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The indications of the survey data are en Council on Human Relations; William F. total of 54 Negro apprentices trained during couraging to the degree that they show re Nelson, vice chairman, Malcolm C. MacKin- the same period. cent progress towards increasing Negro in non, and Robert L. Wearring, members of volvement in apprenticeship programs. The the District of Columbia Apprenticeship

Apprenticeship FINAL REPORT OF JOINT COMMITTEE SURVEY OF District of Columbia Apprenticeship Council Council.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA APPRENTICES AS OF is to be commended for its efforts to elim Assisting in the study were Gino J. Simi, JULY 1, 1963 inate racial discrimination in local appren executive secretary of the District of Colum Herewith final report on special survey of ticeship programs. Similarly, labor groups bia Apprenticeship Council, Paul M. Rilling,

bia Apprenticeship Council, Paul M. Rilling, apprentices under the Bridges-Randolph and employers utilizing apprentices are in Executive Director of the Commissioners' District of Columbia Apprenticeship Act of creasingly demonstrating an enlightened ap Council on Human Relations, and their 1946 by color, conducted by a joint comproach to this subject and are deserving of staffs.

mittee composed of representatives of the recognition for this indication of concern

The survey data indicates a more wide Commissioners Council on Human Relations for equal employment opportunity.

spread use of Negro apprentices by individ- and the District of Columbia Apprenticeship In all fairness and objectivity, however, it ual employers than by labor-management Council, between April 1 and July 1, 1963. is necessary to comment upon the relative

Joint Apprenticeship Committees. Most of The joint survey was proposed at the Noprogress of individual employers as con

the individual employers covered are non vember 21, 1962, meeting of the Commissiontrasted to the labor-management Joint Ap union shops.

ers Council on Human Relations at which prenticeship Committees (JAC). The fact that nearly a third of apprentices registered

Nearly a third, 29.2 percent, of apprentices representatives of the District of Columbia

registered with individual employers were Apprenticeship Council had been invited to with individual employers are Negro, as compared with 8.5 percent of those registered registered under the Joint Apprenticeship Negro, as compared with 8.5 percent of those review mutual problems.

At the Apprenticeship Council's quarterly under the Joint Apprenticeship Committees,

Committees. The exact figures show 74 meeting of February 16, 1963, the council is a particularly distressing comment regard- of 253 apprentices in individual shops as agreed to the survey if approval could be ing the JAC programs. The 5.5 percent figure representing Negro involvement in building with Joint Apprenticeship Committees. Negro; 142 Negroes among 1,591 registered obtained from the Secretary of Labor and the

District of Columbia Board of Commissiontrades apprenticeship programs under Joint Labor-Management Committees is inexcus

In the building construction trades, the ers. The Apprenticeship Council Chairman,

John R. Evans, designated Vice Chairman ably low and represents tokenism of a most target of recent apprenticeship desegregaineffectual and effete character. tion efforts by the Department of Labor, a

M. C. MacKinnon, Robert L. Wearring, WilWhile the selected trades of bricklayers,

total of 96 of 1,230 apprentices were Negro, liam F. Nelson, and Gino J. Simi, secretary, printer-compositors, bookbinders, operating or 7.8 percent. Building trade apprentices as the Apprenticeship Council members to engineers, cement masons, bindery workers,

under Joint Labor-Management Committees, meet with Vice Chairman R. Frank Jones, auto mechanics, pastry cooks, and optical however, numbered 62 Negroes out of a total Francis H. McGuigan and Prof. C. J. Nuesse, technicians have made a relatively impres

of 1,128 apprentices for a percentage figure and Paul M. Rilling, director, appointed by of 5.5 percent.

Chairman Aaron Goldman for the Council sive record, other trades as, for example, carpentry, electrical workers, pipefitters, In releasing the results of the survey, the on Human Relations to draft plans for the

survey as soon as approval had been granted plumbers, sheet metal workers, asbestos committee noted that although July i was workers, painters, and stationary engineers the survey termination date, Joint Appren- þy the Commissioners and the Secretary of

Labor. have an abysmal record. The progress since ticeship Committees have reported a numJuly 1, 1963 among the JAC programs of the ber of Negro apprentices registered since

By letter dated February 26, the joint surelectrical workers, plumbers, and carpenters

that time. For instance, the survey shows vey was approved by Walter N. Tobriner, should not be ignored, but must proceed

two Negro apprentices with the Electrical president, District of Columbia Board of much further along this path to avoid the Workers JAC as of July 1; there are now

Commissioners, and on March 4, similar apepithet of "tokenism."

proval came from Under Secretary of Labor

The plumbers JAC reported two NeThe obvious conclusion to be gained from gro apprentices in the survey; they now have John F. Henning. this survey, which indicates that 11.7 percent seven.

