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There is in no chapter of our freedom a line, sale and purveyance of beef carcasses October 2 and considered the proposed rulesentence, or paragraph that even suggests either to use the new grading technique
either to use the new grading technique making of the Department of Agriculture's security from responsibility. or not to use Government grading stand
Agricultural Market Service, regulation 7 We have given ourselves, in our freedom, ards in their business.
CFR 53—Carcass Beef. the liberty of opportunity, not the luxury of
It was the board's considered opinion that letting down.
The acceptance of Federal grading, as
the Secretary of Agriculture's proposal to This year, and the years after, do not mark it is now instituted, is encouraged as a
impose a cutability grade on top of the qualway stations at which, wearily, we can af- matter of public policy. But the addition
ity grade would not accomplish the purpose ford to rest and relinquish these responsi- of as many as five additional classifica- intended and, more important, it would conbilities.
tions within each grade on a compulsory fuse the consuming public. It would also A whole world, much of it unsure of free- basis would restrict the free play of the add confusion in trade on carcass beef, pardom, unsure that it really can work, watches market, increase costs to the producer,
ticularly among those who do not underus. Our own history and heritage watch us.
stand the program. We must say "no" to apathy, "no" to conpacker and consumer and, in its final
It was the opinion of our association that venience—and “yes” to our conscience. We result, act contrary to the public policy
the added cost and added requirements and must say that "yes," this free land, this free above stated. These results would be of
details would penalize the producer on the form of government will endure, that our immediate concern. In the long term,
fat cattle markets. Furthermore, we would will to make it work will prevail and that one and perhaps of greater significance, this like to state that the association is on record day, in God's good time, the liberty we love new regulation is the first mandatory re- as opposing dual grading as followed for a and live will be proclaimed throughout the quirement or compulsory regulation by period on a trial basis. The current proposal world. the Government into a heretofore free
would adopt dual grading. livestock industry.
The proposal to return confirmation to
the grade standards as a basis for establishDEPARTMENT OF
On the practical side, the consumer
ing the old quality grade is highly commendPROPOSED REVISION OF GRADES
able and favored by our association.
A. G. PICKETT, Mr. PEARSON. Mr. President, Kan- great extent, their own merchandising
Secretary. sas is known as a wheat State; how- grades. The public would become even ever, its livestock industry annually pro- more confused over the tangle of grades duces more than $536 million worth of available from different packers and re
AMERICAN MEAT INSTITUTE, beef animals, and ranks fourth in the tailers, and would understand a new
Chicago, Ill., October 29, 1963. Nation in the production of beef. Recog- grading system even less than the pres
DIRECTOR, LIVESTOCK DIVISION,
Agricultural Marketing Service, nizing that the livestock industry is one ent form.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, of the last phases of our agricultural I would hope that all Senators whose Washington, D.C. economy free from Government control, States have substantial livestock invest- DEAR SIR: In response to the notice pubany new Federal legislation or regulation ments will explore this proposal by the lished in the Federal Register on September which may adversely affect our livestock USDA and will analyze it carefully. Al- 19, 1963, the American Meat Institute, naindustry by Government intervention though many Senators may not consider
tional trade association of the meatpacking should be carefully noted. their States major producers of beef, I
industry, hereby submits its views concern
ing proposed amendments to official U.S. The U.S. Department of Agriculture believe they should study its effect on
standards for grades of carcass beef. has proposed the revision of official U.S. their consumers. After viewing the
The institute's board of directors, represtandards for grades of carcass beef un- change from that standpoint, I believe
change from that standpoint, I believe senting more than 50 of the Nation's leadder sections 203 and 205 of the Agricul- all would agree this regulation is noth- ing meatpacking firms, at a meeting on Septural Marketing Act of 1946, as amended ing more than an additional form of re- tember 24, rejected the so-called dual grad(7 U.S.C. 1622, 1624) and published in the strictive Government control which is ing system and voted to oppose the proposed Federal Register of September 18, 1963, totally unnecessary at this time. The
changes in beef grade standards. We object
to the proposal because it is not workable, it pages 10208_10212. The livestock in- added cost of establishing the change
will be harmful to the cattle and beef indusdustry has been given until April 1, 1964, would not accomplish the announced
try, and it is an unwarranted Government to submit to the Department comments purpose but, rather, would serve only to
interference with the right of industry to outlining its position on the recom- confuse the beef industry and the meat- merchandise its products most effectively. mended change. This new proposal has buying public. At a time when the per The current proposal is substantially the the deceptive title of "Cutability," and is capita consumption of meat is at an all- same as that published in the Federal Regbeing instituted as a mandatory require time high, such а recommendation ister April 13, 1962, and it is not accurate
to say, “That proposal is not being adopted ment for our Nation's packing industry, would be detrimental to the best inter
and is no longer under consideration.” We which presently adheres on a voluntary ests of our beef producers, packers, and
think a fair appraisal indicates that the two basis to Government grading. consumers.
