphasis to those Should the United States continue to forces? Amendment No. 244 by Mr. amendments, and not concentrate the

discussion on whether we shall spend so give economic assistance to countries ELLENDER deals with this matter. such as Egypt and Algeria, which are en Should any agreement between the many dollars more or so many dollars

less in toto. gaged in aggression against their neigh- United States and Czechslovakia relat

The PRESIDING OFFICER. The bors, thereby diverting their own re- ing to the settlement of claims by U.S. sources from the economic development nationals against Czechslovakia arising question is on agreeing to the amendof their countries to wage aggressive war? out of nationalization be submitted to ment of the Senator from Florida (Mr. This issue will be solved by the adop the Senate for its advice and consent? HOLLAND] to the Mansfield-Dirksen

amendments to the committee substition of amendment No. 231, sponsored by Amendment No. 247 by Mr. KEATING

tute. On this question the yeas and Mr. GRUENING, for himself, Mr. JAVITS, would enable the Senate to debate and

nays have been ordered, and the clerk Mr. MORSE, Mr. CASE, Mr. WILLIAMS, JR., pass on this issue.

will call the roll. of New Jersey, Mr. RIBICOFF, Mr. YOUNG Should AID be discontinued from any

The legislative clerk called the roll. of Ohio, Mr. KEATING, Mr. MUSKIE, Mr. nation which extends its jurisdiction for

Mr. HUMPHREY. I announce that DOUGLAS, and Mr. DODD. fishing purposes beyond the 3-mile limit

the Senator from Pennsylvania [Mr. Should the United States continue to or imposes penalties or sanctions against CLARK], the Senator from Missismake development loans, charging in any U.S. fishing vessel on account of its

sippi [Mr. EASTLAND), the Senator terest at the rate of three-quarters of 1 fishing in such area? Amendment No.

from Oklahoma [Mr. EDMONDSON), the percent per annum for 40 years with a 248 by Mr. KUCHEL for himself and Mr.

Senator from Massachusetts (Mr. KEN10-year grace period, thereby in effect- ENGLE, if adopted, would prevent the arrests and fining of American tuna fisher- LONG], the Senator from Wyoming [Mr.

NEDY], the Senator from Missouri [Mr. because the United States has to borrow money at higher interest rates to make men in international waters.

MCGEE], the Senator from Michigan these loans-giving a grant to the bor

Should AID be withdrawn from any

[Mr. McNAMARA), the Senator from rower nation of about 80 cents for each nation which does not pay its assess- Rhode Island (Mr. PASTORE), the Senator dollar loaned? This problem would be ments in the United Nations? Amend

ments in the United Nations? Amend- from Mississippi (Mr. STENNIS], the Sensolved by acceptance of amendment No. ment No. 249 by Mr. MILLER would enable ator from Missouri [Mr. SYMINGTON), 232 by Mr. GRUENING, for himself, Mr. the Senate to show its disapproval of

the Senate to show its disapproval of and the Senator from Tennessee [Mr. MORSE, Mr. SIMPSON, Mr. ERVIN, Mr. those who will not pay their share.

WALTERS] are absent on official business. Moss, Mr. CANNON, Mr. DOMINICK, Mr. Should Public Law 480 products which I also announce that the Senator from YARBOROUGH, Mr. BIBLE,

and Mr. are sold to other nations for soft-local- California [Mr. ENGLE] is absent because SMATHERS.

currencies include fisheries products? of illness. Should contracts with universities for Amendment No. 250 by Mr. ELLENDER

I further announce that, if present the performance of services abroad con would enable the Senate to hear the ar

and voting, the Senator from Pennsyltain the same terms and conditions as guments pro and con.

vania [Mr. CLARK), the Senator from are applicable to contracts with the same Should AID be used, as it has been, to Mississippi (Mr. EASTLAND), the Senator universities for services within the United meet foreign nations' deficits or should from Oklahoma (Mr. EDMONDSON), the States so that competition for the payments be ruled out and AID used for Senator from Massachusetts [Mr. KENlimited numbers of qualified educators specific projects? Amendment No. 254 NEDY, the Senator from Missouri [Mr. between programs at home and abroad by Mr. MORSE Would, if adopted, stop the LONG], the Senator from Wyoming [Mr. may at least be put on an equal footing?

bailing out of governments that do not MCGEE), the Senator from Michigan This would be taken care of by adoption follow sound fiscal practices.

