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Western Hemisphere. It has never ful- justification was presented to the com from without, and from military threat filled any of the objectives stated in its mittee for starting military aid in such from some neighboring Latin American justification. There is an escape clause countries as Sierra Leone or Upper Volta country.

countries as Sierra Leone or Upper Volta country. If that were true, there might which provides that some of the $300 or Mali, small countries which have lit- be some justification for a hemispheric million in the President's contingent tle in the way of economic resources, and defense force, and we might be able to fund can be used by the President in case which have no occasion to defend them- justify and, indeed, the Organization of an emergency situation arises and the

against aggression. I wonder American States might find most useful, President needs the money to use it for what justification was presented to the a military force at its command to interthat defense purpose in one or more

committee for this military program. cept a flotilla from Cuba, for example, Latin American countries.

Mr. CHURCH. It is the same kind of bent upon invasion of, say, Honduras, to I hope the Senator will support the reasoning that has sustained the pro- imagine a possible use for such a force; amendment.

gram in Latin America, to accommodate as well as in a police action by the OrgaMr. CHURCH. I assure the Senator the desires of those governments. It is nization of American States, if that Orthat I intend to support his amendment. easy for us to do the equipping, it is ganization determined it to be advisable, I have long advocated the reduction and said, because the equipment is obsolete in a small country like the Dominican termination of military assistance to so far as our use of it goes; therefore, it Republic, if such were adjudged by the Latin America. I believe that the record is argued, we should accommodate these Organization of American States as beof military assistance in Latin America governments; besides, it is said, it helps ing necessary for the protection of life demonstrates that, on balance, it has cement better feelings between the ex- and the preservation of liberty in that been a net loss to the United States. I isting governments and the Government small country. have heard no persuasive arguments to

of the United States. This is the same To that end, about 3 or 4 years ago, I the contrary.

argument that has been used again and offered an amendment to earmark a Again and again, we are told that the again with respect to Latin America. certain part of the military assistance money is necessary in order to open a Then, the day of a coup arrives, and funds for such an international or a channel of communication or rapport

the people learn that the tank which Western Hemispheric defense force. between the Military Establishments in

pushed down the gates of the presiden The Committee on Foreign Relations Latin America and the United States. tial palace, as in Lima, Peru, was a tank approved it, and the Senate accepted it Everyone who knows much about Latin

that had been supplied by us. This is without question. However, no move by America knows that, generally speaking, the word that gets through to the "down the Organization of American States folthe problem there is not that the Mili

and outs" in Peru, to the working people lowed the availability of these funds. tary Establishments are too small, but

of the country, to the Indians in the Perhaps the amendment may have been that they are too big.

highlands. This is what damages the stricken in conference because of a lack Mr. GRUENING. Exactly.

image of the United States in these un of manifestation of interest. Mr. CHURCH. The fact is that the fortunate, feudal lands.

I offered such an amendment again money we spend, and the equipment and

Mr. GRUENING. I hope the Senator and once again my amendment was material we give, is not necessary to

will submit an amendment to eliminate adopted in committee. It is found at give further size or strength to these

the military program in Africa. It he page 41. It provides that of the $50 Military Establishments. The statutory

does, I shall certainly support him. million that would be available, $25 milceiling we have set $57.5 million last

Mr. GORE. First, I wish to thank the lion may be available during each fiscal

Senator yield? year and $50 million this year, is recog

year for assistance to an international nition of the fact that we wish to keep

Mr. CHURCH. I am happy to yield military force under the control of the

to the Senator from Tennessee. the program very limited, and this very

Organization of American States. limitation makes it of no great signif

Mr. GORE. First, I wish to thank the I rise to call attention to this point, icance, insofar as the equipping and

distinguished Senator for his generous first, because it may be a constructive strengthening of these Military Estab

references earlier to an amendment proposal, one that might prove quite benlishments are concerned. which I offered in committee and which

eficial not only to the United States, But what does it do? It identifies the was adopted by the committee

which is a member of the Organization United States with the military within

Next I wish to commend the Senator

of American States, but also to the each country in such a way that we get for his eloquent and articulate address.