The Carpenters, JAC now has 20

On May 21, the joint committee met, of the apprentices in the District of Columcompared to 5 as of July 1. The Pipefitters chairman, and Mr. Rilling secretary, and

elected Dr. Jones chairman, Mr. Nelson vice bia, registered under the Bridges-Randolph

JAC has registered two additional Negro ap- approved a questionnaire and a press release District of Columbia Apprenticeship Act of prentices, making a total of four. 1946, are Negro, is that there is both room

Trades showing a relatively high propor

announcing the joint survey. On April 1, and necessity for considerable improvement. tion of Negro apprentices were bricklayers questionnaires with a letter from Aaron GoldIt is my firm hope that this report will be (with 14 Negroes of 52 apprentices),

printer- Human Relations) were mailed to 55 joint

man (chairman, Commissioners Council on used as a point of departure for much greater compositors (299 apprentices, 50 Negroes), integration of apprenticeship programs in the bookbinders (6 Negroes of 15), operating apprenticeship, committees with programs District of Columbia through efforts of the engineers (95 apprentices, 18 Negroes), ce approved by the District of Columbia Ap

prenticeship Council. Apprenticeship Council, labor unions, and ment masons (21 apprentices, 10 Negroes),

bindery workers (40 apprentices, 10 Negroes), from Chairman Goldman were sent to 917 employers.

On April 26, questionnaires with a letter With best wishes.

auto mechanics (37 apprentices, 9 Negroes), individual employers with certified programs. Sincerely yours,

pastry cooks (2 apprentices, both Negroes), On June 21, additional questionnaires were JAMES ROOSEVELT, optical technicians (8 apprentices, 5 Ne- mailed to JAC's and employers who had not Chairman. groes).

responded. The final figures were reviewed

Individual employers reported that they and approved by the Joint Survey Commit[From Government of the District of Co

had trained a total of 278 Negroes during the tee on October 3, 1963, and released to the lumbia, Commissioners' Council on Hu

5 years prior to 1963. The JAC's reported a public. The final results: man Relations, District of Columbia Ap



Negro apTotal ap Negro ap


prentices prentices

since 1957 Approximately 11.7 percent of the ap

Sent Replies prentices in the District of Columbia, registered under the Bridges-Randolph District




54 of Columbia Apprenticeship Act of 1946, are Individual shops.


29.2 Negro, according to a survey just completed

Total... by a joint committee of the District of Col


1, 844


332 umbia Commissioners' Council on Human Relations and the District of Columbia Ap NOTE.-Individual shops: No replies, 401; no apprentices, 311; out of business or moved out of District of Columbia, prenticeship Council.

21. Total with apprentices: 184 shops. The survey, undertaken to determine the extent of Negro involvement in apprentice

Joint survey of apprentices in District of Joint survey of apprentices in District of ship programs, shows the status of appren

Columbia as of July 1, 1963Joint Columbia as of July 1, 1963Joint tices as of July 1, 1963. The survey covered

apprenticeship committees (JAC's)

apprenticeship committees (JAC's)-Con. 1,844 of the 1,893 apprentices who were registered as of that date. Of the total of 1,844

Total Negro

Total Negro included in the survey, 216 or 11.7 percent

appren- appren-


appren- apprentices tices

tices tices were Negro.

Members of the joint committee that su-
pervised the study were Dr. R. Frank Jones, 1. Carpentry.--

5 5. Operating Engineers No. 77.

95 18 chairman, Dr. C. J. Nuesse, and George E. C.

2. Columbia Typo No. 101..

50 6. Stationary Engineers No. 99.

95 3. Electrical Workers No. 26.

7. Plumbers No. 5....

80 Hayes, members of the Commissioners'

4. Pipefitters No. 602...

2 8. Sheet Metal Workers No. 102.


1, 591




5 2



Joint survey of apprentices in District of Joint survey of apprentices in District of Some examples of current FAA policy for

Columbia as of July 1, 1963— Joint Columbia as of July 1, 1963Individual the purchasing and housing of airways equipapprenticeship committees (JAC's)-Con. employers—Continued

ment which were cited by Poritzky are:

The FAA is now paying a total of $18,200 Total Negro

Total Negro

for a runway end identification light system JAC's appren- appren


appren- appren (REIL) consisting of two light fixtures, with tices tices

tices tices appropriate housings and two flashing lights

inside. The State of Minnesota spends $3,000 9. Iron Workers No.5.--

2 31. Motorcycle mechanics.-

1 for lights to serve exactly the same purpose. 10. Bindery Workers No. 42. 40 10 32. Shoemakers..


A 75-m.c. fan marker, with its building and 11, Asbestos Workers No. 24.

33. Auto glaziers.


1 12. Bricklayers No.1..

antenna, costs the FAA $25,800. A dual30 7 34. Painters (building).


1 13. Painters Council No. 51.

35. Furniture finishers.

equipment, commercial, 75-m.c. marker, sold 1

1 14. Stone Masons No. 2.

36. Piano tuners.

1 by Wilcox Electric and mounted on two ordi15. Rodmen No. 201...

1 37. Seamstresses.


1 nary telephone poles, costs the State of 16. Lathers No. 9.

38. Tailors.--


1 Nebraska about $3,250. 17. Cement Masons No. 896..

10 39. Auto body repairmen..


1 18. Photoengravers No. 17.

40. Printer-compositors.

The FAA, in 1962, budgeted more than

1 19. Bakers No. 117...

3 41. Sign painters..


$60,000 for one of its limited remote com20. Plasterers No. 96.

2 42. Safe technicians..


munications outlets. A commercial facility, 21. Glaziers No. 963..