[Mr. McNAMARA), the Senator from of amendment No. 234 by Mr. GRUENING

Should the AID program be revamped Rhode Island (Mr. PASTORE), the Senator for himself.

completely beginning June 30, 1965—a from Mississippi (Mr. STENNIS] the SenShould military assistance be contin

proposal the Senate Committee on For- ator from Missouri [Mr. SYMINGTON), the ued for Latin American countries now

eign Relations had under serious consid- Senator from Tennessee (Mr. WALTERS], that the Department of Defense has ad- required, as a condition to receiving ecoeration-so that each country would be and the Senator from California [Mr.

ENGLE] would each vote "yea." mitted that such arms are no longer nec

nomic assistance, to prove that it had Mr. KUCHEL. I announce that essary for hemispheric defense and the

taken the necessary self-help measures the Senator from New Hampshire [Mr. arms supplied by the United States have such as land and tax reforms? Amend- COTTON), the Senator from Arizona [Mr. been repeatedly used to overthrow con ment No. 259 by Mr. MORSE raises a GOLDWATER), the Senator from Idaho stitutionally elected governments? fundamental issue which should be [Mr. JORDAN), the Senator from PennsylAmendment No. 235 by Mr. GRUENING, thoroughly debated.

vania (Mr. SCOTT], and the Senator from for himself, Mr. ERVIN, Mr. CANNON, Mr. Should aid be withheld from coun- Texas [Mr. TOWER] are necessarily abMORSE, Mr. SMATHERS, Mr. NELSON, Mr. tries where a military coup has over sent.

The Senator from Utah [Mr. BENNETT) pending amendment to the Mansfield and western Asia, to which we provide ecoand the Senator from New York [Mr. Dirksen amendments, I wish to address

nomic assistance and, in some cases, military JAVITS] are absent on official business. myself to military assistance.

equipment, though they are neither allies

nor members of alliances with which we are The Senator from New York [Mr. My amendment-No. 242-submitted

associated. We believe most of this military KEATING] is detained on official business. on October 28 and calling for a cut of

assistance is not essential to our own or free If present and voting, the Senator $300 million in military assistance, is world security, and we cannot recommend from Utah (Mr. BENNETT), the Senator included in the Mansfield-Dirksen

continued supply of this equipment. from Arizona (Mr. GOLDWATER), the Sen- amendments. If adopted, $1 billion will

Commenting on aid to the NATO counator from Idaho (Mr. JORDAN), the Sen- be made available for military assistance tries of Greece and Turkey, on page 9 ator from New York (Mr. KEATING), the in fiscal year 1964, which amount is in

the Committee points out that: Senator from Pennsylvania [Mr. SCOTT), accord with the House figure.

On the western end of the bloc periphery and the Senator from Texas [Mr. Tow No matter who delves into and an

Greece and Turkey are moving toward inER] would each vote "yea."

alyzes our military assistance program, creased security and well-being. Both of The result was announced-yeas 80, be he a respected general, statistician, these important nations, however, are still nays 0, as follows:

accountant, economist, or representative in need of military assistance and economic [No. 206 Leg.] of the people in the Congress, the con

support, and Turkey will require both forms

of assistance for some time to come. We beclusion inevitably follows that the 1964 YEAS-80 Aiken

lieve that other NATO members should inGruening Morton budget request for military assistance is

crease their contributions to these countries Allott Hart Moss about $400 million more than is needed

to the point where they bear a proportionate Anderson Hartke

to carry out the program.

share of the burden and that the proportion Bartlett Hayden

Muskie Bayh Hickenlooper Nelson

I point out that the amendment I had of our own assistance should be reduced acBeall Hill

Neuberger submitted called for a cut of only $300 cordingly. Elsewhere in Europe, there is no Bible Holland Pearson

million, but I sincerely believe we could apparent need for further military or ecoBoggs Hruska

Pell Brewster

nomic assistance other than for the fulfill-
Humphrey Prouty
cut another $100 million from the mili-

ment of existing commitments.

tary aid program, without affecting our
Byrd, Va. Jackson Randolph

For many years I have been making Byrd, W. Va. Johnston Ribicoff Cannon Jordan, N.C. Robertson

This is based on an analysis of the that very contention to my colleagues in Carlson Kuchel Russell

Clay Committee report, and a statistical the Senate. But somehow the military Case

Lausche Saltonstall Church

analysis of the reductions made in this authorities have been listened to, and in Simpson Long, La. Cooper

Magnuson Smathers program by Congress and the executive practically all cases we have acceded to Curtis Mansfield Smith branch over the last 10 years.