hemisphere as a whole; second, because the blame when the military does some

Now I wish to call to his attention an

I hope that this time in conference with thing that is offensive to the people, such

other amendment which appears at page the other body the Senate will insist

41 of the committee amendment. as a military junta overthrowing the

upon acceptance of this amendment. Government of the Dominican Republic

The distinguished senior Senator from

I thank the distinguished Senator for or the Government of Honduras. When

Idaho and I have shared misgivings with his courtesy in yielding. I regret that that happens, immediately the cry goes

respect to the provision of military as I have trespassed so far in expressing up by those who are determined to erode sistance to countries in South and Cen

these views. away good feeling toward the United tral America, and also in Africa. Per

Mr. CHURCH. I thank the Senator States in Latin America, that we are

haps the Senator will recall that a few from Tennessee for having taken the the ones who are responsible, because we days ago a military coup d'etat occurred floor to explain this amendment. I am are the ones who are furnishing the tanks in a small country in Africa which, it in full agreement with what he has said. or the fancy fighter planes. Thus we was reported, had an armed force of 800

I hope that other countries of Latin are identified with the strong-arm men men.

America will look upon this proposal as in Latin America. It is not worth the I suggest that in this small country, an opportunity to support, within the candle.

800 men with high powered American Organization of American States, the The arguments that are made in sup rifles might very well succeed with a coup formation of such a police force. It port of this program are increasingly d'etat. What good would be served? could very well have much usefulness in less persuasive. The recent military What would be the end result? How the hemisphere. The amendment is a juntas demonstrate the danger of being would it benefit either the people of most constructive one. What is protarred with the military brush in Latin that country or the United States or the posed is much different from the kind America.

forces of freedom? I know the reasons of military assistance we have been givI commend the Senator for his amend which some people advance, but I have ing, which serves no useful purpose. ment. I will support it. I have tried not thus far determined them to be valid Therefore, I join in commending the to do the same thing myself, from time reasons, at least not conclusively so. Senator for having offered the amendto time, within the committee. Thus With respect to military assistance to ment and for having taken this opportufar I have been able to do no more than Central and South American countries, nity to explain it to the Senate. to retain an amendment placing a ceil it seems to me that if a laudable cause Mr. President, when I rose some time ing on the program. If we would elim exists in which the United States has an ago, I had no intention of taking this inate it entirely we would be better off. interest, it must be one to strengthen much time. I am prepared now, unless Mr. GRUENING. I wonder whether hemispheric defense, the defense of the

hemispheric defense, the defense of the the Senator from Alaska wishes to ask the Senator could tell us what possible various countries from military threats

various countries from military threats me another question, to yield the floor.

Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I there is little hope for the actual crea- undertake reforms that might have reshould like to continue on the point tion of such a force. But I would hope gained for it the popular support of the raised by the Senator from Tennessee. that if the funds were made available, Vietnamese people. An international police force under the President Kennedy would direct some We have cause to hope that the new supervision and jurisdiction of the OAS negotiations, some conferences, some regime in Vietnam will rally popular supwould have much merit. But I hope the study, and some effort toward exploring port behind the war effort, so that the Senator realizes that there are practical the possibility of creating such a force. Vietcong can at least be defeated and difficulties toward its realization in the I repeat: If there is justification for the the Americans in Vietnam can be redifferences of opinion that exist in those provision of U.S. military aid to Central turned home. countries and their governments. Coun- America and South America, it must be This is an example of how the Presitries that are not junta controlled would because it is thought that this would con- dent can withhold foreign aid in order not agree to such a proposal. We would tribute to hemispheric solidarity and to to give more effective implementation to be confronted with the problem, as we the security of freedom and peace in the the foreign policy objectives of the have been on previous occasions, of in- Western Hemisphere.

United States in the Western Hemiducing a majority of countries to sup The distinguished junior Senator from sphere, in the Far East, and elsewhere in port what seems to us to be constructive Alaska points to the growing number of the world. For this, the President is to measures.

military juntas which are in control of be commended most strongly. The present situation really began 30 governments and countries in South and Mr. President, I close with a plea for years ago, at the first Pan American Central America. This is disturbing, be- adoption of the pending amendment. If Conference after the administration of cause it seems to me that in the long run there is any hope for many of the counPresident Franklin Roosevelt took of the repetitive and growing identification tries of Latin America to which the Senfice. It was officially known as the Sev- of the United States with military coup ator from Tennessee has referred-counenth Inter-American Conference. It d'etats and dictatorial, repressive regimes tries plagued with the feudalism of anmet in Montevideo in November 1933. I will have an eroding effect upon the in- other era; countries where a very few was the adviser to that delegation. We fluence, prestige, and respect in which families are exceedingly rich, and the abjured gunboat diplomacy. We de

