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to the point where they accounted for necticut are suffering from it. This is C. Zinc sheet imports by country of origin, fully one-third of the domestic market. just one example of the harm we are
1956-62. The larger part of the increase in the doing to our own people in our misguided
D. Zinc strip produced in the United import of zinc sheet is attributable to the effort to assist Communist regimes. I
You will see from schedule C that there phenomenal rise in Yugoslav imports, know that business and labor in other
were no imports of zinc sheet from Yugofrom near zero in 1952 to 776 tons in parts of the country have also been ad
slavia prior to 1956 but that in 1962, the 1962. Imports from Yugoslavia, in fact, versely affected.
imports of sheet zinc from Yugoslavia were now account for almost 60 percent of I earnestly hope that the Senate will
more than 50 percent of total imports, and total imports.
take into consideration the plight of the total imports were 48 percent of domestic This has done very grave damage to American zinc sheet industry and of production. This means that total imports an important American industry that other industries that have suffered from were about one-third of domestic consumpis not in a position to compete with the the favored-nation treatment accorded
tion. This is a terrifically high figure. The
domestic zinc sheet business has already state-directed labor of Communist so- to Yugoslavia.
been ruined (see the last column on schedule cieties. According to the figures of the I ask unanimous consent to have
A). Rolled Zinc Manufacturers Association, printed in the RECORD an exchange of The production and consumption of zinc the industry has run at a loss for 4 con- correspondence with Mr. Orton P. Camp
correspondence with Mr. Orton P. Camp strip is several times that of zinc sheets secutive years, and the losses have in- of the Platt Bros, & Co, zinc plant in but we do not have imports statistics on creased with each year of operation, vir- Waterbury, Conn., and of several statis zinc strip. The Bureau of Census does not tually in direct proportion to the in- tical tables prepared by the Rolled Zinc maintain this information although on sev
eral occasions, our association has requested crease of Yugoslav imports. Manufacturers Association; and I also
the Bureau to do so and has offered to It is not merely the zinc sheet industry ask unanimous consent to have printed
stand the expense. We have every reason that has been affected. The production in the RECORD an excerpt from a study of to believe that the domestic zinc strip busiand consumption of zinc strip is sev- “United States Aid to Yugoslavia and ness will be ruined as has the sheet busieral times that of zinc sheet, and this in- Poland,” by Milorad M. Drachkovitch, ness if the most favored-nation treatment to dustry, too, is feeling the pinch of for- published by the American Enterprise Yugoslavia is continued. eign competition, primarily Yugoslav Institute.
It seems to me that the above figures tell competition, in the domestic market. There being no objection, the informa
the story. I hope that you will do all you
can, both in your committee and in the Platt Bros, & Co., of Waterbury, Conn., tion was ordered to be printed in the
Senate, to see that this most-favored-nation is one of the companies in the zinc strip RECORD, as follows:
treatment to Yugoslavia is not allowed to and wire business. In his letter to me,
JULY 18, 1963.
continue. As I said in my letter of June 21, Mr. Orton P. Camp of Platt Bros. & Co.
Hon. THOMAS J. DODD,
it seems to me that from a point of view of said:
ethics and fairness and good relations with Washington, D.C.
friendly nations, it is improper to continue We have every reason to believe that the DEAR SENATOR Dodd: Thank you for your domestic zinc strip business will be ruined, letter of July 10. I am glad to give you some
to give most-favored-nation treatment to as has the sheet business, if the most-lav- statistics in connection with the Yugoslavian
countries which are either communistic or ored-nation treatment to Yugoslavia is con- zinc import problem. Am enclosing the fol
communistically inclined. tinued. lowing schedules:
Thank you again for your interest and Mr. President, I am particularly con- States, 1952-62.
help. A. Zinc sheet produced in the United
Very truly yours, cerned about this situation because busiB. Zinc sheets-imports by volume and
THE PLATT BROS. & Co., nes and labor in my own State of Con- value, 1952-62.
ORTON P. CAMP.
Zinc sheets-- Imports by volume and value, average value of imports in terms of cents per pound and imports as percentage of domestic production
Source: Imports by tons and dollar value are as reported by the Bureau of the No. 81, dated January 1960, table 12. Other data as computed by Rolled Zinc ManuCensus, U.S. Department of Commerce Commodity Classification 6559000 except that facturers Association. for the years 1952 through 1958 they have been revised in accordance with the findings Excludes quantities erroneously reported as having been entered from Canada. of the U.S. Tariff Commission in Report on Zinc Sheet-Escape Clause Investigation
Source: Rolled Zinc Manufacturers Association.