are alike except that the yield designations This newest proposal by the USDA fol
Mr. President, at this time I can find
have been reduced from six to five, conforlows last year's dual grading experiment,
no support in the livestock industry for mation has been added as a factor in quality which went beyond the commonly acthe USDA proposal to change the pres- designation, and dual grading would be made
compulsory for anyone requesting Federal cepted grading classifications of U.S. ent time-proven and popularly accepted
carcass beef grading. Nor do we agree with Prime, Choice, or Good. This first dual system in grading. The Kansas Live
the statement, “This proposal would comply grading experiment was discontinued on stock Association opposes it, as do the
with the recommendations of most of those June 30, 1963, after livestock industry American Meat Institute, the National
who objected to provisions of the April 1962 opposition became virtually unanimous Independent Meat Packers Association, proposal * * "
To our membership, many across the Nation.
the wholesalers and jobbers and hotel of whom did file objections to the April 1962 and restaurant purveyors.
proposal, the current proposal is even more For example, last year about one-half
objectionable. of all beef produced was federally graded,
I ask unanimous consent to have
Experience during the 12-month trial pebut only 3 percent of this beef was sub- printed in the RECORD statements from
riod of the proposed dual grading system, jected to dual grading. Moreover, of that the Kansas Livestock Association, the
which terminated June 30, 1963, demon3 percent, a very substantial quantity, 80 American Meat Institute, and the Na
strated that there was no desire on the part tional Independent Meat Packing Assoto 90 percent, was so graded because dual
of retailers, meatpackers, or consumers for ciation, and several pieces of related grading was mandatory for beef pur
the dual grading feature of the system. Only correspondence. chased by the Government.
about 3 percent of the Government graded
There being no objection, the state- beef was dual graded and a substantial part Now, once again, the USDA is propos
ments and correspondence were ordered ing a "cutability” grading requirement
of this 3 percent was Government purchases. to be printed in the RECORD, as follows: This lack of interest was due to the impracfor meatpackers, but actually it is noth
KANSAS LIVESTOCK ASSOCIATION,
tical and undesirable aspects of the cuting more than new terminology for last year's rejected dual grading proposal.
Topeka, Kans., October 9, 1963. ability requirements as applied to our presHon. JAMES B. PEARSON,
ent beef merchandising methods. NotwithThe significant change in this new "cutSenate Office Building,
standing this clear evidence of lack of deability” scheme is the mandatory part of Washington, D.C.
sirability of Government dual grading in the the regulation which forces all meat- DEAR SENATOR PEARSON: The Kansas Live- domestic merchandising of beef, the U.S. packers and persons associated with the stock Association's board of directors met Department of Agriculture continues to try to promote this proposal by incorporating We urge that the proposal for modifying grading. This is a real serious threat to our the undesirable cutability designations into beef carcass grade standards be withdrawn. country and to our economy. the existing standards for beef grades, thus
Very truly yours,
Would appreciate your thoughts and any making it, in effect, mandatory for the por
HERRELL DEGRAFF, President. action taken. tion of the industry using grading to use
Thank you. dual grading. EXCERPTS FROM LETTER TO DEPARTMENT OF
Sincerely yours, It is common knowledge that meatpackers AGRICULTURE FROM NATIONAL INDEPENDENT
J. W. REECE, for many years have done selecting within MEAT PACKING ASSOCIATION
Director of Meat Procurement. grades. Sometimes the selection is done by Our failure to respond immediately to the the retailer customer. However, it is evi- invitation to submit “written data, views or dent that both packers and retailers would arguments” concerning the proposed rule
EXCEL PACKING Co., prefer to use their own judgment rather making entitled "Carcass Beef: Proposed
Wichita, Kans., October 7, 1963. than to rely on that of a Government grader, U.S. Standards for Grades,” which was pub
U.S. Standards for Grades,” which was pub- DIRECTOR, LIVESTOCK DIVISION, who has no monetary investment at stake. lished in the Federal Register on Septem- Agricultural Marketing Service, In this connection, it has been observed that ber 18, 1963, should not be misconstrued as Washington, D.C. the only objective factor in the proposed indicating any lessening or weakening of the
DEAR SIR: I would like to register our comstandards is carcass weight. All the rest are
opposition of this association and its mem- plaints to the modified beef grading proposed essentially subjective factors which properly bers to the concept of so-called dual grad- for the following reasons and request that the should be matters for negotiation rather ing—no matter how it is camouflaged nor
mandatory requirement of yield standards than determined by a third party. by what name it is called.