43. Camera repairmen..


built by ARINC, serving a similar function 22. Web Pressmen No. 6..

44. Maintenance mechanics.

1 23, Bookbinders No. 4. 13

for an airline, costs less than $15,000, in24. Bricklayers No. 4...


253 74

cluding its building and all auxiliary equip25. Pressmen No. 72...


ment. 26. Iron Shopmen No. 486.

10 27. Machinists No. 193.

The total available operating time for FAA 10


NOTE.-Total apprentices reported by individual 28. Mailers No. 29..


1 employers, 253, of whom 74 or 29.2 percent. were Negro. communications facilities of the type de29. Auto Mechanics No. 1486_


2 These employers also reported that 278 Negroes were scribed just above was listed by the agency 30. Tile Setters No. 3..


registered as apprentices with them during the period as 99.08 percent in 1962. The ARINC equip31. Sign Painters No. 1129_

1957 through 1962.

ment was available 99.4 percent of the time. 32, Stone Cutters of North America.

2 33. Electrotypers No. 17-1

The FAA operates a single TVOR station at 34. Barbers No. 239..

Riverton, Wyo., which cost $115,340 total. 35. Pressmen No.1.. FISCAL IRRESPONSIBILITY OF THE

The State of Nebraska operates a single 36. Stereotypers No. 19. 37. Meatcutters No. 393.


TVOR facility at Ainsworth for which it paid 38. Lithographers No. 13 (Independ(

$15,941 total. The FAA facility last year ent)...

Mr. BOGGS. Mr. Speaker, I ask had an availability of 98.17 percent while 39. Painters No. 1831.. unanimous consent that the gentleman

the State facility was in operation 98.14 per40. Linemen No. 70.. 41. Boilermakers No. 518.. from Texas [Mr. GONZALEZ] may extend

cent of the time. An astounding rise has also 42. Tailors No. 118.. his remarks at this point in the RECORD

been experienced in the cost of larger FAA 43. Cooks No. 219..

facilities in the last 2 years. In fiscal year 44. American Line Builders. and include extraneous matter.

1960, the agency estimated that an ILS 45. Boilermakers, S.E.

The SPEAKER. Is there objection 46. Glaziers No. 963 (shops).

facility, all electronic equipment and build47. Electrical Workers No. 26 (R).

to the request of the gentleman from ings, cost $194,000 to get into operation. In 48. Press Assistants No. 42. Louisiana ?

this fiscal year the FAA sets the price at 49. Pressmen No. 351.. 50. Offset Art. No, 530.

$276,460, an increase of 42 percent in only 3

There was no objection. 51. Columbia Typo No. 101..

years. There has been no radical improve

Mr. GONZALEZ. Mr. Speaker, I have 52. Photoengravers No. 17.

ment or change in ILS equipment which 53. Mailers NO, 29... previously made statements from the

can account for the cost jump, and the over54, Stereotypers No. 19..

floor of this House pointing out the gen all U.S. commodity price index has risen 55. Web Pressmen No. 6..

eral fiscal irresponsibility of the Federal only 2.7 percent in the same length of time. Total.--

Aviation Agency. Specifically, on Octo-

It is a difficult matter to contend that ber 16, 1963, I made a speech in this Poritzky has no understanding of, or sym1 See item 21. House in which I submitted certain

pathy for the Government engineer and 2 See item 3.

manager. In his talk, he pointed out time 3 Merged as Pressmen No. 72 JAC. statements made by Mr. S. B. Poritzky

and again, that he knew of no FAA employee 4 Job shops JAC's shown under newspaper JAC's. showing the waste in the FAA. These working on the airways who was not dediNOTE.-Total apprentices reported by JAC's was 1,591, statements were quoted in an article in cated to providing a superior system with the of whom 142 or 8.9 percent were Negroes. It was also the publication Aviation Daily in its June reported that the Ac's had also trained 54 Negro 6, 1963, issue. The gist of this article is

highest possible reliability. He pointed out

many reasons why he believed that costs had None of the JAC's listed above have kept records of that the cost of navigational aids is rising

risen as they have. These included: the apprentices by race, color, or creed. sharply and most of the blame can be

Federal Government's elaborate procurement

policies which are intended to be fair to all Joint survey of apprentices in District of attributed to FAA's methods of procure

contractors, yet to protect the Government Columbia as of July 1, 1963Individual ment and construction. ment and construction. In this article

from the unscrupulous bidder: Government employers

Mr. Poritzky pointed out that the FAA personnel policies which are enlightened and

costs are in some cases 10 times more good for the individuals involved, but which

Total | Negro than industry costs for the same equip unfortunately cost money; split design reTrade appren- appren- ment.

sponsibilities in which the engineer who tices tices

writes the specifications for electronic equipNow another trade publication has

ment is not responsible for its operation or 1. Electricians.

12 cited these same statistics to point out

maintenance—his only task is to get the 2. Plumbers-pipefitters..


7 the almost unbelievable skyrocketing "best" possible equipment without consid3. Auto mechanics..


eration for cost in other areas; and, over the 4. Stationary engineers.


costs, overspending and poor judgment

3 5. Machinists.