firmed, in a milder form to be sure, by Am positive role can be played by certain naDuring the 1962 congressional debates on bassador Kennan himself, during his afore tional movements of progressive orientation, foreign aid, the leading critics of adminis- mentioned NBC-TV interview of July 1962, movements growing out of the struggle tration policy toward Yugoslavia particularly when he declared that “what the Yugoslavs against imperialism and capitalist monopstressed the role played by Tito's regime have said to the other neutrals is often olies." 8 among the nonalined nations of Asia, Africa, something that I haven't liked, and I don't Likewise, Lenin's explanation that the and Latin America. Several Senators ex find to be in the interest of this country.” 5 capitalist phase of development in a given pressed concern over the harm allegedly done What then are the motives behind Tito's backward country could be skipped and imto Western interests by Tito's tireless efforts attempts to shape the views and the policies mediately replaced by the Soviet system, was to influence the domestic policies and foreign of the nonalined nations? For the answer echoed in the LCY program: political orientation of countries geographi- one must first of all consult the sacred book "In the underdeveloped countries just cally remote from Yugoslavia.
of Titoism, the LCY'S 1958 program. Two liberated from colonial oppression, tendenTito identifies his type of neutralism with principles, according to that program, de
cies and possibilities exist for bypassing the victory of communism over freedom. This termine the world outlook of Yugoslav Com certain phases of capitalist development and is what he is working to achieve, not only munists. One is that "inexorably and in a immediately passing on to the construction in Yugoslavia, but also in Asia and Africa variety of ways, humanity is moving deep
of the economic foundations of the developand, it is obvious, in view of his statements, into the era of socialism." From this post- ment of socialism." 9 if he can do so, in South America. ulate stems the imperative for the LCY to
It is in the same Marxist-Leninist spirit Despite the heretic label affixed upon Tito educate the Yugoslav working people in the that Edvard Kardelj, chief ideologist of Titoby the Communist bloc, Titoism promotes spirit of proletarian internationalism:
ism, explained the meaning of "peaceful coSoviet interest in the third or neutral world, "In all contacts with other communists, existence," the central tenet of Yugoslav if not directly, then indirectly by inspir- Socialist, progressive and anti-imperialist foreign policy: ing and supporting attitudes in those coun movements, and in all its international re "For Yugoslav Communists the justificatries which are detrimental to the basic lations in general, the League of the Com tion of the policy of coexistence is based interest of the West.1
munists of Yugoslavia has upheld and will on the conviction that in the circumstances In the international arena, by and large continue to uphold the great idea of prole of today it will be ever more difficult for the and on balance, Tito is working against the tarian socialist internationalism as its guid- forces of imperialism and war to break the interests of the United States and the free ing principle.?
existing coexistence, which will bring the world, against the interest of NATO, and In the practical application of these prin internal contradictions and oppositions of in support of Soviet policies on Berlin and ciples, the program of the LCY actually re
the capitalist world to a new stage of develon other points of conflict.2
formulates two guidelines which go directly opment, that is, it will speed up the processes The granting of aid to Tito, admittedly a back to Lenin's own thesis on national and
of disintegration of imperialism and capitalCommunist, who has repeatedly declared colonial questions offered to the Second
ism as a system and increasingly strengthen that the world must be communized, is an Congress of the Communist International the part played by Socialist factors, mateinducement to the nations in Africa, in the (July-August 1920). Thus Lenin's thesis rial and political." 10 Middle East and in the Far East, to follow that “Communist parties must aid national
The same dialectical approach used to Tito. By giving aid to Communist countries, ist-revolutionary liberation movements in explain the concept of active peaceful cowe are encouraging all of the emerging na backward countries” finds the following ex
existence underlies also the Yugoslav analytions to look favorably upon the Tito form pression in the LCY's program:
sis of the bloc division of the world. of government.
“In certain countries in Asia, Africa, and Although in current propaganda the YugoWhile we have been giving billions of Latin America, at a certain stage of the
slav Communists criticize the existence of dollars to Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia has been
antagonistic military blocs as detrimental to spending hundreds of millions of dollars on
world peace, they explain also that they do
4 Senator DODD, CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, vol. a foreign aid program of its own, geared to
not put the Western and Soviet blocs back 108, pt. 10, p. 12935.
to back, as equally responsible for world the expansion of neutralist influence in the
5 In his letter to the New York Times (July divisions and tensions. In his report to the non-Communist world. India, Indonesia,
6, 1962), Mr. Kennan was even more explicit: Seventh Congress of the LCY, Tito put the Burma, Egypt, the Sudan, Ghana, Ethiopia, "At no time during my incumbency here have responsibility for world partition squarely on and other Afro-Asian nations with neutralist
I considered Yugoslavia's influence over the the West: leanings, have been recipients of this aid.
other neutrals to be satisfactory from the In short, through our aid to Yugoslavia, we
“One of the reasons for the establishstandpoint of the concepts and purposes of ment of the Atlantic Pact was the rigid and have, in effect, been underwriting the exten
our country in world affairs." sion of anti-Western neutralism in the coun
unnecessarily threatening Stalinist foreign
* Yugoslavia's Way, p. 17. “As Marxists we policy, and besides that also the fact that the tries of Asia and Africa.4
cannot doubt that social progress in contem Western owers had reached the conviction
porary conditions is a manifestation of the that through diplomatic ways they would 1 Senator PROXMIRE, CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, general march toward socialism." Edvard vol 108, pt. 7, p. 9863.