We de- the United States may be held, not only mass of the people are desperately poorclared that there would be no more in those countries but throughout the it is to be found in the Alliance for Progarmed interventions into our neighbors' world. I recognize that it is sometimes ress, inaugurated-again-by President terrain of the kind we had carried out in difficult to choose; that if one must Kennedy, for it promotes two objectives Mexico, Central America, and the Carib- choose between a military junta that is which are the prerequisites for achievbean. That led to subsequent agree- non-Communist and a Communist take- ing real democracy and social justice in ments that there should be no such ar over of a country, the former might be the Western Hemisphere—the eliminarangements without the consent of a preferable. But I submit that the people tion of economic feudalism and political majority of the American States. In of most countries, in my opinion, do not dictatorship. Only if the President ineffect, we multilateralized the Monroe want either. Therefore, we must search sists that the aid program shall conform Doctrine. We made it, in Roosevelt's for means to give life and meaning to the with these objectives, will the money words, a joint concern.

principles for which our great Nation and Congress appropriates for it have any But we found as a practical matter our people stand. Democracy is the most chance of bearing fruit. that it was difficult to reach an agree- revolutionary and appealing political So, Mr. President, I commend him for ment between the 20 republics. I could concept that mankind has ever known. his recent actions in Latin America, and name several countries that would op- Let us not blur its image and reduce it I plead with the Senate to restore the pose, however much they might approve to an unappealing system, as it may be money for the Alliance for Progress, in principle, this kind of police force, be seen and interpreted through the eyes which alone can help in the achievecause of difficulties that might arise from of those who are repressed by a regime ment of these goals. time to time.

which we support and with which we are Mr. ELLENDER. Mr. President, the We should pursue this proposal in the identified.

pending amendment, which I submitted hope that the time will come when a ma Mr. CHURCH. I commend the Sena- yesterday, seeks to cut $75 million from jority of the Organization of American tor from Tennessee for his sentiment, the contingency fund.

the contingency fund. In the course of States will affirmatively prefer this kind which I cherish fully.

my remarks I hope to show to the Senof assistance, rather than have it pre Having commenced this discourse with ate that, under the bill, the President sented as something which we propose the intention of discussing foreign aid now has ample authority to make transand which we hope they will support. in tropical Africa, I want to close with fers in order to assist him in dealing When the initiative comes from them, some remarks on the subject of the dis- with any emergency which may arise the proposal will have a much better cussion at the moment, which is Latin during the current year. I propose to prospect of becoming effective. I hope America.

show that under the present law the that that time will come, because the The President is to be commended for President has authority to transfer as proposal is sound.

the way in which he is now utilizing the much as $1,780 million. Mr. CHURCH. I agree. I feel cer- aid program to doggedly pursue Ameri The original concept of the so-called tain the Senator from Tennessee also can objectives in this hemisphere. When contingency fund was to take care of will agree that the difficulties heretofore the military junta recently overthrew certain emergencies and unforeseen experienced have prevented the estab- the first popularly elected, constitutional events which might arise. I well relishment of such a force. The amend- government in the Dominican Re- member that when the first emergency ment is merely an invitation to the coun- public-I believe in its history

fund provision was included in the fortries of Latin America to consider again Mr. GRUENING. In its history is eign aid bill, serious questions as to what the advisability of the formation of such correct.

the President could use these funds for a force. The amendment is inserted in Mr. CHURCH. The Senator from were raised. As time passed, it was the bill with no great expectation that Alaska is a profound student of Latin demonstrated that in many instances the the difficulties will soon be surmounted. American history. The President took so-called emergency fund was not used

Mr. GRUENING. But it is a highly prompt action to break off diplomatic for the purposes intended. In the course constructive proposal.

recognition with the new junta, to with- of my remarks I shall indicate to the Mr. CHURCH. Nevertheless, it is a hold further American aid, and system- Senate some of the instances in which highly constructive proposal. I am glad atically to withdraw the AID personnel this fund was used for purposes far rethe committee has taken action, has connected with the sizable AID program moved from the original intent of the adopted it, and made it a part of the bill. that had been established there. He fund.