to the regulation be dropped. This would One of the shortcomings of the proposal To the contrary, the feeling of our mem- give the industry the opportunity to merunder consideration is the implication that bers on this subject is so strong and so deep chandise the cutability standards. If made Choice No. 1 is a better product than Choice rooted that we have found it necessary to compulsory, we fear the more desirable carNo. 2 or Choice No. 3, for example. This is call a special emergency meeting of the casses will be used as standard and the fatnot necessarily so, for in addition to the un- National Independent Meat Packing Asso
ter carcasses will have to be sold at considercertainty about judging cutability precisely ciation beef and hides committee and the able discount to the trade at the expense of there may be considerable variation in qual- National Independent Meat Packing Associa- the packer and producer. ity within a grade. Nevertheless, we are tion executive committee, at the cost of con- I herein list the objections in greater convinced that use of the cutability designa- siderable time and expense, personally, for tions inevitably will lead to inferences con- those involved, to compose in the most effec- 1. The proposed regulation mandatorily tycerning overall desirability. The result will tive manner our logical reasons as to why ing yield, or cutability grades to regular be overemphasis on leanness and deteriora- this proposed rule should not be placed in grading is highly objectionable to the beef tion in quality, to the detriment of the cattle effect.
slaughtering industry. and beef industry. The ultimate consumer The purpose of this letter, therefore, is to 2. Regarding retailers' attitudes toward the of meat would derive no benefit from dual apprise you of our continuing interest in proposed grading program, if adopted, cargrading because he purchases trimmed meat and opposition to, any grading system which casses bearing the lower cut-out grades would cuts at the retail counter, and the popularity bears even a remote resemblance to dual be excessively discounted by retailers. of beef would seem to indicate that he is grading, and to let you know that a formal 3. The proposed program, if adopted, would pretty well satisfied with the product he has presentation of the views of our members and put cattle slaughterers in the position of bebeen getting.
our association will be forthcoming as rapidly ing mere order takers instead of beef merWe think the meatpacking industry (and as possible.
chandisers. This would limit, if not block, ultimately the livestock producer) will be
their ability to recover the full use value of detrimentally affected by the proposal be
JOHN A. KILLICK,
the total beef supply in the marketplace. cause it will lead to reduced opportunities
Executive Secretary. 4. By tying yield grading to quality gradfor effective merchandising. Because of de
ing the program transfers all value judgmands by large retailer buyers and inclusion
ments to the grader. This should be objecof grade in Government specifications, meat
WILSON & Co., INC.,
tionable to retail buyers who have their own packers have been compelled to maintain Kansas City, Kans., October 10, 1963. selection programs; it should be objectionGovernment grading, even though it is wideHon. JAMES B. PEARSON,
able to packers who truly try to do a real ly recognized that the Government grade is Senate Office Building,
merchandising job on beef; producers also much less than an accurate indication of Washington, D.C.
should object because it will lose for them quality.
DEAR SIR: I am attaching a letter that Wil- the merchandising efforts of the packing inGovernment grading as it is now consti- son & Co., Inc., sent to the Director of the dustry through which maximum dollars are tuted tends to set the price, although there
Livestock Division, expressing our company's recovered for the total beef supply. is still some leeway for the seller to mer- views to the notice placed in the Federal 5. Consumers have nothing to gain one chandise the variability of carcasses within
Register on September 13, 1963, concerning way or the other. In any event they are grade. With the inclusion of yield designa
proposed U.S. standards for grading carcass buyers of trimmed beef cuts. tion as a compulsory feature of grading, the beef.
6. We are greatly disturbed by the "poliappearance of precision in the grading proc
I believe that this letter clearly expresses ticking” which obviously is responsible for ess will be further enhanced, and the judg- our concern over the problems involved if first removing conformation from the quality ment of the Government grader will be an this cutability concept goes into effect.
grade then reinstating it. Important as this even greater factor in fixing the product During the trial period of dual grading factor is, it would appear that objectivity price. Contrary to the actualities of the there was not any demand for dual graded was not considered in the maneuvering that situation, beef will be regarded as a com- beef from our retail customers, and we feel preceded the USDA's announced intention to modity, with complete substitutibility of that this grading system would be detri- reinstate yield grading. one carcass for another bearing the same mental to the best interests of livestock pro
7. The USDA, producers, packers, and colgrade designations. By fostering a belief ducers and feeders, as well as meat processors. lege meats people
who generally favor
standin a uniformity which does not exist, the This would represent an added expense in
ards and grading by the USDA also should be Department of Agriculture will erode the the selection and grading of beef.
disturbed by the research results of Burdette ability of the meatpacker to merchandise
Breidenstein, which reveals very clearly that the variability of the beef carcasses in his
D. A. LYON,
this proposed program does an improper job cooler by matching them with the varying re
General Manager. of classification. He has found from actual quirements of his different customers. It
cutting tests of a large number of beef carwill displace the skill of the packer whose
casses that only one-half of his extensive success is based on his knowledge of beef
THE FLEMING CO., INC.,
sample actually cut out in the yield rade and of his customers with the arbitrary
Topeka, Kans., October 8, 1963. indicated by the USDA formula.