Kardelj, in an interview with the official Yu2. Senator KEATING, CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, goslav News Agency, Tanjug, before his de 8 Ibid., p. 60. vol. 108, pt. 7, p. 9867.
parture for Indonesia, December 1962, Review 9 Ibid., p. 21. 3 Senator LAUSCHE, CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, of International Affairs, Dec. 20, 1962, p. 20. 10 Socialism and War (London: Methuen & vol. 108, pt. 7, pp. 9923–9924.
7 Yugoslavia's Way, p. 67.
Co., 1961), p. 66.
not be able to achieve their imperialistic Titoist concern for the underdeveloped ern Europe less conspicuous in the eyes of goals. This pact should have served as means countries began to pick up momentum after his nonalined friends.19 toward the realization of world domination Stalin's death, and has steadily increased The impact of Titoism on the socioecoand this from the position of strength. The along with the emergence of new states in nomic life of the underdeveloped countries establishment of the Atlantic Pact and the Asia and Africa. Since his first and carefully may be observed on two levels. One relates drawing of Western Germany into it have prepared trip to Asia, in December 1954,15 to the advice given by some Yugoslav writers, necessarily led to the establishment of the through several subsequent trips on both particularly to African leaders, to shun closer defensive Warsaw Pact of Eastern countries, continents, and finally through the pivotal relations with Western imperialist powers as counterweight to the Atlantic Pact.” 11 role he played at the September 1961 Bel which are attempting to replace political
Likewise, more subtly but no less signifi grade Conference,18 Tito tried to influence with economic domination in their second cantly, Edvard Kardelj declared in his inter these new states on three planes: ideological, conquest of Africa.20 Likewise, prominent view before leaving for Indonesia on Decem world political, and socioeconomic.
Yugoslav economic experts counsel the Afriber 6, 1962, that the bloc division of the The LCY program has served as the main cans to “restrict private capitalist tendworld reflects the existence of contradictory vehicle of Tito's ideological proselytism. Its encies,” 21 while the Yugoslav delegates at the Socialist and capitalist systems. But th
dissemination has reached worldwide propor United Nations have for many years drawn cial systems which change, necessarily, "by tions with 26 editions, including a Spanish attention to the fact that economic developthe freeing of the internal social forces in edition in Chile, an Indonesian in Djakarta, ment of the underdeveloped countries canevery country," should not be identified with a Burmese in Rangoon, and an Indian in not simply be left to foreign private capthe blocs, which are "a historically condi New Delhi. Yugoslavia's very smallness, ital.29 tioned political phenomenon." 12 This dis Tito's reformist, revisionist, and nonalined These strictures against Western economic tinction, at first sight rather obscure, actual reputation, and the more dignified and scien neocolonialism go well beyond the level of ly contains two very important implications. tific outlook of the LCY's program-as com mere anti-Western attacks. They imply, at One is the confirmation of the Titoist thesis pared with the cruder Soviet program, and the same time, an invitation to the underthat while the blocs are ad hoc, static, and with aggressive Chinese propaganda—have developed countries to transplant the Yugostrictly temporary manifestations, the pres made the Yugoslav interpretation of Marx slav economic model on their own soil. ent bloc division will be overcome gradually, ism-Leninism much more respectable among Thus, for example, Edvard Kardelj's visit to not through a world war but through inter
the local elites of underdeveloped countries, Cairo in December 1960 has been credited as nal process leading inexorably toward so than the direct influence of the great com contributing to the emerging "Arab socialcialism. The second implication suggests
munist powers. Thus, in the words of a ism.” 23 More recently, the president of the that Yugoslavia, although not a member of competent observer:
new Republic of Tanganyika, Julius Nyerere, the Warsaw Pact, and indeed because of this “The fitting of the Marxist formula onto declared in an interview with a Yugoslav very fact, may serve to accelerate the world the natural anticolonial reaction is the great correspondent that his visit to Yugoslavia wide movement toward socialism. This was est service the Yugoslav regime has made to and his acquaintance there with the process also intimated by Tito in his speech of Dethe Communist cause." 17
of industrialization and the socialization of cember 29, 1962. In his address he informed Titoist influence on the world political out economic activities convinced him that “one his Yugoslav listeners that he had explained