Mr. GORE. I am most grateful for did likewise in Honduras, when the Gov As I have said, my amendment would and encouraged by the statements of the ernment of Honduras was overthrown by make available for the contingency fund distinguished senior Senator from Idaho a similar junta a few weeks ago. Like for the fiscal year 1964 the sum of $100 [Mr. CHURCH) and the able junior Sena wise, the President utilized the AID pro- million. This means that the President tor from Alaska (Mr. GRUENING). It is gram in South Vietnam in his efforts to will have $100 million in this fund, to true that under present circumstances induce the collapsing Diem regime to use as he sees fit. The House voted to

authorize $150 million for this fund. which appears on page 63 of the report, budget to avoid serious political disturbThe Senate committee voted to authorize be printed at this point in the RECORD. ances which would result from the Goy$175 million. The so-called Mansfield There being no objection, the section ernment's inability to meet its immediate Dirksen amendments would increase the was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, expenses. fund to $200 million, by transferring to as follows:

In other words, taxpayers' funds were the contingency fund $125 million of the

SEC. 610. TRANSFER BETWEEN ACCOUNTS.

used, without congressional authorizamoney recommended by the committee

(a) Whenever the President determines it to tion or review, to subsidize governmental for the Alliance for Progress.

be necessary for the purposes of this Act, mismanagement, and to act as a bufWhen one analyzes the many gimmicks not to exceed 10 per centum of the funds fer between the Government authorities and gadgets in this bill which make

made available for any provision of this Act and the Government workers. This use

may be transferred to, and consolidated with, available to the President millions of

puts a strange interpretation on what the funds made available for any other prodollars over and above the amounts we

normally is thought of as disaster relief vision of this Act, and may be used for any authorize, one can only conclude that of the purposes for which such funds may be

and "unforeseen emergencies.” a $100 million contingency fund is used, except that the total in the provision

A few days ago the distinguished mimore than adequate to take care of any for the benefit of which the transfer is made

nority leader, the Senator from Illinois unforeseen emergencies which may arise. shall not be increased by more than 20 per [Mr. DIRKSEN], stated that the emergen

centum of the amount of funds made availLet us take a look at some of these

cy fund was absolutely necessary in orable for such provision. gimmicks and gadgets.

der to cover such conditions as happened (b) The authority contained in this sec

in Lebanon and South Vietnam and othUnder section 510 of this bill, the Presi

tion and in sections 451, 510, and 614 shall dent is granted special authority where not be used to augment appropriations made

er parts of the world. But I point out

that the fund was never used for such by he may withdraw from Department available pursuant to sections 636(g) (1) and of Defense up to $300 million worth of 637 or used otherwise to finance activities purposes. To the contrary, the Presiwhich normally would be financed from ap

dent has ample authority to use other military stocks, for purposes of military assistance.

propriation for administrative expenses. funds, as I indicated a while ago, to covEven though in the bill, we have Mr. ELLENDER. Furthermore, sec

er such situations as developed in Lebalimited the amount for military assist tion 614 gives the President special au

non and other parts of the world. When

the situation which caused us concern ance to $1 billion, the President will have thority to use up to 250 million of hard

developed in Lebanon, the 6th Fleet, authority, under the law as it now stands, dollars, and up to $100 million of foreign to withdraw from the Military Establish- currencies for any purpose he deems ap

which was in the Mediterranean, took ment $300 million worth of hardware, to propriate. The only limitation placed on

charge. In order to recover the expenses, him under this section is that he cannot

Congress appropriated to be used as he sees fit.

to the Navy

such funds as were spent out of the This $300 million is over and above spend more than $50 million in any one country in any fiscal year.

Navy's regular appropriations. The conthe amount of military assistance au

tingency fund was never used, from what thorized in this bill, as I have just Now, Mr. President, I have just enum

I can understand, in any such situation. stated. erated a few methods that the President

Also last year, the goodly sum of $17 For the information of Senators, I has at hand to give assistance based on

million was made available to our ask unanimous consent to have printed his discretion. There are many more

stanch friend and ally, Mr. Sukarno, of at this point in the RECORD section 510, contained in this bill, and I am sure that

Indonesia, for the same purpose; nameto which I have just referred. It is to if anyone takes the time to make a fur

ly, to mitigate serious internal financial be found on pages 59 and 60 of the re ther analysis they can be discovered.

and balance-of-payments problems. port, under the heading "Special Au- But those I have pointed out to the Sen

About the time the funds became availthority.” ate here today should make it clear that

able to him, I seem to remember that There being no objection, the excerpt not more than $100 million is needed for

Mr. Sukarno bought some jet aircraft from the report (No. 588) was ordered this contingency fund. Even if the many

from Russia. By some strange coincito be printed in the RECORD, as follows: gimmicks were not available, the con

dence, the planes cost approximately $17 SEC. 510. SPECIAL AUTHORITY.—(a) During tingency fund would still be adequately

million. the fiscal year [1963] 1964 the President may, funded with an amount of $100 million.