their wishes. Efforts to obtain assistance Dirksen McCarthy Sparkman Let us first look at the views of the

from our allies from the West have failed. Dodd

McClellan Talmadge Dominick McGovern

I believe that at this date, with the heavy Thurmond

Presidential investigating committee Douglas

McIntyre Williams, N.J. headed by Gen. Lucius D. Clay, and load we are carrying all over the world, Ellender

Mechem Williams, Del.

known as the Committee To Strengthen it is shameful that the countries in West


ern Europe should be permitted to lag Young, N. Dak. the Security of the Free World, or the Fulbright Monroney Young, Ohio Clay Committee. This Committee made

behind. Gore Morse a 3-month study of our Nation's military

As I pointed out some time ago, in the NAYS-0

and economic assistance programs, and pending bill there is an amount approxiNOT VOTING—20 made its report to the President on

mating $230 million of military assistBennett Javits

March 20 of this year.

ance for the countries of Western EuClark

Jordan, Idaho Scott

The Committee's report to the Presi- rope, excluding Turkey and Greece. In
Eastland Kennedy Symington dent contains a number of comments addition, we are furnishing millions of
Edmondson Long, Mo. Tower
and recommendations concerning our

dollars of both economic and military Engle McGee

Walters Goldwater McNamara military assistance program, all of which assistance to Turkey and Greece, but that

assistance does not appear in the justifiSo Mr. HOLLAND's amendment to the had, and I believe still have, the approval of General Clay. I would now

cations for Europe, but in the justificaMansfield-Dirksen amendments to the

tions for Asia. Why they should be sepcommittee amendment in the nature of like to refresh the recollection of Sena substitute was agreed to.

ators by citing some of these comments arated from Europe in that way, I do not and recommendations.

know. However, the fact remains that Mr. HOLLAND. Mr. President, I move to reconsider the vote by which port, the following appears:

On page 7 of the Clay Committee re

as to those two countries, to which a very

limited amount of assistance is being the Senate adopted my amendment.

given by the countries of Western Europe,

We are convinced that in several of these Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, I move countries (and here the committee is refer

we are continuing to furnish large to lay that motion on the table. ring to nations on the frontiers of the free

amounts. I repeat what I said the other The motion to lay on the table was world) indigenous forces are larger than re day, that so long as we continue to pour agreed to.

quired for their immediate mission of defense out our wealth and furnish those counMr. ELLENDER. Mr. President, I call and not large enough to assume other mis tries with all they supposedly need, no up my amendment No. 298, and ask for

sions. There, phased reductions of a very effort will be made by the countries of

substantial order appear practical, after furits consideration.

Western Europe to assist us with the ther careful examination, without unduly The PRESIDING OFFICER. The sacrificing immediate effectiveness.


This amendment offered by the Senator from would not only lessen the cost of military

In connection with the last quotation Louisiana to the amendments proposed assistance but reduce related supporting eco

from the Clay Committee report, Secreby Mr. MANSFIELD, for himself and other nomic assistance as well.

tary McNamara, in testifying before the Senators, to the committee amendment Continuing on page 8:

House Appropriations Committee this in the nature of a substitute, will be There are a few other border countries

year, stated: stated.

whose military forces presently are of value In fiscal year 1963, six NATO countries The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. It is pro- largely for internal security purposes. Even expressed their willingness to provide aid to posed, on page 1, line 7, of the amend though they belong to alliances with which Greece in one form or other, and under varyments, to strike out "$975,000,000" and we are associated, we believe the present ing circumstances and conditions, to a total

value level of support to these forces, particularly monetary

of insert in lieu thereof "$900,000,000".

approximately $15 with sophisticated weapons, cannot be con

million. Mr. ELLENDER. Mr. President, I ask sidered as essential to the security of the

Why, Mr. President, this is a mere for the yeas and nays on my amendment. free world. In these countries, which have

substantial resources of their own, significant The yeas and nays were ordered.

pittance compared to the military and

economic assistance we are furnishing to MILITARY ASSISTANCE

reductions of military and economic assist-
ance are in order.