look of the underdeveloped countries may be day we will introduce in practice many things in Moscow how important it was that Yugo
correctly assessed from two of Tito's recent you are doing now." 24 slavia enjoy a world status and reputation,
addresses. One was his violent hate-the Another aspect of the same phenomenon is particularly among the nonengaged states of colonialists-and-neocolonialists speech before the establishment of many-sided relations Africa and Asia. That would be, in his words, the parliament of Ghana, on March 2, 1961, between Yugoslavia and the new states of "useful not only to us and to those coun
in which the West was pictured as the ex Asia, Africa, and to some extent Latin Amertries but also to the progressive movement
clusive villain in the piece.18 Another was ica, ranging from trade to scientific and and to the whole peace-loving world.” 13 This his pro-Soviet and anti-Western, and partic
technical cooperation and to treaties on ecoformulation, veiled in form but not in sub ularly anti-United States, speech of Septem nomic aid extended by Yugoslavia. This stance, points to another conclusion reached ber 3, at the Belgrade conference. On the one aspect of Yugoslav assistance to the ecoby Paul Underwood a year before Tito's
hand, he declared his unqualified support for nomically underdeveloped countries on a speech:
all national revolutionary movements—from bilateral basis merits particular attention, “Tito's basic aim in his association with the southeast Asia, through the Congo, Algeria,
and its operation is described as follows by nonalined nations seems to be to form a and Angola, to Cuba—and he appealed for Yugoslav official circles: group of Socialist-minded, essentially antithe liquidation of colonialism everywhere
"As the insufficiently developed countries Western supporters in preparation for Mos and the right to self-determination for all are not in a position to pay for their imcow's expected triumph. Such a backing
former or present colonial peoples. All this ports from Yugoslavia in convertible foreign might enable him to maintain a certain in was expressed in countless communiques exchange, Yugoslavia has instituted an ever dependence and give him continued influence following the meetings of Yugoslav leaders broader crediting policy toward these couneven in a Soviet-dominated world.” 14
with their counterparts from other nonalined tries of late. Special arrangements have reAnother element to be mentioned in this countries. But, on the other hand, Tito cently been concluded to this effect with connection-which has certainly been viewed maintained total silence on the nature of Ceylon, Ethiopia, the Sudan, Indonesia, Arwith some displeasure in Moscow, and with Soviet-satellite relations and deliberately gentina, Brazil and with many emergent open hostility in Peiping—is the tendency failed to mention the right of self-determi African countries. These arrangements enof Titosim to export its version of Marxism nation for the peoples of East-central Europe. able imports of capital goods from Yugoslavia Leninism and its socioeconomic experiment The fact of Tito's quarrels with the Chinese, to be paid for only when the respective inas particularly suitable to the underdeveloped and ups-and-downs in his relations with vestments begin yielding returns in the countries. "Skip capitalism through Tito
Khrushchev, make this discrepancy between importing country." 25 ism" is indeed the unstated but underlying his anti-Western positions and his tacit ap The scope and exact amount of aid given slogan of LCY propaganda in the "third” part proval of the present state of affairs in East by Yugoslavia to various underdeveloped of the world. Before assessing its deeper
countries is difficult to establish, but even meaning, we should turn to a brief descrip 15 Cf. Slobodan M. Draskovich, Tito, Mos
the following and certainly incomplete table tion of this Titoist Afro-Asian (and to a cow's Trojan Horse (Chicago: Regnery, 1957), lesser extent, Latin American) operation. pp. 213-217.
cles in the 'Revue of International Affairs' I
16 Between 1954 and 1961 Tito made four have realized that the opposite is true. 11 VII Kongres Saveza Komunista Jugo official Afro-Asian trips: 1954–55, India and May 5, 1962, p. 6. slavije, pp. 25–26.
Burma; 1955-56, Ethiopia and Egypt; 1958 20 V. Milenkovic, "The Second Conquest of 12 "Vice President Kardelj's Interview With 59, India, Indonesia, Burma, Ceylon, Ethiopia, Africa,” Ekonomska Politika, Feb. 25, 1961. Editor of Tanjug," Review of International Sudan, United Arab Republic; 1961, Ghana, 21 Janez Stanovnik, “The Struggle of Two Affairs, Dec. 20, 1962, pp. 19-20. It is inter Togo, Liberia, Guinea, Mali, Morocco, Tunisia, Opposite Tendencies in the Economy of Unesting to note that in his speech at the Sixth United Arab Republic.
derdeveloped Countries,” Nasa Stvarnost, Congress of the Socialist Unity Party of Ger 17 George Bailey, “They Call Themselves March 1961. many on Jan. 16, 1963, in East Berlin, Khru Neutrals," the Reporter, Sept. 28, 1961.