Very truly yours,
SAM H. MARCUS. revised beef standards is a faulty instrument
Washington, D.C. for improving the acceptability of beef or
DEAR SIR: We have attached a copy of a letfor improving the efficiency of the industry Livestock Division, Washington, D.C. ter written to Mr. Dave Pettus, Director of EXCERPT FROM WEEKLY NEWS LETTER OF THE
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF HOTEL AND RESwhich produces, processes and markets the
We urge your support in objecting to the TAURANT MEAT PURVEYORS IN OPPOSITION beef. We believe it will be harmful to the
measure taken by the Department of Agri- TO DUAL GRADING industry. We are opposed to the proposal culture.
OCTOBER 11, 1963. also because we object to giving up our right If this ruling becomes mandatory, we will To the Members: to price our products independently and to have to cease promoting Government grad- Along with many other trade associations merchandise them on the basis of our own ing as most of my suppliers have informed representing segments of the livestock and individual value judgments.
me that they will discontinue Government meat industry, the National Association of
Hotel and Restaurant Meat Purveyors is neuvering on both sides did not change the Delivering himself of those generalistrongly opposed to the inclusion of "cuta situation much. Majority Leader MANSFIELD, ties, the editor is counting upon the bility" in grading. The meat industry made who is putting up a strong fight to save the it quite clear to the Department of Agricul- administration's aid bill, foresees a long, that is what is happening in connection
reader to make the false assumption that ture that it was opposed to dual grading as hard struggle ahead. unnecessary, burdensome, and of doubtful Senator MORSE, who is leading the fight with the foreign aid bill in the Senate. value. In apparent acceptance of the de- against the foreign-aid bill, bitterly resents Let us place the facts before America. sires of the meat industry, the Secretary of the suggestion that he is playing the game What that editor, as well as other edAgriculture announced that the proposed of the southern Senators who plan later on itors, obviously do not like is that there dual grading would be abandoned, but in- to filibuster the civil-rights bill. His reputa- is full debate in the Senate on the forstead of abandoning the concept he now tion as a fighter for civil rights is well estab- eign aid bill. Steamroller tactics will proposes to include the very same concept lished, and his sincerity in attacking the aid
not be permitted. What the editor into the present grading standards. Thus, program is not open to question. The fact anybody who would want to grade meat in remains, however, that every hour of de
ought to do is to refresh his knowledge, accordance with the present regulations bate on the aid bill and every delaying ma
if he ever had any knowledge, about the would at the same time be obligated to have neuver dims the chances for enactment of history of the Senate, particularly in the meat graded with respect to cutability. other major legislation.
relation to what the Senate was estabThis is his attempt to do indirectly what The basic fault, of course, is not with any lished to do. The Senate was designed the Department was unable to do directly. Senator or any particular bill but with the to debate controversial issues and bring All of the reasons that have been advanced Senate system. A large and complicated leg- out their merits and demerits. The against dual grading are likewise applicable islative program, such as that which Presi- Senate was not intended by our Conto the proposal to include the concept of dent Kennedy laid before the present Concutability in our present grading standards. gress, is manageable only through systematic ing place to vote. In my years in the
stitutional Fathers to be merely a meetMr. SIMPSON. Mr. President, will scheduling of bills so that each may be con
Senate I have seen this procedure dethe Senator from Kansas yield?
sidered in orderly fashion within the time Mr. PEARSON. I yield to the distin- is impossible so long as every committee limits available. But systematic scheduling velop, so that the Senate is more and
more becoming a meeting place of Senguished Senator from Wyoming. chairman is a law unto himself, and any Sen
ators to congregate and vote rather than Mr. SIMPSON. I wish to associate ator or group of Senators may indulge in
a meeting place to debate and present myself with the remarks of the Senator unlimited debate.
the facts on two sides of a controversial from Kansas. The Wyoming Livestock Under the present rules, a group of Sena
issue. The senior Senator from Oregon Association has also gone on record in tors who conscientiously oppose à bill may has said that he has had enough of such this connection.
reasonably feel that they have not done their procedure. His attitude will not be limIt seems to me that it is incumbent duty unless they use dilatory tactics to kill ited to the foreign aid bill, but will be
Slowdowns, time-wasting maneuvers, applied to all major pieces of proposed upon the Senate to do something to pro- and filibusters are thus the norm in the Sen- legislation, because the so-called techtect this industry, which never has been ate whenever they serve the purpose of a nique that the editor of the Washington given a Government subsidy, and which committee chairman or a powerful minority Post thinks is in the public interest is a probably has been the greatest exponent group. The dismal truth is that the Senate
unanimous consent agreement to limit of private enterprise in the United States. has no centralized leadership or organization
debate. Unless this industry is protected from capable of overcoming these handicaps.