Greece and Turkey. To date we have Mr. ELLENDER. Mr. President, be In addition, there are other countries in

furnished in excess of $7 billion to these fore proceeding with a discussion of the this border area, particularly in southeastern two countries. Is this the best we can do

in getting our more prosperous European for use in expanding their territories, and There being no objection, the table allies to render this very necessary as everything possible should be done to pro- was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, sistance? I do not believe the admin- mote lasting

peace. I am convinced that any as follows: istration has really tried hard enough, amount of military aid to the newly indeand if we in Congress continue to make on chaotic conditions. Here is a most impendent countries will serve only to bring

Military aid an inflated amount of military assistance portant field where the United States could

[In thousands of dollars) available, I do not believe a real effort play a definite, beneficial role by staying out

Revised Clay will ever be made. After all, why should of Africa. No military aid in any way, shape,

1964 Commitour allies make aid available to Greece or form should be tolerated.


budget tee recom- Reducand Turkey if the U.S. Congress is going Although we are now supposedly giving

request, menda tions

amount 1 tions, to fill the gaps which may be left, over military aid only for internal security, one

amount and above our rightful share?

does not have to look too far to find programs

which started out as internal security blosReturning to the Clay report, it is soming into full-fledged military support. Europe.

229, 356 278, 500 150, 856 pointed out on page 18: The question is always where to draw the

24, 511 3 5, 132 19, 379

Near East and south The committee has examined the economic line? How is internal security to be de Asia.

444, 726 4 349, 287 95, 439 and military assistance the United States fined? When do weapons furnished for in Far East.

671, 853 4 584, 045 87, 808 provides to certain countries in exchange for ternal security become weapons to be used Latin America

77, 262


77, 262

Administrative exbases. In many instances, the practical cost for external aggression?


25,000 6 23, 500

1,500 seems excessive, particularly where the bases

We are at present, or have been in the


57, 283 7 57, 283 provide both considerable dollar income from recent past, engaged in training paratroopers


1, 529, 991 1,097, 747 432, 244 expenditures by our personnel and substan- . in Mali, at a cost of over $600,000. Can this tial local employment. be called internal security? Are paratroopers

Recoupments, prior

125, 000 125,000
needed to maintain order?
The Clay Committee also looked

Total new obligation askance at the aid we furnished to a Now, Mr. President, with the help of amounts..

1, 404, 991 972, 747 number of countries, including those in my staff and the staff of the Senate ApLatin America and Africa. In this re- propriations Committee I have thor

1 Includes $125,000,000 recouped from cancellations of gard, on page 18 of the report, the Com- oughly analyzed the report of General prior year programs.

2 Deleted for security reasons. mittee states: Clay's Committee and have applied his

3 Includes aid for only those countries where base rights In addition to our remarks above concernCommittee's recommendations to the are held by United States.

4 Deleted for security reasons. ing various areas, the committee wishes to President's revised 1964 budget request

5 Civic action projects should be financed from econote its general view that only in extraordi

for military assistance. This has re nomic aid program, nary circumstances should the United States sulted in a determination that reductions 6 6-percent cut on account of reduced program. provide MAP aid, including military equip in military assistance totaling $432,244,- out thorough scrutiny of various areas involved, thus

Application of recommendations not possible withment of a small arms nature, where the 000 would be in consonance with the no reductions are recommended here. principal quarrel of the recipient country is recommendations made in the Clay rewith a non-Communist neighbor with which port. These reductions are applied to

Mr. ELLENDER. Mr. President, havthe United States also maintains friendly relations.

the programs in the various areas of the ing documented why military assistance

world, and I am confident, if made, would can be cut, based on the recommendaIn this same connection, the commit result in no threat to our security or the tions of the Clay Committee, I would now tee on page 10 of its report stated specif- security of the nations of the free world.

security of the nations of the free world. like to show why reductions in military ically with regard to aid to the African The amount of military assistance re assistance are also justified even if countries:

quested for Europe in the President's approached from a statistical or accountWith regard generally to U.S. military as budget is $229,356,000. Allowing the ing viewpoint. In this connection, I sistance to African countries, we must bear amount which we are committed to con- have had my staff prepare an analysis in mind that the chief burden of helping tribute to Europe, and recommended in of the military assistance estimates and these nations to enhance their internal security capabilities again falls logically on the

the Clay report, a total of $78,500,000 appropriations for the 10-year period, former metropoles, with which most of these

should be authorized for this area, thus fiscal year 1954 through fiscal year 1963. countries have retained police and military

permitting a reduction of $150,856,000 in During this period of time, budget estirelationships. In some cases, small-scale and this segment of the military assistance mates were submitted to Congress for supplementary U.S. training programs and program

military assistance totaling $21,258 milinternal security assistance may be justified, In Africa, where $24,511,000 is includ- lion. The amount actually appropriated and limited activity in a few countries where

ed in the budget estimate, the amount by Congress during this same period was we maintain bases is in order. Small programs and missions should be terminated

concurring with the recommendations by $16,342,400,000; thus Congress reduced elsewhere.