22 Yugoslav View on Assistance to Economishchev used the same formula as Kardelj 18 The entire text of this speech, in English, cally Underdeveloped Countries," Yugoslav when he declared that “the military blocs may be found in an official Yugoslav publi Survey, July-September 1960, p. 267. cannot be identified with the system,” the cation entitled "President Tito's Visit to 23 “Officials of the Nasser Government are first being the result of international treaties Friendly African Countries" (Belgrade, 1961), reported to feel that the Yugoslav Commuand agreements, and the latter, "an objective pp. 5-23.
nists' experience in building up industry, law of social development." For the full text 19 A telling example of the effects of Titoist modernizing agriculture and organizing the of Khrushchev's speech see Soviet Booklet propaganda in Latin America is the following nation on their own pattern could be useful.” No. 106 (London), January 1963, p. 19. letter from a Chilean reader to the editors The New York Times, Nov. 27, 1960. 13 Politika, Dec. 30, 1962.
of the Belgrade Review of International Af 24 Borba, Dec. 9, 1962. 14 “Tito's Neutral Road-Toward Moscow," fairs: “We have been accustomed to hearing 25 "Yugoslav View on Assistance to Ecothe New York Times Magazine, Nov. 26, 1961, that the idea of human rights is suppressed nomically Underdeveloped Countries,” Yup. 129.
in socialist countries, but thanks to the arti goslav Survey, July-September 1960, p. 273.
speaks eloquently about the efforts of over of countries thousands of miles from the diocesan council, sends warm greetings to all indebted Yugoslavia to become the creditor Balkans:
our Serbian brothers of St. Sava in this diocese and the free world, but especially in our
ancient enslaved fatherland. Date of agreement Assisted country Amount and nature of Yugoslav assistance
Because past occasions have shown that
the eyes of the enslaved faithful look to this Feb. 12, 1959 Ethiopia... Financial and technical assistance; offers of a nonspecified amount
diocese as the champion of the free Serbian of Yugoslavian credits,
Orthodox Church with its glorious national Jan. 21, 1960 India.. $40,000,000 credits for purchasing Yugoslav capital goods.
traditions and determined resistance to godFebruary 1960 Morocco.
$5,000,000 investment credits for the import of Yugoslav capital less communism, this assembly must, in its
goods. January 1961. Sudan.--Nonspecified amount of long-term credits granted under the agree
sacred duty, bring the following facts to ment of July 18, 1959.
their attention: Do ---United Arab Republic - $20,000,000 credits for the purchase of industrial equipment and The holy synod of the Serbian Orthodox
machines, Do. Pakistan.
patriarchate in Belgrade forwarded to this $10,000,000 credit arrangements. June 2, 1961 Guinea.. Agreement on the elaboration of a town plan for Conakry, to be
national church assembly the decisions of financed 50 percent by Yugoslavia. (An operational credit of the holy assembly of bishops as Nos. 21 and $600,000 had already been granted in October of 1960, when an 21/Min. 77, No. 1725/Min, 237, and No. 1726/ agreement on technical assistance was signed.)
Min. 238, dated May 17, 1963, as well as its
$10,000,000 credits earmarked for the execution of certain projects
separate undated epistle to the faithful of July 1961. Indonesia.. $15,000,000 credit.
this diocese in which it informed our assemSept. 27, 1961. Morocco $5,000,000 loan.
bly that the holy assembly of bishops had October 1961. Ghana..
An earlier credit of $1,800,000 was increased to $3,600,000.
decided to abolish the Serbian Orthodox dioFeb. 2, 1962 Tunisia.. $6,000,000 credits for investment equipment.
cese for the United States of America and Feb. 19, 1962 Ghana. $5,000,000 credits on deliveries of Yugoslav goods.
Canada by dividing it into three new dioMarch 1962.Ethiopia.
Yugoslav economic experts to help prepare the 2d 5-year plan of ceses—the middle eastern American-Cana
Ethiopia. Apr. 18, 1962. Indonesia.. $15,000,000 credits for investment equipment.
dian diocese, with its seat at Detroit, Mich.; April 1962 Ghana..
Nonspecified amount of credits for imports of capital equipment. the middle western American diocese, with Apr. 26, 1962 ----do...
Agreement on granting of credit facilities for the construction of a its seat at Libertyville, I11.; and the western 2d naval base in Ghana.
American diocese, with its seat at Los AnDecember 1962 Indonesia...
Nonspecified increase of a credit previously granted for imports of
geles, Calif., granting these newly created Dec. 24, 1962.--- Tanganyika...
Purchase of some industrial plants in Yugoslavia on a nonspecified dioceses the same legal status enjoyed by credit basis.
the Serbian Orthodox dioceses in the FedApril 1963.. Algeria ----Supply, together with Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria, of the major
eral Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia. portion of outside aid to launch Algeria's first home-grown industry for production of textiles, clothing, and leather.