The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. imports as well as from the "cutability” the Congress were moving to put its house, or
The outlook would be less discouraging if
INOUYE in the chair). The time of the proposed new grades, as referred to by more specifically, its two Houses, in order.
Senator has expired. the Senator from Kansas, we shall be In the absence of modernizing reforms it
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask in grave difficulties.
would be naive to suppose that the legisla- unanimous consent that I may proceed Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the tive skies will suddenly clear once the civil- for an additional 3 minutes. Senator from Kansas yield to me?
rights and tax bills have been disposed of. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without Mr. PEARSON. I am glad to yield to Rather, the congestion is likely to get worse objection, it is so ordered. the distinguished Senator from Oregon. with the accumulation of difficult domestic
Mr. MORSE. The editor of the Washand international problems. Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I also wish to be associated with the remarks tion listen well to the extended debate on
Let the sponsors of all progressive legisla- ington Post would doubtless favor a
unanimous consent agreement to limit of the Senator from Kansas.
foreign aid. The symbolic bell is tolling for debate on an issue or an amendment to, them.
say, 15 minutes and sometimes the time
Mr. MORSE. The Washington Post has been as short as 5 minutes to a side EDITORIAL COMMENT ON FOREIGN continues the misrepresentation which
on an amendment-and then “bingo,” AID DEBATE has filled so many columns of the press
a vote. Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask in the past few days on the theme that
What happens? While the debate unanimous consent to have printed at those of us who are insisting upon a full continues for that short period of time, this point in the RECORD an editorial en- debate of the foreign aid bill in the the Senate Chamber is practically empty. titled "For Whom the Bell Tolls,” pub- Senate are holding up proposed civil In the present debate we have succeeded lished in this morning's issue of the rights legislation. I shall again answer in having pretty good attendance, by and Washington Post.
that charge in a moment. I have al- large, on most of the foreign aid amendThere being no objection, the editorial ready answered it several times. I shall ments that have been offered. I think was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, continue to answer it as long as the mis
we shall find that that kind of attendas follows:
representation flows from the pens of ance will continue. FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS
American editors and correspondents. Those to whom I have referred wish "Never send to know for whom the bell
The editorial states:
to establish a procedure by which detolls," John Donne advised, "it tolls for Under the present rules a group of Sen- bate on the bill would be limited to half thee.” Sponsors of the civil rights bill, the ators who conscientiously oppose a bill may an hour on a side or an hour or two. tax bill, and many other pieces of legislation reasonably feel that they have not done When the Senate operates under such a in the mountainous backlog on Capitol Hill their duty unless they use dilatory tactics limitation, few Senators come to the may well recall these words as they listen to to kill it. Slow-downs, time-wasting maneu- Chamber because they know that the the protracted debate on the foreign-aid bill vers and filibusters are thus the norm in vote will be certain to take place at a droning on and on in the Senate. The bell the Senate whenever they serve the purpose
particular time. Senators stay away. may be tolling specifically for foreign aid, of a committee chairman or a powerful mibut it is also tolling for civil rights, tax relief, nority group. The dismal truth is that the They congregate in the Chamber to vote and the entire Kennedy program.
Senate has no centralized leadership or orga- at the appointed hour. Yesterday's voting involving relatively nization capable of overcoming these handi- Mr. President, in my judgment that small sums and a good deal of intricate ma- caps.
practice has contributed to a lowering of the prestige of the Senate. It has say on the question. Then there will be Mr. MORSE. Let us consider the changed the purpose of the Senate. I
crux of the criticism: It is the false believe it is time to get back to its his- In the long run time will be saved. I charge that we are holding up civil rights toric purpose.
am certain that the public interest will legislation in the Senate. The senior Senator from Oregon will be protected by that procedure.
For the benefit of the editor of the continue, no matter how many editors The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Washington Post, I ask unanimous constick their pens into his blood—I am used time of the Senator has expired.
sent that there be printed at this point to it—and write any critical editorials Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask in the RECORD the pending calendar of they desire. The Senator from Oregon unanimous consent that I may proceed the Senate. will see to it that the foreign aid bill is for 2 additional minutes.
There being no objection, the calendar debated amendment by amendment until The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, every Senator has said all he desires to out objection, it is so ordered.