Ah, but this is not all that the conif he determines it to be vital to the security

I have had my staff make a careful

tingency fund has done in our effort of the United States, order defense articles analysis of the obligations of the con

to buy a true friend. From the fund from the stocks of the Department of De tingency fund through March 31 of 1963, last year, a grant of $2.7 million was fense and defense services for the purposes and this analysis revealed that out of the of part II, subject to subsequent reimburse

given to him to equip and train a special $120 million that was obligated, only $35 ment therefor from subsequent appropria

unit of the Indonesian National Police million actually covered unforeseen contions available for military assistance. The

which supposedly had been trained to value of such orders under this subsection tingencies.

deal with civil disturbances. in the fiscal year [1963] 1964 shall not ex I repeat at this point in my remarks

I can only wonder where this special ceed $300,000,000. Prompt notice of action that the bill was originally intended to civil disturbance unit was when Indotaken under this subsection shall be given cover situations which could not be fore

nesian crowds proceeded to wreck and to the Committees on Foreign Relations,

seen by the President, the administrators Appropriations, and Armed Services of the

burn the British Embassy a short time of the program, or Congress. That was Senate and the Speaker of the House of

I am sure the British wonder, too. Representatives. the genesis of the continguency fund.

Apparently, Mr. Sukarno has a rather (b) The Department of Defense is auBut the fund has not by any means been

narrow definition of what constitutes a thorized to incur, in applicable appropria used in that manner, as I shall indicate civil disturbance. But, unfortunately, tions, obligations in anticipation of reim in a few moments.

he seems to have gained a rather broad bursements in amounts equivalent to the Surely, the use of the contingency fund

knowledge of how to get his hands into value of such orders under subsection (a)

might be justified to take care of disof this section. Appropriations to the Pres

the pockets of the American taxpayer. ident of such sums as may be necessary to asters that may occur throughout the

Our administrators also saw fit last reimburse the applicable appropriation, world and perhaps to provide internal

year to use the contingency fund to fund, or account for such orders are hereby security equipment where Communist

make $25.5 million available to Brazil to authorized

subversion threatens. But I ask, Mr. aid her balance-of-payments problem.

President, can grants from the contin Twenty million dollars was given to ArMr. ELLENDER. In addition, section 610 of the bill would give the President cit in a nation's national budget? gency fund be justified to cover the defi

gentina for the same purpose. I re

spectfully suggest that our administramuch flexibility, in that it would permit

The contingency fund was put to this tors could find balance-of-payments him to transfer 10 percent of the funds

use last year in the case of a certain problems in need of solution somewhat made available for any provision of this country.

closer to home, if they could be peract, and would be consolidated with the

I cannot name the country because it suaded to pay some heed to our own funds made available for other purposes is labeled "secret."

country's financial condition. I also in this act.

Several million dollars were granted to submit that this use of the contingency I ask unanimous consent that the pro this country to cover, and here is the fund is not in line with the intent of vision of law to which I have referred, justification, “to cover deficit in national Congress in making it available, and

comes about solely because in the past that the administrators of the foreign Mr. ELLENDER. No. I was referring we have made too much money available. aid program will have available to them to the money for the current year, 1964,

But let us move on to another strange approximately $10.3 billion, and that the and for the last 3 months of fiscal 1963. contingency that the contingency fund President will have the authority under Under the continuing resolution, I am was used to take care of. Two million section 610 of the act to transfer 10 per- sure some of the money was spent, and dollars was made available to aid our cent of such sums as he sees fit.