The holy assembly of bishops at the same time appointed the Very Reverend Stevan
Castavica, bishop of the new Middle-Eastern Source: Yugoslav Survey, April 1960-September 1962 (10 issues); Review of International Affairs (1960–63); Thomas
American-Canadian diocese; and His Grace, Philippovich, "La Yougoslavie entre l'ouest et l'est” (Paris: Les Cahiers Africains, No. 11, 1962), pp. 69–74; the New York Times (western edition), Apr. 9, 1963.
the Right Reverend Bishop Dionisije, bishop
of the newly created Middle-Western AmeriThere is å last, but certainly not least Practically the same may be said for the
can diocese. Simultaneously with its apimportant feature of these Titoist operational international activities of the Yugoslav
pointment of Bishop Dionisije, the holy asmethods in connection with the underdevel- Confederation of Trade Unions.28 Its presi
sembly suspended his conduct of affairs of oped countries. Hundreds of experts, engi- dent, Svetozar Vukmanovic-who is also a the new diocese; placed him under interdic
tion of sacerdotal duties; and announced neers, teachers, and other technical and member of the Secretariat of the executive
his investigation by the ecclesiastical court diplomatic personnel are being sent abroad, committee (Politbureau) of the LCY and
because of numerous alleged accusations while large numbers-particularly of young thus the fifth highest ranking official in the
against him; and, finally, the assembly apAfricans-are invited to study at various party hierarchy—is particularly active in esYugoslav schools and universities under tablishing close personal contacts with the
pointed the Very Reverend Archmandrite highly favorable financial conditions.26 In trade unionists of northwestern and central Dr. Firmilijan Ocokoljich, administrator of
the newly created Middle-Western American addition, a series of Yugoslav social organiza- Africa. Thus, after a trip to Ghana and Mo
diocese, and the Very Reverend Archimantions systematically exchange delegations rocco, in October 1960, he declared in an in
drite Gregory Udicki administrator of the with African, Asian, and Latin American terview that Yugoslav trade unions are countries. Two of the largest such organiza- highly interested in combating anti-Com
new Western-American diocese. tions, the Socialist Alliance of Working Peo munist tendencies within the International
For its part, the diocesan council for this
see advised the National Church Assembly ple of Yugoslavia (former Popular Front) and Confederation of Free Trade Unions. Since
that after numerous faithful had called its the Confederation of Trade Unions of Yugo- the Moroccan Trade Union Federation be
attention to the aforementioned decisions slavia, have been particularly active in estab- longs to the ICFTU, Vukmanovic empha
of the holy assembly of bishops and the holy lishing tangible forms of cooperation with sized, with satisfaction, his influence on Mo
synod in Belgrade, it convened in plenary underdeveloped countries, ranging from roccan rejection of the ICFTU's anti-Com
session on June 6, 1963, and decreed as study tours and exchanges of opinion to munist policy.29
follows: assistance in the training of personnel, etc.
EXHIBIT 1 Here, for example, is an excerpt from a glow
1. The Diocesan Council of the Serbian (DECLARATION OF THE 10TH NATIONAL CHURCH ing report on rich and extensive interna
Orthodox diocese for the United States and tional activities and relations of the Socialist
ASSEMBLY OF THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX DIO Canada declares that it is not authorized
CESE OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA) Alliance.
to accept or reject the three-way division "Foremost among the activities of the So
of the diocese for the United States of The 10th National Church Assembly of the
America and Canada into new dioceses; and cialist Alliance of Working People of Yugo- Serbian Orthodox diocese of the United
for this reason the matter is referred to slavia last year (1961) was its intensive and States of America convoked in regular seswide support of the liberation movements of sion on August 6, 7, 8, 1963, at St. Sava Mon
the National Church Assembly. For emerthe dependent African countries, so that 1961 astery, Libertyville, Ill., by His Grace, the gency reasons, this assembly is convoked for
the days of August 6, 7, 8, and 9, 1963, at the may rightly be called Africa Year for the Right Reverend Bishop Dionisije, and the
Monastery of Saint Sava at Libertyville, Ill., Alliance, too. "In the course of last year alone Yugo- slavia," Review of International
in accordance with the rules and decisions
Affairs, slavia was visited by 26 delegations from Mar. 20, 1962, p. 19. The same report is
of the last national church assembly held various liberation movements of Africa, and interesting also because it stresses the im
in September 1960. This decision is
mously adopted. by individual representatives of 18 countries. provement of relations and intensification Most of these movements and parties are of contacts with the corresponding socio
2. Upon motion of the Reverend Aleksandar greatly interested in the work and develop- political organizations of all East European Dimitrijevich, seconded by Mr. Milos Konjement of Yugoslav organizations and socio- countries (with the exception of Albania)
vich, it has been decided to send a letter to political and state development." 27 and certain Communist parties and orga
the holy synod requesting that a synodal nizations outside the Soviet bloc.
commission be sent as soon as possible, at 28 "International Activities of the Yugoslav
the plaintiff's expense, to investigate and 26 According to Frankfurter Frankfurter Allgemeine Trade Unions in 1959,” Yugoslav Survey,
adjudicate the accusations against His Grace, Zeitung, Jan. 12, 1963, the African students April 1960, pp. 121-28. Also, "The Yugoslav
the Bishop Dionisije-since according to the in Yugoslavia receive scholarships of 60,000 Trade Unions' Links with Foreign countries,”
previous decision of the diocesan council, dinars a month ($80), while the scholarships ibid, January-March 1961, pp. 578–83. Also, no legal changes can be made until the defor Yugoslav students amount to only 15,000 “Yugoslav Trade Unions and the Interna cision of the 10th National Church Assembly dinars ($20)
tional Trade Union Movement,” ibid, April, already convened. This decision is adopted 27 “The 1961 International Activities of the June 1962, pp. 1355–62.
by all present except for two who vote Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugo 29 Borba, Oct. 30, 1960.