General orders under rule VIII
Number and author of bill
305 H.R. 4214..
An act for the relief of the Stella Reorganized Schools R-I, Missouri. June 27, 1963.-Mr. Eastland, Committee on the Judiciary, ($1,500.)
without amendment. (Rept. 331.) 319 S. 5, Mr. Yarborough and A bill to provide readjustment assistance to veterans who serve in the July 2, 1963.-Mr. Yarborough, Committee on Labor and others. Armed Forces during the induction period.
Pubíic Welfare, with amendments. (Rept. 345.)
(Minority views.) 449 S. 1540, Mr. Magnuson..--- A bill to amend the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 to provide for the regula- Aug. 28, 1963.-Mr. Monroney, Committee on Commerce,
tion of rates and practices of air carriers and foreign air carriers in foreign without amendment. (Rept. 473.)
air transportation, and for other purposes. 451 S, 1033, Mr. Magnuson ---- A bill to establish a uniform system of time standards and measurements Aug. 30, 1963.-Mr. Magnuson, Committee on Commerce,
for the United States and require the observance of such time standards with amendments. (Rept. 475.)
for all purposes. 462 H.R. 82...
An act to amend the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, in order to provide for Sept. 11, 1963.-Mr. Bartlett, Committee on Commerce, the reimbursement of certain vessel construction expenses.
without amendment. (Rept. 486.) (Minority views
filed.) 483 s. Con. Res. 1, Mr. Clark Concurrent resolution to create a joint committee to study the organization Sept. 19, 1963.-Mr. Hayden, Committee on Rules and and others. and operation of the Congress and recommend improvements therein. Administration, with an amendment. (Rept. 504.)
(Individual and supplemental views filed.) 485 S. Res. 111, Mr. Church Resolution amending rule XXV of the standing rules relative to meetings Sept. 19, 1963.—Mr. Hayden, Committee on Rules and and others. of committees while the Senate is in session.
Administration without amendment. (Rept. 506.)
(Individual views filed.) 486 S. Res. 89, Mr. Pastore and Resolution providing for germaneness of debate under certain circum- Sept. 19, 1963.-Mr. Hayden, Committee on Rules and others. stances.
Administration, with amendments. (Rept. 507.)
(Individual views filed.) 502 S. 927, Mr. Magnuson.. A bill to amend title 12 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, in order to Sept. 24, 1963.—Mr. Bartlett, Committee on Commerce,
remove certain limitations with respect to war risk insurance issued with an amendment. (Rept. 523.) (Individual views under the provisions of such title.
filed.) 546 S. 2100, Messrs. Magnuson A bill to continue certain authority of the Secretary of Commerce to sus- Oct. 17, 1963.-Mr. Magnuson, Committee on Commerce, and Jackson.
pend the provisions of sec. 27 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920, with with amendments. (Řept. 568.) (Minority views filed.)
respect to the transportation of lumber. 566 H.R. 7885.
An act to amend further the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, Oct. 22, 1963.—Mr. Fulbright, Committee on Foreign and for other purposes.
Relations, with an amendment. (Rept. 588.) S. 2265, Mr. Morse
A bill to amend the Library Services Act in order to increase the amount of Oct. 29, 1963.-Mr. Morse, Committee on Labor and Public assistance under such act and to extend such assistance to nonrural areas. Welfare, without amendment. (Rept. 592.)
(Minority views filed.) 572 S. 1396, Mr. Fong
A bill to consent to the institution of an original action in the Supreme Oct. 29, 1963.-Mr. Fong, Committee on the Judiciary,
Court for the adjudication of the claim of the State of Hawaii to certain without amendment. (Rept. 594.)
land and property situated within that State. 602 S. 689, Messrs. Long of A bill for the relief of Lila Everts Weber...
Nov. 1, 1963.-Mr. Long of Missouri, Committee on the Missouri and Symington.
Judiciary, without amendment. (Rept. 624.) Calendar called, Nov. 5, 1963.
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, there are to deceive the American people or to mis- my rights, but that he has had my com14 bills on the calendar. No Senator will represent the issue to the American plete cooperation within my rights. state that the overwhelming majority of people.
Of course, the majority leader would them are not considered minor bills. A day or two ago I was shocked by a like to have a unanimous-consent agreeThere is no civil rights bill on that list. news story in the New York Times that ment. I shall state one other reason why If the Senate voted in the next hour on tried to perpetuate the misrepresenta- I will not consent to one. In my judgthe foreign aid bill, there is not a civil tion that there is some collusive con- ment, a unanimous-consent agreement rights bill on the calendar of the Senate spiracy between the senior Senator from to limit debate on any part of foreign so that it could proceed to that question. Oregon and the southerners in the Sen- aid would result in a good many SenaThe Senate could not even proceed to ate to hold up proposed civil rights leg- tors voting on amendments without being discuss a civil rights bill. It has not yet islation.
fully informed. Senators have said to come to us.