2 in the FAA's airways program. The text years conservative specifications often are 6. Bricklayers.-


of this article which was printed in the

iaid upon conservative specification and the 7. Business machine mechanics.


cost inevitably rises. 8. Millworkers..

September 1963 issue of Flying follows:

The best summation of Poritzky's re9. Optical technicians.


5 10. Sheet metal workers.



marks is that the FAA suffers from the lack 11. Carpenters.


2 An almost unbelievable recitation on sky of a "boss” when it comes to buying airways 12. Pressmen (all types).



rocketing costs, overspending and poor equipment and housing it. A number of 13. Lithographers.

5 14. Pipefitters (refrigeration)

groups within FAA are at liberty to add to 4 i judgment in the FAA's airways program was 15. Locksmiths...


presented recently by Sig Poritzky of the Air the specifications lists for equipment and 16. Reinforcing rodmen..


Transport Association.

buildings and the result is a "gold-plated" 17. Draftsmen..


2 18. Dental technicians..

job. For instance, the trimmings in the 3 Poritzky's data revealed that the FAA, in

FAA's navigation aids buildings have run the 19. Photographers.-


many cases, is paying five or six times more 20. Electricians (signal)


for electronic and visual navigation aids than

buildings up to about 50 percent of the total 21. Electronic technicians. 2

facility cost, and in some cases the cost of 22. Lathers..

2 airlines and State governments which use

constructing the building is 75 percent of the 23. Bakers.

2 similar equipment sold on the open market, 24. Pastry cooks.

total. This compares to a building cost of 2


and built to commercial standards. In ad25. Bookbinders..


less than 20 percent in commercial facilities. 26. Electric motor repairmen..

dition, he pointed out that the commercial It will be difficult to understand if 27. Cabinetmakers.. equipment had proven to be just as reliable

Poritzky's alarming yet reasoned and tem28. Upholsterers... 29. Scale servicemen..

as FAA units which received considerably perate discussion does not bring some posi

2 30. Sewing machine mechanic... more maintenance.

tive action from the FAA to overhaul its sys

tem and to institute a stronger central to take corrective action to avoid it hap- led to the fall of a good many aircraft management control over the building of the pening again, or whether it was merely and that it will lead to a good many airways.

an attempt to whitewash the part played more. These figures are truly astounding. Is by the FAA in the crash may be deter Mr. Speaker, the recently announced it not curious that the FAA pays a total mined by reading the self-serving state- agreement was actually identical to the of $18,200 for a runway end identifica- ments contained in the FAA report: one proposed many months ago and tion light system, while the State of Air traffic control procedures did not con

which was vetoed by the Administrator. Minnesota pays only $3,000 for a light tribute to the cause of the accident.

His refusal to heed the advice of the system serving exactly the same pur Air traffic control personnel operated in Government attorneys who recompose? Is it not curious that the FAA accordance with established procedures and mended that the Government agree to pays $25,800 for a 75-m.c. marker, with could be related to the cause of the acci- fixed in the lawsuits arising out of the

were not negligent in any performance which pay 24 percent of whatever damages are its building and antenna, while the State

dent. of Nebraska pays $3,250 for exactly the

crash caused the taking of 15,000 pages same thing? Is it not curious that the These FAA findings should be con- of depositions over a period of 7 months FAA paid $115,340 for a single TVOR trasted with the following admissions by and the expenditure of more than $100,station at Riverton, Wyo., while the FAA air traffic control personnel made 000 of taxpayers' money. Finally the State of Nebraska paid only $15,941 for under oath during the 7 months of depo- Attorney General himself had to override a TVOR facility at Ainsworth?

sitions that were taken immediately pre the Administrator's decision and it is These charges have been made before. ceding the three-way agreement de- reported that the agreement was signed They have been made by responsible per- scribed above. These depositions were by the Attorney General. sons and associations intimately related taken in connection with the lawsuits

The article in Flying says that the FAA that were filed against the two airlines suffers from the lack of a "boss." I agree to the air industry. To my knowledge

and the Federal Government by the fam- that the FAA as well as the air traffic they have never been refuted. Apparently, the Administrator chooses to ig

ilies of the victims of the crash. Among program suffers from the lack of somenore these criticisms. What are we to the departures from the rules on how air thing. In my opinion, it is the lack of assume from the fact that the Adminis- traffic should be handled, as reported by good judgment. trator ignores the charges that he is the New York Times, were: wasting the taxpayers' money, that FAA

1. Failure to make proper use of codes that make it easier to match planes with radar

CONGRESSIONAL ETIQUETTE costs are skyrocketing, that his adminis

blips. tration is spending too much, that he

Mr. BOGGS. 2. Failure to make proper use of signal unanimous consent that the gentleman

Mr. Speaker, I ask himself is exercising poor judgment? In lights by which one controller notifies anview of his position as a servant of the other that a plane is being instructed to from Texas (Mr. GONZALEZ] may extend people, presumably answerable for his call him by radio.

his remarks at this point in the RECORD actions in office, I can only conclude that 3. Relaying an incorrect routing for the and include extraneous matter. the charges are true. He refuses to an

DC-8 jet from one controller to another. The SPEAKER. Is there objection swer or deny the charges. I conclude

4. Failing to instruct the crew to turn the to the request of the gentleman from that if he had the answers he would jet's radar-beacon equipment to the code

Louisiana? number for jets bound for Idlewild. present them.