some of the money was allocated. Howsupporting assistance program in the As I pointed out before, under section ever the record of obligation for the islands of Trinidad-Tobago. It should 614(a) of the act the President may use first 9 months of fiscal year 1963 clearly be pointed out that these islands have a up to $250 million in hard dollars, and an illustrates how contingency funds have gross national product in excess of $600 additional $100 million in foreign cur been used. per capita. If they can be called un- rencies, for a total of $350 million which Mr. MILLER. Does the Senator have derdeveloped, then some of our West can be transferred as he sees fit in ac a breakdown of how the $120 million was ern European Allies would also qualify cordance with the section to which I have spent for fiscal year 1963, or does he have as undeveloped nations. Yet they have just referred.

only a portion of that item? been receiving substantial quantities of Mr. President, if the amendment I Mr. ELLENDER. Yes, I have a deAmerican aid ever since Great Britain have submitted is adopted and its figure

tailed breakdown showing how the $120 saw fit to cut them loose to fend for is added to the amounts I have just in

million was spent. Only $35 million of themselves. dicated as being the amounts the Presi

the $120 million was used for bona fide I visited those two areas several years dent can transfer and use, the President contingencies. The remaining $85 milago. It seems strange that whenever the will have at his disposal under this bill lion was used to correct deficits in the British leave their former possessions or and can transfer from one account to budgets and balance of payments of varicolonies and stop giving aid or assist- the other, in accord with the legislation ous countries. ance to them in any manner, good old to which I have just referred, $1,780

We helped Mr. Sukarno, of Indonesia, Uncle Sam walks in and takes over. We million. That is a great amount to put build up his police force. Suppose last are called upon to supply the moneys in the hands of any one man.

year the Senate had been told that any necessary, in order that those countries

Yet I would not mind so much if the part of the $250 million appropriated for may continue, and in order that they President himself were the only one to

the contingency fund would be used to may balance their budgets and build make these allocations or transfers, but,

accomplish such

purposes as those ? up their economies. as a rule, the transfers are made by em

What do Senators think would have been I submit that those uses of the con ployees of AID, the administrators in the

done with such a proposal? The Senate tingency fund, and many others like field who make suggestions as to how

would have voted it down. them, do not fall within congressional the amounts should be transferred from

I repeat, this fund is to be used solely understanding of the purposes for which one area to another.

for emergencies that cannot be foreseen. this money is made available. I do not

Mr. MILLER. Is it the Senator's posi

I am sure that when the Senate voted believe that they can be justified. And $250 million for the contingency fund

tion that the $30 million, if indeed it was I further submit, without fear of suclast year, it never dreamed that $20 mil

an emergency type situation to help cessful contradiction, that this misuse lion of that amount would be used in

some country from going under, could arises solely from the fact that simply Indonesia to balance the payments of

have been obtained from one of the too much money has been granted.

other sources which the President had that country, or that any of the amount The Devil finds work for idle hands; would be used to establish a little ges

available to him? our administrators are no less able to tapo-like police force in Indonesia.

Mr. ELLENDER. Absolutely. There find some use, no matter how farfetched,

is no question about it. Consider mili

I repeat that the genesis of the confor idle and unnecessary funds.

tary assistance. tingency fund, if the matter is looked

The President could Mr. President, in the interest of our into by Senators, will show that this

take 10 percent of the $1 billion, which national economy, in the interest of re

would be $100 million, to supplement sacred fund was to be used for emerstoring some congressional control to this gencies, for unforeseen events, and not

many of the items in the bill. He could runaway bill, I urge Senators to support to pay the deficits of any of the coun

use $300 million under section 510(a) of my amendment and implore them not to tries to which I have referred.

the pending measure, and he could also make more than $100 million available

use $350 million under section 614(a) of

I am confident that the President of for the contingency fund.

this same bill. the United States will have ample money I wish to point out specifically the to take care of any contingencies that

Mr. MILLER. The Senator has the amounts that will be available to the

pointed out that $35 million of the $120 President under the pending measure, if with the $100 million provided by my may develop within the next 7 months

million was spent for bona fide continhe sees fit to use them.

gencies. Can he tell us where some of amendment. Let us remember that 5 First, under section 510(a) of the

the other amounts went from the remonths of the year have passed. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961—which I

maining $85 million, or was all of the cited a moment ago—there is $300 mil

I hope and pray the Senate will vote

$120 million which Congress approprifor my amendment. lion that he can use as he sees fit. He

ated spent from the contingency fund? can call upon our Military Establishment

Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, will the Mr. ELLENDER. It was obligated to increase by $300 million the amount Senator yield for a question?

primarily to balance budgets and rethat we provide for military assistance.