That is a lot of "hogwash.” It has no those of us who have been debating the Senators will take judicial notice that basis in fact. We must see to it that question, "We did not have any idea that there is not a man or a woman in this the foreign aid bill, which is so vital to those facts were involved in the bill until body who will deny the statement I now the security of our country and to the you spoke." make: There is no expectation of a civil economic welfare of the people, is de
They have come to us and said, "It is rights bill from the House of Represent- bated fully. On both sides of the issue
On both sides of the issue because of the representations and the atives—and my statement is an under- there are dedicated and sincere Senators arguments that you have made that we statement-in less than 2 weeks. Most who believe in their respective points of
have started to change our minds about Representatives will tell us that none can view. I happen to believe that the bill be expected in less than 3 weeks. But, must be debated fully. I will engage in
a good many parts of the foreign aid
bill.” I am sure, the Senate will be through no dilatory tactics, nor have I engaged with the foreign aid authorization bill in them. The majority leader has my
That is why the constitutional fathers within a week.
word that I will not. I will not permit established the Senate. That is why they The Senate will still have ample time a unanimous-consent agreement to vote established this parliamentary body, to consider other questions, because even until the debate is concluded.
which Senators have boasted is the greatthen no civil rights bill will be before Mr. President, there is nothing dila- est parliamentary body in the world. the Senate. tory about that position. With his usual
I close with the statement that one I do not know the objective of the kindness and generosity, the majority of our greatest strengths is the fact that press. I do not know whether it seeks leader has said that I am not only within straitjackets cannot be put upon us. Muzzles cannot be put upon us. We can- I believe Senators will find it profitable Establishment even with present levels of not be tied down by repressions that deny to read that portion of Mr. Reuther's expenditure. us the right to represent our contingency report which relates to the conversion of
Defense industry has created jobs, but it fully or to say what we think needs to our defense industries as conditions per
is a weak reed for any nation to lean upon
for sustained prosperity. Defense facilities be said before a vote is cast. That is my mit. I ask unanimous consent to have
and procurement cannot be permitted to beanswer to the Washington Post. I hope this section of the report printed in the
come a means for creating industrial activity that it will take a look at the calendar RECORD.
at the expense of a growing civilian econand find that the pending calendar of There being no objection, the report omy. While there can be no unilateral disthe Senate cannot be squared with the was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, armament, this Nation is certainly strong innuendos and insinuations insinuations of the as follows:
and confident enough to welcome the opeditorial.
portunities that arms reduction can create.
NEW PROBLEMS AND NEW OPPORTUNITY I yield the floor.
Defense industry has introduced serious Great shifts have marked our world since distortion and neglect into the Nation's Mr. SIMPSON. Mr. President, will our industrial unions last assembled in con- economy. Side by side with the massive Dethe Senator yield? vention in this city.
fense Establishment, there have grown areas Mr. MORSE. I have yielded the floor. When we last met here, reverberations of of massive public neglect. As pointed out The Senator can obtain the floor in his Soviet megaton nuclear testing still echoed by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, own right.
across a fevered world. The fear of war, “The award of new defense contracts in a Mr. SIMPSON. Mr. President
the destructive power of the bomb, and ever- particular area can make the difference beThe PRESIDING OFFICER. The rising levels of radioactive fallout haunted tween prosperity and depression."
the dreams of every man. Senator from Wyoming is recognized.
LITTLE PRIVATE CONCERN
Recent surveys show little private concern myself with the remarks of the senior fearful yet to confront mankind. Thanks
with or preparation for conversion from de
fense to civilian production. The Morgan Senator from Oregon in respect to the to the firm position of the administration statement he has made. I trust that no and intelligent diplomacy, peace with honor
Guaranty Trust Co. of New York reported
in its August letter that little attention is pen stuck in his blood or any other was preserved.