There was no objection. 5. Failure of the area controller in hanMr. Speaker, these facts illustrates not dling the GRS (general railway signal) Mr. GONZALEZ. Mr. Speaker, since only that the Administrator has exer lights. These lights were used to notify my name has again been mentioned in cised poor judgment in the instances approach control that a particular plane was a highly personal manner, I am submitmentioned. These facts when taken to

being told to change radio contact from area ting the following editorials and newsgether, show a propensity for poor judgcontrol to approach control.

paper columns:

6. Failure of the area controller in turnment. They show that there is someing his radar-beacon equipment to the wrong

[From Roll Call, Oct. 30, 1963] thing wrong with the decisionmaking code.

CONGRESSIONAL ETIQUETTE mechanism within the FAA. They indi 7. Failure of the area controller in not

It appears as though every time the Recate that the Administrator either is un- radioing ahead to the approach control that publicans have a fair chance to make some able or unwilling to exercise good judg- the jet would arrive at Preston via Colts gains in the Congress, they do everything in ment. Neck rather than along V-123.

their power to blow it. An example of this is contained in the Yet, the FAA internal report would A return to the dread days of McCarthyism facts relating to the agreement an- have us believe that none of these fail

seems to be one unfortunate strategy being nounced on October 23, 1963, between the ures actually occurred. And for many

employed, and deplorable development it is. Federal Government, United Airlines and months the Administrator has stead

A freshman Republican from Texas, the

youngest Member of the House, has been Trans World Airlines in connection with fastly maintained that the FAA is comthe midair collision of December 16, 1960, pletely without fault in the accident and against his colleagues.

engaged in a speaking tour of vilification

The gist of the over New York City. Under the terms that therefore the Federal Government hatchet man's attacks is the old McCarthy of the agreement, the U.S. Government should not agree to pay any of the dam- line that because they voted contrary to his agreed to pay 24 percent of whatever ages ultimately fixed in the lawsuits views, they are “pinkos”—and, by insinuadamages are fixed in lawsuits growing growing out of the crash.

tion, probably worse. out of the crash. United Air Lines and This has been the position of the Ad- Despite his standing as the youngest legis

This ill becomes a Member of Congress. Trans World Airlines will pay 61 and 15 ministrator: the FAA is completely with- lator in the legislature, he cannot be expercent, respectively. out fault; the FAA did nothing wrong in

cused on grounds of immaturity. He is old The significance of this agreement is connection with the accident; the Fed

enough to know better. in the words of the New York Times, that eral Government should under no cir In the Congress itself, etiquette and courit represents "a reluctant about-face” for cumstances agree to pay any percentage tesy prohibit the reference to any Member the U.S. Government. It will be recalled of the damages which will ultimately by name. A colleague is referred to as "the that the tragedy of December 16, 1960, have to be paid to the families of the vic gentleman from such-and-such a State.” was the worst civil air disaster of all tims of the crash.

Personal attacks are frowned upon and seltimes. All 128 persons in the 2 planes

dom occur. Such stubbornness must be condemned

The young Congressman, Representative were killed, as well as 6 persons on the for at least two reasons: ground where the wreckage came down.

ED FOREMAN of Texas, yesterday was the re

First, it caused the Government to cipient of a powerful punch in the shoulder It will also be recalled that the FAA waste over $100,000 of the people's just outside the House Chamber. The donor, made its own immediate investigation money.

Representative HENRY GONZALEZ, also of the accident, under the direction of

Second, it suggests that the Adminis

Texas, had been verbally attacked by FORENajeeb E. Halaby, who became the Ad- trator is too proud to admit a mistake.

MAN in a speech in Houston, GONZALEZ' home ministrator of the FAA soon after the It would be bad enough if such pride

grounds. accident occurred. Whether this inter- went only before a personal fall on the

FOREMAN did not strike back, but was nal investigation was a sincere attempt part of the Administrator. I fear that

quoted as saying, “I can't imagine an in

I fear that telligent adult and a Member of Congress to pinpoint the cause of the tragedy so as such pride and inflexibility has already doing a thing like that.”


Representative GONZALEZ well could have In the first place, FOREMAN had no business "If you had an outright Leftist, avowed replied with the same words.

calling GONZALEZ anything that could brand Communist (in Congress) you wouldn't be Invading a colleague's home ground and him a Communist or a pinko. Since he did getting any different kind of votes than playing footsie with the John Birch Society which apparently is becoming FOREMAN'S you're getting from DON EDWARDS.” in efforts to discredit the colleague is cer- habit when he wants to disagree with a fel FOREMAN, threatened with a law suit by tainly no more commendable than slugging low Congressman-GONZALEZ felt obliged to EDWARDS, wrote the following letter to the a fellow legislator in a defense of principle. take a swing. Fortunately for dignity of the California Congressman:

More reprehensible is the letter of apology House of Representatives, the punch came "In view of the publicity given my remarks which the junketing Congressman wrote to just outside the Chamber rather than before in San Jose, Calif., last weekend, causing another of his victims, Representative Don a nonpaying audience.