The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. move deficits in the balance of paySecond, there is transfer authority

BREWSTER in the chair). Does the Sen ments of various countries. under section 610 of that act. Ten per

ator from Louisiana yield to the Sena Mr. MILLER. I think it would be cent of the amount made available in tor from Iowa?

helpful if those figures could be placed the pending bill, and also of the amount

Mr. ELLENDER. I yield.

in the RECORD. in the pipeline, and not to exceed 20

Mr. MILLER. First, let me compli The Senator from Iowa has misgivpercent of the item to which transferred, ment the Senator from Louisiana on his ings over this contingency fund and may be transferred between accounts. very able presentation and excellent has had for some time. If the so-called Mansfield-Dirksen analysis of the problem.

Let me ask a further question of the amendments are adopted, the amount of Did I correctly understand the Sen Senator from Louisiana. If the continthe pending bill will be, in round figures, ator to say that the amount in the con gency fund has been subject to what I $3.8 billion.

tingency fund for the fiscal year 1963 consider to be abuses such as this—and Today, there is in the pipeline approxi- was $120 million?

I am sure the Senator from Louisiana mately $612 billion, a part of which can Mr. ELLENDER. That much was ob will consider it to be an abuse—why cut be used by the President as he sees fit. ligated during the first 9 months of fiscal this amount from $175 million only to These amounts are now allocated. But year 1963.

$100 million ? the allocations can be changed by the Mr. MILLER. Did I correctly under Mr. ELLENDER. I am really trying administrators of the program. If we stand the Senator to say that he can to get at least a half loaf. My amendadd the amount in this bill to the amount not get any information regarding how ment would bring the amount available in the pipeline of $642 billion, it means that money was spent?

for the contingency fund $75 million

below that recommended by the Sen Mr. ELLENDER. No; I do not have It is poor practice to give to any adate committee and $50 million below the that information with me and, I cannot

that information with me and, I cannot ministration large sums of money to be amount authorized by the House. recall the figure at this moment.

used at its discretion and without legisThe so-called Mansfield-Dirksen Mr. MILLER. I thank the Senator lative guidelines. amendments have raised the amount of very much for his response.

I invite Senators to look at the uses the contingency fund to $300 million Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I rise to already made of the contingency fund and reduced the Alliance for Progress by support the Ellender amendment. If it last year, and show me anything like $300 $125 million to an amount totaling $525 should not be adopted, I shall subse- million worth of emergencies. The mamillion.

quently offer an amendment to increase terial I placed in the CONGRESSIONAL Mr. MILLER. If a figure can be the contingency fund from $100 million RECORD last night, which appears on justified, whether it be $100 million or to $150 million.

pages 21113–21121, shows the dis$50 million or a half billion dollars, the Before I discuss the Ellender amend bursements of foreign aid to Latin AmerSenator from Iowa is perfectly willing to ment I wish to discuss the Humphrey ican countries for fiscal 1962 and part of support it. However, I am not impressed amendment. I have distributed to Sena- fiscal 1963, including contingency funds. by the fact that someone may pull a tors interested a copy of a brief speech The material which I placed in the figure out of his hat and say, “Let us I am about to make on the Humphrey RECORD last night, beginning at page make it $250 million," and someone else amendment as it relates primarily to the 21113 of the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, is says, “Let us split the difference." In contingency fund.

factual data, which Senators ought to that way, we get into a numbers game I support the major objectives of the study before they vote not only on the with respect to what has been expended amendment of the Senator from Min amendment, but also on a good many and what the obligations have been nesota, but I believe it needs to be other amendments, and certainly before heretofore. That is why I believe, if the broadened.

they vote on the Mansfield amendments Senator from Louisiana can provide the At this point I wish to tell the Senate and on the bill itself. We should know information for the RECORD, it may be the ways in which we are seeking to ar what the money has been used for in the helpful in evaluating his amendment, rive at an agreement, if possible, with Alliance for Progress program. I have which at this stage of the debate, I am the Senator from Minnesota for broad- set it out, so Senators can see where inclined to support.

ening it. We have suggested to him, the money is going in connection with Mr. ELLENDER. I may say to my but I now formally suggest for the REC the Alliance for Progress program and good friend from Iowa that I would ORD, that the Alliance for Progress

the Alliance for Progress from where it has come. I believe Sencheerfully supply this information, but amount be increased in the first instance, ators will be very much surprised. some of it is classified. It is labeled to $600 million, instead of $650 million,