being given by business to the "possibility atrocity will deter the Senator from
Mankind has since withdrawn from the
that spending for defense may one of these continuing his battle on behalf of the brink. For the first time since the end of
years begin to decline significantly." ReAmerican people. I assure the Senator seriously of arms control and disarmament. World War II, it has become possible to think
sponses of defense contractors to a Senate from Oregon that full debate on the sub
subcommittee questionnaire showed that This is not to say that peace and mutual ject is as important as debate on any good will blanket our earth, or that America
only one in six had even made any kind
of survey on the impact of defense cutbacks. other bill that could come before th can afford to relax her vigilance. But the
A lengthy New York Times survey in midSenate. internal problems of the Soviet, the widen
August noted that defense contractors are I propose to support the Senator from ing gaps in the Soviet-Sino alliance, and
doing "very little" to cope with the impact Oregon in most of his amendments and strains within the Soviet bloc are realities
of arms control or disarmament. The pain his fight on this particular bill. I am plomacy and reduction of the armaments that offer new possibilities for fruitful di
per's conclusion was based upon a survey of sure he has already had evidence of ma
the 25 largest prime defense contractors, burden. jority support in the amendments he will
accounting for 50.8 percent of all defense The nuclear test ban does not limit the
work. undertake. arms race or end the manufacture of arma
Economists generally agree that the U.S. Mr. MORSE. I thank the Senator. ments. Nonetheless the treaty can turn out
economy can adjust to disarmament in the to be a small but significant step toward
long run. But people must live in the short arms control. Both the AFL-CIO and the run. The Times reported that “when it MR. REUTHER SEES NEED FOR ECO- IUD testified on behalf of ratification, stress
comes to the short run, confident assertions NOMIC CONVERSION PLANNING
ing labor's interest in a more peaceful about the resiliency of the U.S. economy
world. Mr. McGOVERN. Mr. President, in a
often give way to cries of sheer panic."
While America cannot drop her guard, Industrial labor too has been lax in this report to the Industrial Union Depart- neither can she ignore the challenge of a
It must devote more thought and ment of the AFL-CIO to be released to peace race with the Soviet Union. Industrial
planning to the problems that will lie ahead day, Mr. Walter P. Reuther has pointed labor would gladly welcome such a race. It if arms reduction can be negotiated. Obup the need to plan for possible shifts in
is our firm belief that the free world can viously, we stand to benefit with the entire our Defense Establishment. In his re
show by example that it can meet and sur- Nation if the results of arms reduction are port to the delegates of the Fifth Consti
mount the problems of abundance inherent higher living standards. But we will lose tutional Convention of the IUD—AFL- ments. in a world imburdened by massive arma- most if the net result is still greater unem
ployment. CIO scheduled in Washington, D.C., for Arms reduction offers to U.S. labor hope
The problem of conversion is national in November 7 and 8, Mr. Reuther says: and opportunity for higher living standards,
scope and requires national planning with If and when arms reduction takes place, elimination of domestic poverty, and greater the participation of all sectors of the econthe probability is that it will proceed over a leisure. · Needed are alternatives to arms.
omy. Needed first are fiscal and monetary period of years. This offers opportunity for While work has been undertaken in this
policies to facilitate conversion and growth. planned and orderly conversion to nonmill
area, there has been no comprehensive na- It is imperative to obtain the broadest postary utilization of facilities, resources, and tional planning.
sible agreement in these areas now and to manpower if we begin to plan well in ad
A disarmed world lies far in the future, plan to make such policies operative at the vance. The changing nature of weaponry, of
but arms reduction with inspection now right time. itself, dictates the need to find civilian has become a possibility. It would be fool
Government policy regarding broad expanalternatives to arms.
hardy to wait until the problems are upon sion of public works and services must be
us before preparing for conversion from arms formulated well in advance of actual arms To meet this problem Mr. Reuther manufacture to civilian production. Amer- reduction to permit public works to be suggests:
ica has proved her ability to plan decisively phased in as defense work is phased out. A national peace planning board with au
for defense without serious impairment of There is a need to plan broad programs of
her basic institutions. Industrial labor has thority to develop national and regional plans
worker relocation and retraining before and programs is required. Labor, industry,
full faith that she can plan equally well for massive joblessness strikes.
a disarmed world. the universities, and Government should be
Government programs alone are insuffiadequately represented. The board should
If and when arms reduction takes place, cient. Regional plans that would include be empowered to utilize Federal agencies and
the probability is that it will proceed over alternative uses of defense facilities must be their resources in the development of pro
a period of years. This offers opportunity for developed. Such plans need not and could
planned and orderly conversion to nonmili- not be made mandatory upon any private grams.
tary utilization of facilities, resources, and industry but could serve as guidelines. InMr. President, last Thursday I intro- manpower if we begin to plan well in ad- ducements to convert in accordance with the duced a measure, with the cosponsorship vance.
best available judgment can be developed of other Senators, to provide for a Na
The changing nature of weaponry, of itself, for contractors. tional Economic Conversion Commission.
need to find civilian alternatives A national peace planning board with au
to arms. America's tremendous stockpile thority to develop national and regional The legislation which I have proposed of weapons on hand would indicate a coming plans and programs is required. Labor, in: could help provide the machinery that is
slowdown in military procurement. Greater dustry, the universities, and government needed to implement Mr. Reuther's pro- sophistication in weaponry would also in- should be adequately represented. The posal.
dicate smaller employment in the Defense board should be empowered to utilize Fed