The diocesan council advised the holy fenders of St. Sava's heritage on this con sion of the Serbs to Christianity down synod of its decisions pursuant to which tinent.
through the ages. the investigation commission of the patri The facts strongly suggest that one did not The Serbian Orthodox patriarchate, its archate, consisting of His Grace, Bishop count on such resistance. The facts estab- holy assembly of bishops, and the holy Chrisostom, His Grace, Bishop Visarion, and lish that the holy synod did not consider the synod, are not free since they make their the Very Reverends Mladen Mladenovich and views of the free faithful in the diocese of the decisions either upon the request of the Boza Tripkovich arrived in New York, N.Y., United States of America and Canada, in ac- Federal Commission for Religious Questions on June 28, 1963, where they were greeted by cordance with the ancient aphorism: "The
cordance with the ancient aphorism: "The of the Federal Socialist Republic of Yugothe consul of the Yugoslav Communist voice of the people is the voice of the Son of slavia (its divisions are such commissions in Government.
God.” Instead, the holy synod, by its deci each of the federal units) or in collaboration The said commission arrived at Liberty sion of July 1963, heedlessly put the adminis with the commission and with its prior asville, Ill., the See of the Bishops for the tration of the newly created and on the paper sent. This Yugoslav commission closely corUnited States and Canada, His Grace Dion existing dioceses into the hands of His Holi. responds to the Soviet Commission for Reisije, on July 5, 1963, and tried to compel ness, the Serbian and Macedonian Patriarch. ligions. his deposition concerning the alleged of Thereafter, His Grace, Bishop Visarion, The Association of the Orthodox Clergy of fenses while at the same time refusing to went back to Yugoslavia in order to suggest the Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia divulge the identity of the plaintiffs or to the convocation of an extraordinary session has as one of its aims "* * * to safeguard provide him, for his direct response, with of the holy assembly of bishops. The assem and strengthen all the achievements of the the copies of the complaints; alleging ca bly was held on July 26, 1963, and then made heroic partisan liberation struggle of our nonical misconduct, on which he stood ac decision which reads as follows: “The admin peoples, especially freedom, brotherhood, and cused, as is provided for by church criminal istrators—the Archimandrites Dr. Firmilijan equality”; i.e., to safeguard the power and procedure. In acting thus, the Belgrade and Gregory-are appointed bishops for the dominion of the Communist Party elite of Investigation Commission not only deprived dioceses which previously were given to them Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia. This association actually plays Bishop Dioniside of his fundamental rights for administration.”
the part of a political commissar in all the as an individual and an American citizen to The oral instruction was added to this deci institutions of the patriarchate. a fair trial based upon the Constitution but sion-according to the statement of the in The long resistance of the Patriarchs also made it impossible for him to prepare vestigation commission itself—that their Gavrilo and Vikentije, whose memory will his defense by gathering witnesses and using consecration was to be performed as ex always be blessed, against the schismatic other kinds of evidence.
peditiously as possible, and before this 10th endeavors of the Communist regime to split In private conversations with the indi Church National Assembly convened. Pur the Serbian Orthodox patriarchate by esvidual members of the diocesan council and suant to this instruction, the Archimandrite tablishing the so-called Macedonian Orthowith individual lay workers in the church Dr. Firmilijan was consecrated in the Church dox Church, was finally abandoned by affairs of the Serbian people in the United of St. Sava in Milwaukee, Wis., on August Patriarch German. He gave up the ancient States and Canada, the right reverend 1, 1963, while the consecration of the Archi title of the Serbian patriarchs which was, members of the investigation commission mandrite Gregory took place in the Church "Patriarch of Serbia, Archbishop of Ipek and admitted first, that they had never presented of St. Steven at Alhambra, Calif., on Au- Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci." He a copy of the complaints for response by His gust 4, 1963. The objections of the faithful replaced it with the twofold title—“Serbian Grace, Bishop Dionisije; and secondly, that and their picket lines went unheeded, al and Macedonian Patriarch.” However, this they were obliged to act this way in order to though these protests obviously were the dual role of the head of the Orthodox church protect the plaintiffs from civil or criminal cries "unaxios," which canonically make in Yugoslavia is only temporary according suit by Bishop Dionisije in American courts. invalid the elevation of the unworthy to the to a recent statement of the Macedonian As a matter of fact, the investigation com high rank of bishops.