embarrassment to you personally, I regret EDWARDS, a liberal Democrat. Said FOREMAN, Perhaps there's a personal feeling favoring that the news people reported me as describ"I regret that the news people reported me as this fellow, GONZALEZ. Just a week ago yes- ing you as a pinko. I retract the statement describing you as a pinko. I retract the terday, while enjoying a Wickersham-bought regarding your voting record. statement regarding your voting record." steak in the Capitol House restaurant, a smil “Although we strongly disagree philo

After sending this letter, FOREMAN then ing, pleasant sort of man walked by the table. sophically, a description of this sort was not explained, “I wrote the retraction to keep He patted our victorious Corgressman on the in the best taste or good manners." from being sued by EDWARDS. But I still shoulder and was seated with two compan FOREMAN has become the Westbrook Pegsay he is a pinko."

ions at an adjoining table. Introductions ler of Congress. He constantly has failed FOREMAN also labeled another 20 colleagues were exchanged and Congressman GONZALEZ to present a constructive program for either as "pinko," to date without physical reper beamed with pleasure when I recalled hear his district or the Nation. cussions.

ing some of his "reports to constituents” on He's simply an "aginner” and even if it Perhaps Representative GONZALEZ, in phys our favorite nighttime car-radio station, was "good he wouldn't like it.” ically rebuking young FOREMAN, believed he WOAI, San Antonio.

ED is an aff le young man, but he is not would "let the punishment fit the crime.” Liking GONZALEZ or not liking him is be the man to represent all of the people of

But who will be hurt most by this type of side the point. He was born in San Antonio the 16th Congressional District of west irresponsible campaigning is the Republican 47 years ago. His father, one of the original Texas. Party. colonists of the State of Durango in northern

You'll find that a bunch of people out Mexico, fled to the United States during a here who voted against ED are pretty good [From the Miami (Fla.) Herald, Oct. 31, 1963] revolution. GONZALEZ' background, his edu- Americans, too.

cation and law degree, his service as mayor THE HOT COLLAR OF REPRESENTATIVE

pro tem of San Antonio and his other public [From the Pensacola (Fla.) Journal, Nov. GONZALEZ actions are completely contrary to commu

1, 1963] It's comforting to find out there is enough nism. There is quick understanding of his

NATURAL RESENTMENT spirit left in Washington for a Congressman aroused anger when his voting record was to throw a punch at a fellow lawmaker and described by younger and bigger ED FOREMAN

Fisticuffs are not the best way to settle call him a yellow-livered sissy.

an argument, on or off the floor of the U.S. as helping the Socialist-Communist cause. Representative HENRY GONZALEZ got sore

House of Representatives, yet we cannot

FOREMAN is typical of some of the sowhen he was accused of helping the Commu

blame Representative HENRY GONZALEZ for called “super patriots” who stir up Texas righteous indignation and desire to vent such nist cause. So he caught Representative dust with a platform of "think as I and be ED FOREMAN out in the hall and let him have American; think differently and you're Com

indignation upon his loose-tongued, young one. It's too bad they are both Texans be

Republican colleague, ED FOREMAN. Both are munist.” Recently he called another Memcause there will be a tendency to dismiss the

from Texas, GONZALEZ from San Antonio and ber of Congress a "pinko" but withdrew his incident as just another of those hot air

FOREMAN from Odessa. remark after facing threat of a damage suit. jokes you hear about that great State. GONZALEZ apparently isn't the courting type. ing in an interview that GONZALEZ by voting

GONZALEZ naturally resented FOREMAN sayThis was no hot air, but a good old- He feels strongly about his American rights. fashioned American hot collar. Most of our

as a liberal was furthering "the SocialisticIf it takes some man-to-man decisions, he's Congressmen would have called on their

Communist cause." ready. public relations staff to release heated state

This fallacious contention that liberalism

So it's in the GONZALEZ corner we'll be ments to the press, TV, and radio. Repre- standing. Our first advice would be to feint flung about recklessly by many conservatives

means softness of communism is one which is sentative GONZALEZ may have affronted the with a left, which apparently is what FOREimagemakers with his punch, but the rest MAN spends his time looking for.

to smear rather than to voice solid arguments

Then, against their opponents and it should be of us thought it was great.

whammo. A solid right, smack down the halted, even if one has to resort to the manly middle. It'll be go, go, go, GONZALEZ. Not

art. (From the Beaumont Enterprise, Oct. 31, only will the eyes of Texas be upon you but

We applaud GONZALEZ for issuing the 1963]

so will the eyes and cheers of at least one challenge.

The Capitol Hill encounter between two

Congressmen, Representatives ED



(With Jim Glasscock) without comedy. We think especially of the

The SPEAKER. Under previous order grandiose explanations given the press.