If we begin to analyze these figures, we "secret.” That is why I did not go into which his amendment proposes, and that

shall be surprised by what is being done any more detail than I did, because I we reach an agreement to reduce the with the contingency fund. It is of great could not go any further than to give a military aid for Latin America, which

regret to me that contingency funds have few examples. is now fixed in the bill at $50 million to

been used in large amounts for balanceMr. MILLER. I can understand why $40 million, but that the $10 million sav- of-payment and budget-support purposes some of the information might be classi- ing be added to the Alliance for Progress, in Latin America, particularly in Brazil, fied, and perhaps properly so. I would which would leave $610 million, instead Argentina, the Dominican Republic, like to know how much of the $120 mil- of $600 million, or $40 million less than Ecuador, and Panama. The true emerlion has been classified. It might help the Humphrey amendment in its present

the Humphrey amendment in its present gencies of public safety and natural disus, in evaluating the package, to see how form.

aster account for grants and loans measmuch is of a classified nature. Senators Legislative counsel has handed me an ured only in thousands or hundreds of can go to the committee room and con amendment which carries out the pro- thousands f dollars. But the budgetsult the files there. However, let use look posals which we will submit to the Sen support and balance-of-payments aid at the net balance.

ator from Minnesota for further confer- out of the contingency fund are measMr. ELLENDER. Notwithstanding

Notwithstanding ence this afternoon.

ence this afternoon. Although it may ured in the millions. the suggestion made by the Senator from seem that we are not making progress I digress at this point. In my judgIowa, I again point out that the contin in the debate, we are actually making ment, that is not an appropriate use of gency fund should be used for emergen a great deal of progress, because in view

the Presidential contingency fund. We cies and for unforeseen occurrences. of the parliamentary situation which

cannot justify giving the President an When my good friend from Illinois said confronts us, it is necessary for some of

emergency fund, or a contingency fund, that such a fund should be large, and us to talk on the floor of the Senate, while

on the assumption, that almost everyone when he and the majority leader got to- at the same time others in our group will make, that the contingency fund is gether and increased it to $300 million carry on negotiations in offices and cloak

provided to meet some emergency, and to take care of such a situation as de rooms.

then find that the President in fact has veloped in Lebanon and other places, On the other hand, making the RECORD

been using the fund to help Brazil or they should bear in mind that it has on the floor of the Senate is important,

Panama or Ecuador, or some other counnever been used for that purpose, as I because here we lay the basis for sup try, balance its budget or use the money pointed out. The President has other port for amendments that we are seek for support. When we vote contingency authority that gives him the necessary ing to negotiate in the offices and cloak funds, we ought to know to what use they flexibility. I have already placed in the rooms.

will be put. RECORD the section of the bill wherein Therefore, I say I support the major

The average person will say that if this flexibility is contained.

objectives of the amendment offered by there is an emergency of great national In addition, Congress was called upon the Senator from Minnesota (Mr. HUM interest, he wants the President to proto replace the amount spent by the Navy PHREY], but that I believe the amend tect our national interest and have some during the Lebanon crisis. ment itself needs to be broadened.

emergency funds with which to act beTherefore, there is no doubt that in

I support it not only because of the fore he seeks congressional action. But the bill, as it now stands, the huge foreign policy implications of the Alli every single dollar that has been used amount of unexpended balances, which ance for Progress, but also because I do out of the contingency fund—and this amount to $612 billion, can be reallo- not believe that

that contingency funds President is not the only one who has cated—it is done every day—from one should be used for the Alliance. It is done it for balance of payments or place to another; and so long as it has the assumption of the Mansfield amend- budget support in Latin America, be it not been actually delivered, the Presi- ments that if any shortage develops in for Brazil or Argentina or the Dominican dent has the authority to make the trans- the funds available for the Alliance for Republic or Ecuador or Panama, ought fer to which I have referred.

Progress, it will be made up out of the first to have received the approval of Mr. MILLER. Does the Senator have huge contingency fund which the Mans Congress. I know of no good reason why available information on the amount of field amendments also envision, I re we should give to the President, under the obligated but the unexpended bal- spectfully point out that it is poor the guise that it is needed to provide ance in the President's contingency legislative practice to do so, and for many emergency money, the authority to use fund? reasons.

his own unchecked discretion for ba)

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