the Clay Committee would total $5,132,- the budget estimates during this decade I have been advocating such a pro- 379,000. 000, thus permitting reductions of $19,- by a total of $4,915,600,000. Surely, this

record shows that Congress has made pram for the past 7 or 8 years, but little,

In the Near East and south Asia, $444,- drastic reductions in this program; yet, if anything, has been done. On the con

726,000 has been requested in the budget. on top of the reductions made by Contrary, they have been increased—not in The amount covered in the recommenda- gress the executive branch made even number of men, but in number of mis- tions of the Clay Committee total $393,- further reductions, totaling $537 million. sions abroad.

287,000, thus permitting reductions of Congress, notwithstanding its large reThe Clay report continues:

$95,439,000 in the program for this area ductions, had appropriated too much We believe the problems created by mili- of the world.

money during this period. If the reductary assistance programs in the African countries generally would be greater than those

In addition to the reductions in these tions made by Congress and the further they would forestall or resolve.

three areas, applying the Clay Commit- reductions made by the executive branch tee recommendations, further reductions

are added together, we find that the in my report to the Senate after I had in the Far East and in the Latin Ameri- 000. That is a reduction in the budget I covered that point very thoroughly amounting to $166,570,000 could be made total reductions of budget estimates dur

ing this decade amounted to $5,452,600,visited Africa last year. My own personal opinion about milican areas of the world.

estimates of 24.46 percent. tary aid to Africa is set out on page 9

Mr. President, I hold in my hand a

Thus, the reductions made in military of my recent report on Africa wherein í detailed tabulation of the application of assistance during the past decade have stated:

reductions recommended by the Clay amounted to almost one quarter of the

Committee. Notwithstanding its lessened original budget estimates. If this same It will be devastating to the African nations if they have to expend even a small

value because of the necessity of dele- yardstick should be applied to the curamount of their meager revenues to support tions on account of security reasons, I rent budget estimate for military assistarmies. It is to be hoped that none of them ask unanimous consent that it be printed ance for fiscal year 1964, a reduction of will endeavor to build up their armed forces at this point in the RECORD.

$400 million in the budget estimate would

be in order, which is an amount approx- fat and that it was placed in the budget Furthermore, reprograming additions imating the recommendations of the as fat, with no justification for its exist- totaling $357,768,000 were also made in Clay Committee. ence,

almost every country included in the Mr. President, it is no coincidence that Mr. President, I ask unanimous con military assitance program. Thus, when the reductions recommended by the Clay sent to have the analysis that was pre- the combination of the reprograming deCommittee and the amount determined pared by my staff printed at this point letions and the reprograming additions by averaging congressional cuts over the in the RECORD.

are added together, one finds that almost past decade are identical.

There being no objection, the table 75 percent of the program that was justiI submit that $400 million of the mili was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, fied to Congress in fiscal year 1963 was tary assistance budget request is simple as follows:

changed after funds had been made

available. In fact, there is no question Analysis of military assistance estimates and appropriations for 10-year period, fiscal year that since this appropriation has been so 1954 through fiscal year 1963

overfunded for years, there has resulted [In millions of dollars]

much waste of funds, much laxity in

programing, and much inefficiency in Reductions

financial management in general, and Budget

Amount that the program is anything but conFiscal year estimate Appropri

available crete and firm. ation By


Total Percent for
Congress Executive 1

obligation In this regard, a recent report, entitled

"FAD 445," which was prepared by the 1954. 4, 274.5 3, 230.0 1, 044.5 318.7 1,363.2 31.89

Fiscal Analysis Division of the Depart1955_

1, 778.3 1, 192.7


ment of Defense Comptroller's Office, 1956_ 1, 595.2 1,022.2 573.0

14.0 587.0 36.79 1,008. 2 1957 2,925.0 2,017.5 907.5

shows that obligations for military as14.2 921.7 31.51

2,003.3 1958 1, 900.0 1, 340.0 560.0


566.3 29.81 1, 333.7 sistance for the month of June 1963 1959

1,800.0 1, 515.0


15.83 1, 515.0 1960_

1,600,0 1, 300.0

alone were in excess of $442 million. 300.0

18.75 1, 300.0
2,000.0 1,800.0 200.0

10. 42

Needless to say, this figure represents al1962

1,885.0 1,600.0


15. 12 1,600.0 most one-third of the total program for 1963 1,500.0 1, 325.0 175.0

11. 67 1, 325.0

1963, and it was all obligated in the last Total.. 21, 258. O 16, 342. 4 4, 915. 6 537.0 5, 452.6 24. 46

month of the fiscal year.