When is Congressman ED FOREMAN going We don't know, of course, what these Lone to start representing the people of the 16th of the House the gentleman from Iowa Star stalwarts really said to each other. And

District of Texas and stop meddling in the [Mr. HOEVEN] is recognized for 60 minwe aren't sure that either is as tough as he

affairs of Representative HENRY GONZALEZ utes. sounds-physically, that is.

of San Antonio and Representative Don Mr. HOEVEN. Mr. Speaker, I ask However, the trouble between the Texas EDWARDS, of California?

unanimous consent to revise and extend Representatives has a serious side that

FOREMAN is such a super-self-styled pashould be pondered by all Americans. triot that if you don't agree with his particu

my remarks and include extraneous

matter. Regardless of what FOREMAN might have lar political philosophy, he labels you a

The SPEAKER. Is there objection said or meant or implied in commenting on "pinko." the GONZALEZ voting record, the word “Com ED apparently has forgotten the words of to the request of the gentleman from munist" is much overworked today in dis

that great Republican, Abraham Lincoln- Iowa. cussions of the motives of American citi this is a government "of the people, by the There was no objection. zens—in both public and private life. people, and for the people."

Mr. HOEVEN. Mr. Speaker, I have a To loosely use the word is unfair, ungen It seems to us that it is the voters of prepared statement, together with some tlemanly and un-American. Some of our GONZALEZ’ congressional district who should extraneous matter which will be found concepts of patriotism have become pretty dictate how the San Antonian votes and not ridiculous.

complete in the RECORD. FOREMAN. If GONZALEZ' constituents don't

I do not intend to take all of the time like his voting record, then they can vote

and want to yield to those of my col[From the Anadarko (Okla.) Daily News, Oct. him out. 31, 1963]

leagues who are interested in the sale Although FOREMAN did not apologize to

of wheat to Russia.

GONZALEZ after their fisticuffs in Washington
(By Wallace Kidd)
earlier this week, he did write a letter of

Mr. Speaker, perhaps the proposed

sale of wheat to Russia has now become I'm for this fellow, HENRY B. GONZALEZ, the retraction to Representative EDWARDS, Demo

a moot question because the tickertape Democratic Congressman from San Antonio, crat, of California, a former FBI agent and Tex. If ED FOREMAN, a Republican Congressa millionaire businessman.

tells me today, under a Moscow heading, man from Odessa, accepts GONZALE' chal FOREMAN, in a speech in San Diego, was as follows: lenge to go to fist-city, I may even apply for quoted by Scripps-Howard newspapers as Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev dethe job as ring sponge boy. saying:

clared tonight he has ordered Soviet wheat

negotiators in the United States “to break from the U.S. Department of Commerce Some international financial experts in off talks and leave,” if the Americans insist and news article from the Wall Street Washington noted the Soviet Union lately on discriminatory conditions. Journal.

has been selling gold in Western Europe for

convertible currencies, which are used to Mr. Speaker, the President of the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT LI

pay for imported merchandise. These offiUnited States recently announced a CENSING OF SURPLUS COMMODITIES TO EAST

cials said the Soviet gold reserve probably profound change in our export and ERN EUROPE SOVIET BLOC EASED

gives that country plenty of financial reforeign policy toward Communist Rus A change in U.S. export licensing policy to sources to buy U.S. farm goods under the sia and her European satellites.

permit the sale of subsidized surplus agricul new licensing rule. But they expressed President Kennedy has told the Na

tural commodities to the Eastern European doubt over the financial ability of some tion that from now on he will allow

Soviet bloc was announced today by the Bu Eastern European satellite nations to make

reau of Foreign Commerce, U.S. Department heavy purchases without Russian help. the Commerce Department to issue exof Commerce.

CONSIDERED FOR SOME TIME port licenses to grain companies and

Under the new policy, BFC will consider other exporters for the shipment of U.S. for approval export license applications to

Officials said revision of the trade restric

tions had been under consideration for some wheat to the Soviet Union and the ship U.S.-subsidized

U.S.-subsidized surplus agricultural

time, and is designed to increase U.S. farm Eastern European bloc nations. The commodities to the U.S.S.R. and other East

exports as a means of surplus disposal. President also stated that he would per ern European countries provided they are

Poland and Yugoslavia were not included mit the Commodity Credit Corporation sold for convertible currency. The new pol

in the new export order because they have to subsidize these sales to the Commu- icy also applies to commodities acquired di

been major customers for U.S. surpluses for nists by selling surplus wheat to the pri- Corporation stock and to agricultural prodrectly or indirectly from Commodity Credit

the past several years. Yugoslavia, which vate U.S. grain trade at a substantial loss

broke with Stalin in 1948, is not regarded ucts shipped in substitution for such CCC in replacement of wheat sold directly to

as a Communist satellite country insofar as commodities. Previously only those surplus

U.S. export licensers are concerned. And the Soviets. The Department of Agri- commodities which were not subsidized and

because the Poznan riots of 1956–57 led to culture apparently will also continue to were not obtained from previously owned

a more liberal Communist rule in Poland, make export subsidy payments in cash governmental stock were approved for export

the U.S. lowered trade barriers in an effort and in kind to exporters shipping wheat to Eastern Europe.

to woo Poland away from Russia and to to the Communists.

The change in licensing policy toward obtain an observation post behind the Iron Needless to say, this decision by Presi

Eastern Europe does not affect the total em Curtain via an exchange of trade attachés

bargo against exports of U.S. goods to Comdent Kennedy has precipitated the be- munist China, North Korea, and North

with Poland.