Metropolitan, H. E. Dositej, recently pubmission was in a hurry to perform the real The aforementioned decisions of the holy lished in this country, the Metropolitan exand principal task for which it had come assembly of bishops and the holy synod of pects that the Macedonian Orthodox church namely, the consecration of the Very Rev. the Serbian Orthodox Church in Communist will secede, definitively, from the patriarcherend Lastavica as bishop of the newly cre Yugoslavia, as well as the above-cited events ate of Belgrade and become independent, ated Middle-Eastern American-Canadian
and the actions of their investigation com and perhaps even autocephalic, after the diocese. This it did on July 13, 1963, in the mission and of the newly consecrated bish election of two or three new bishops this church of St. Elijah at Aliquippa, Pa.
ops, clearly demonstrated that the alleged coming autumn. The present Communist On the other hand the investigation com canonical offenses of His Grace Bishop Yugoslav regime can then use this Macemission, together with the Association of
Dionisije are not the real points at issue. donian church as a political tool to imperil Clergymen and the above-named administra
The real point at issue is the long and care the Greek part of Aegean Macedonia and the tors of the two newly created dioceses, Arch
fully planned and prepared conspiracy of the Bulgarian part of Pirine Macedonia. The imandrites Dr. Firmilijan and Gregory, took
present Communist regime in Yugoslavia to Communists are promoting this essentially a series of measures to reinforce their take over the diocese of the United States of political schism even though an autonomous positions:
America and Canada as a base for the further Macedonian Orthodox Church-much less 1. They sought to misdirect all clergymen,
Communist infiltration in the United States an autocephalic one-has never before exchurches, and school communities, by means of America and Canada. The fact of this isted, either before or after the establishof incomplete information or half-truths
bold attempt is further proven by Tito's ment of the Serbian Orthodox Patriarchate with a view to persuading these groups to ambassador to Ottawa who said in Windsor, in 1346. sever their relations with the Serbian Ortho
Ontario, that it is indispensable for com Thus, the enslaved position of the Serbian dox Diocese for the United States and Canada
munist infiltration to capture at least one Orthodox Church in Yugoslavia demonand to remit their contributions, instead, to
church and school community in this coun strates unambiguously that these decisions the new administrators of the nonexistent try and in Canada as well.
attributed to the Holy Assembly of Bishops dioceses.
This National Church Assembly particu- and the holy synod and communicated to 2. They sought to take over from the larly emphasizes the fact that the Serbian this 10th National Church Assembly belong diocese and to enter into possession of the Orthodox Church in Yugoslavia lives and acts to the growing category of decisions actually diocesan real property including the Monas under the same slavery which has enchained written in the Federal Commission for Retery of St. Sava at Libertyville, Ill., the the entire Serbian people of Yugoslavia from ligious Questions of the Federal Socialist Recharity home at Shadeland, Pa., and the St. the time of the takeover of the Communist public of Yugoslavia and signed, as a forSava Mission at Jackson, Calif., and they also Party of Yugoslavia. The Communist re
The Communist re- mality, by the highest anthorities of the sought to seize liquid assets of the diocese in gime confiscated almost all of the church's hierarchy. With respect to these decisions, various bank accounts.
liquid assets and real property. At its in the National Church Assembly wishes to 3. They sought to organize a boycott of the ception, the Communist government com state emphatically that not one of the pre10th National Church Assembly and to pre- pletely forbade religious education; vious National Church Assemblies, nor the vent, by whatever means, the election and while it subsequently permitted such educa- bishop of the Serbian Orthodox diocese for participation of the delegates of the individ tion in theory, in practice it imposed so the United States and Canada ever requested ual church and school communities to it. many attenuating conditions that such edu the three-way division of the diocese at
All of these illegal endeavors remain un-. cation became virtually impossible. Cele least into three new ones. On the contrary, successful to date. Our diocese continues to bration of the greatest Christian holy days the National Church Assemblies of 1956 and perform its activities and carry on its divine was forbidden, and students and workers 1960 requested that the Latin American part mission, although with great difficulties and were mercilessly punished for their absences of the diaspora of our Holy Church, be material and moral losses. Our clergy, our on such days. The Communists have im- placed under the jurisdiction of the bishop church, and school communities, as well as posed severe economic sanctions and Jeopard- of this diocese in order to keep the faithour national organizations, and all our faith ized the livelihood of all those who wed in ful in this portion of the world within the ful, although stunned at first by the violent church, who baptize their children or keep pale of the Mother Church. frontal attack not only on His Grace, Bishop the custom of celebrating the feast day of During this present session, this National Dionisije, but also on the very foundations, the family patron saint-the greatest and Church Assembly considered the legal status autonomy and existence of this diocese, most sacred national religious symbol of each of the Serbian Orthodox diocese for the gathered strength and rallied the ranks of de- Serbian family from the time of the conver- United States of America and Canada with