This report also shows that for fiscal 1 Unobligated balances returned to Treasury.

year 1963 almost one-half of the total 2 Less than $50,000.

obligated during the entire year for miliMr. ELLENDER. Mr. President, if If these were the only changes, one

tary assistance was actually obligated only from the standpoint of good eco would be justified in calling the military during the last 3 months of the fiscal nomics or good programing, the amount assistance program concrete and firm. year. authorized for military assistance should But this is not the case. In fiscal year

Mr. President, I submit that this was not exceed $1 billion for fiscal year 1964. 1963, hundreds of changes were made in done to reduce the amount of unobliEach year the witnesses from the Penta the military assistance program, affect- gated balances at the end of the fiscal gon, from the Secretary of Defense on ing almost every country which receives year which would normally revert to the down to the Administrator, endeavor to military aid from us.

Treasury unless reappropriated by Conjustify this program as being firm and Unfortunately, I am not able to read gress.

It also indicates laxity in proconcrete, while, in fact, it is based on into the RECORD today the many changes graming and, further, that there is exguesswork. In the recent testimony be that were made in the military assist cess funding of the military assistance fore the House Appropriations Commit ance program for fiscal year 1963, be- program. tee, when questioned by the chairman of cause they are classified, labeled "Secret." I ask unanimous consent that the text the subcommittee which handles foreign However, to give the Senate and the peo

However, to give the Senate and the peo- of the aforementioned FAD report 445 be aid about the concreteness of the mili ple of our country an indication of just printed at this point in the RECORD, SO tary assistance program, Secretary MC how uncertain this program is, I found that the pictorial record of obligations Namara replied, "Oh, yes indeed, no in an analysis presented with the justi- in the military assistance program for question about it," and then he proceeded fications given to the Appropriations

fications given to the Appropriations fiscal year 1963 will be available for to state that it was necessary to make Committees that reprograming deletions everyone's perusal. some minor changes in the program on were made in almost all the countries, There being no objection, the table account of the aid that was furnished aggregating $520,747,000, or almost one was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, India and South Vietnam. third of the total program.

as follows:

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Military personnel. ---

5, 630
35 76

577 64 88 130 299 Operation and maintenance. 925, 696 28, 616 31, 324 32, 341 33,025 43,041 | 47, 874 46, 698 71, 653 64, 270 39, 644 | 41,001 188, 846 Procurement..

2,097, 537 8,351

25, 29419, 041 -10,114 31, 788 56,163 93, 425 102, 203 110, 617 77, 331 164,440 230, 293 Aircraft.

552, 716 5, 473 4,986

7, 685 -15,781 6,393 8,334 63, 483 18, 041 29, 162 | 16, 920 37, 729 64,312
423, 395 2,895 1,576 4, 304 1, 509 2,964 11, 511

5, 637
20, 151 30, 967 20, 950

42, 738 | 34, 250
217, 292 195 | 11, 708 346

1, 748 5, 297

8, 402
5, 751
3,367 15, 891

4, 628
Ordnance, vehicles and relat-
ed equipment.---

505, 607 -308 5, 106

5, 188

741 13,079 21, 342 4,074 | 25,063 | 34, 339 24, 868 52, 108 80,018 Electronics and communications...

246, 511 927 277 1, 379 1, 604 5, 611 8, 815 5, 247 5,972 | 12, 260 7, 322 7,257 | 31, 711 Other procurement..

152, 016 -832 1, 642
139 66-1, 556

3, 903 8, 71815, 374
Research, development, test, and

558 54 147 71 113 87 -46 91 21 -422 252 117 Military construction.

161 131, 219 2, 366

360 15, 401 | 12, 648 4, 224 10, 07311, 088 2, 735 12, 427 Undistributed...

5, 927 | 10, 01022, 652
13, 526




277 -241 14 -23
Total, Department of De-

3, 174, 167 39,387 57, 581 66,883 35, 690 79, 213 113, 424 151, 296 177, 154 187, 230 122, 497 215, 714 442, 227

56 1,676 11,278 21, 575 –1, 662

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1,688, 296 1,485, 871

NOTE.-Amounts will not necessarily add to totals due to rounding.

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