U.S. exports to Russia have been largely ginning of a long and serious national Vietnam.

nonagricultural. In 1960 only $38 million debate. Members of Congress have ex It also does not affect the present licens worth of goods were sold by U.S. traders to pressed their support or opposition to the ing policy toward Cuba which, except for the Soviet Union, and of that amount only decision. This issue is not a partisan shipments of wheat and wheat flour, is to $2 million represented farm goods. matter as evidence by the fact that a generally deny applications to export sur

OUTCRY CAUSED RESTRICTION number of Members of Congress who be- plus commodities to that destination.

Restriction on agricultural trade with the long to the President's own party have

In submitting applications for license to

Communist nations were clamped on in 1954 joined the growing chorus of opposition Eastern European Soviet bloc countries, exship subsidized surplus commodities to all

as a result of public and congressional outto this deal. Farm organizations, the porters will be required to supply commit

cry over a U.S. proposal to sell a portion press, and the public are still in the most ments from the importers in the bloc coun

of its 900-million-pound hoard of butter

and cheese to Russia. The objection was part not fully decided as to the wisdom tries that the commodities will not be reex

that because exports of dairy products are of the decision. ported to another destination.

subsidized, the Communists could buy In order to describe my position on Some of the subsidized commodities which

American butter and cheese at lower prices this important question and to present could now be considered for licensing to

than U.S. consumers. the opportunity for my colleagues in Eastern Europe under the new policy include

The Government pays exporters a subsidy the House to present their views, I have feed grains, wheat and wheat flour, cotton

on many U.S. farm products to make up the asked for this special order. Let me say

and cotton textiles, rice, and nonfat dry difference between price-propped domestic

milk. at this point that I feel it would be most

prices and lower world market prices. Thus,

All subsidized agricultural commodities are unfortunate for a logical and intelligent exportable under general license to Poland

U.S. people pay one price and recipient discussion of this important matter if and free world countries regardless of price

nations a lower price for subsidized com

modities sold abroad. emotional and unreasonable questions or method of payment.

The new trade policy will allow U.S. traders concerning the integrity or patriotism

to compete with such countries as Canada of those persons either supporting or

and Australia for grain deals with European criticizing the President's decision were

[From the Wall Street Journal,

Communist nations. Czechoslovakia, Bulraised. I am sure that such a situation

June 23, 1961]

garia and others have been shopping in the will not develop here in the House and AGENCY EASES BAN ON AGRICULTURAL TRADE free world for grain to take the place of I hope it will not develop in the debate

WITH RUSSIA, EASTERN EUROPEAN SATEL normal shipments from Russia, known to

LITES within our great Nation.

be in short supply. Additionally, all of Mr. Speaker, I am opposed to the WASHINGTON.—The Commerce Department Europe ordinarily buys quantities of grain, President's decision to sell wheat to the lowered the bars on agricultural trade with soybeans, and rice from China, but China is Communists on the grounds of both pol- nations by authorizing sales to them of Russia and its East European satellite

suffering farm production difficulties for the

third year in a row and has reduced exports icy and execution. I believe he made U.S. Government-owned farm surpluses

sharply. U.S. officials declined to speculate the decision in the wrong manner by and commodities subsidized for export.

on the export potential which might result flouting the declared policy of Congress The action does not lift the ban on export

from the trade policy revision. and I believe his decision was wrong on of such goods to Red China, Cuba, North Please note that the news story alludes its merits. In any event he should have Korea or North Vietnam.

The new policy will enable u.s. traders

to a previous unsuccessful attempt to sell consulted the Congress.

surplus farm commodities to Russia in to sell European Communist countries BACKGROUND AND HISTORY

1954. wheat, corn, barley, oats, rye, dairy products, The question of selling subsidized farm cotton, rice, and other commodities. Pre

The reaction of Congress to this policy commodities to the Soviets is not a new viously, agricultural trade with all Red was immediate and adverse. Some 22 one. It has been with us for a number dominated countries, except Poland and bills were introduced to prevent these of years. Argument in support of such Yugoslavia, was limited to such nonsurplus subsidized sales. Authors included the a policy was persuasively made within

or nonsubsidized items as tobacco, soybeans, following Members of Congress: Mr. the administration 212 years ago when fruits, vegetables, seeds, livestock products Hoeven, Mr. Latta, Mr. Chamberlain, the Department of Commerce issued a and others.

Mrs. St. George, Mr. Glenn, Mr. Harsha,

As in the past, all deals between U.S. statement on June 22, 1961, that it would exporters and Communist nations, except Mr. Norblad, Mr. Scherer, Mr. Findley, issue export licenses for the export of Poland and Yugoslavia, have to be for dollars, Mr. Devine, Mr. King of New York, Mr. subsidized_farm commodities to Russia gold or other convertible currencies. The Thomson of Wisconsin, Mr. Clancy, Mr. and the European bloc nations. The Russian ruble is not a convertible currency, Derwinski, Mr. Harvey of Indiana, Mr. 1961 Commerce Department action was but the U.S.S.R. is known to hold quantities Roudebush, Mr. Teague of California, described in the following press release of gold and other convertible foreign money. Mr. Goodell, Mr. Moorehead of Ohio,

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