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ment of the law of God by the law of road if they wish to regain what they weather, and Enemy"; "Friendly Forces”; man. treasure.
"Counter-Insurgency Strategy and Tactics"; It is not surprising that those against God Actually the Court decision can become a and "Results to Date.” should aim their biggest weapons at our challenge for a new spiritual creativity in
TERRAIN, WEATHER, AND ENEMY schools. Our school years are our most schools and public life. From school board impressionable. Eliminating the concept of to the principals to the teachers there could
The Republic of Vietnam comprises three God from education leaves the student with be a rethinking of ways to teach children
terrain regions: the central highlands, the no basis for determining right from wrong. our basic concepts of morality and God.
central lowlands, and the Mekong Delta.
The highlands are virgin country with tropiTherefore, I feel that the argument pre We are not concerned here merely with a sented by some political and religious lead legal debate on whether religion in the
cal rain and bamboo forests and a broad ers that the Court's decisions put religion schools violates the words of the first
grassy plateau at their center; inhabited by back where it belongs—in the church and
mountain migratory tribesmen; with a cliamendment. We are concerned with a way the home-is unrealistic. American young
mate conducive to tea, coffee, and a little of life, a philosophy and the spiritual characsters between 7 and 21 spend more waking
rice. ter of our culture. We must decide what
The lowlands are a generally dry hours at school and school activities than
coastal plain with sand dune growths; a that character is, then take a stand on it they do at home and church combined.
sedentary agrarian people; and insufficient before we have nothing left to stand on. They need more—not less--emphasis on
rice for lack of water. The delta has bounti
The human need to seek God, to know spiritual values in school. God, to love God, and to obey God is older
ful rice paddies, a coastline of mangrove The instigators of the school controversy, than Abraham, and the effort since Abraham
swamps, a central plain of reeds, and a maze moreover, have not fought their cause on the
of canals; is peopled by scattered ricefor men to live together under God for their basis of religion but rather on the basis of
farmers and fishermen; and its heavy seaspiritual salvation and the common good is constitutional rights. They have won in the
sonal rainfall causes annual flooding. The both natural and necessary. This suddenly precise area where they should have lost.
nature of the counter-insurgency is vastly cannot be outdated and superfluous, men In 6,000 years of recorded history, the
different in each of these regions. cannot suddenly become purer moralists than American Constitution is the only docu
The weather in the Republic of Vietnam is God, although even before Abraham there ment of government to be based on the law
hot and humid, with two distinct seasons, wet were men who thought they could. of God as defined in natural law, the deca
and dry, which vary by region in response
Time and again throughout history, men log, and divine revelation. Its authors
principally to two monsoons annually. Raindriven by a lust for power or money have were believers: their faith is evident in the
fall and sunshine are alternately intense, sought to destroy in others the natural reguarantees for individual freedom which
temperatures average 80° Fahrenheit, and sponse to Divine law—the individual conthey wrote into the Constitution. Further
there are about 10 typhoons a year and frescience, and the result has been complete more, by their checks and balances on the
quent high winds. chaos. Americans who believe in God are three government branches (executive, legnow the prey of such forces, and we shall
The enemy is the Vietcong, the VC, meanislative, judicial), they assured that no branch should overpower the others and be their victims unless we do something ing Vietnamese Communist, for which cadres
and arms caches were left behind when Ho that, while protecting the rights of minorinow to prevent it.
Chi Minh ostensibly led his followers north
Often I think of the young lawyer who ties, government should remain in the hands
in 1954. VC forces are of three strata: hardwanted to have our national motto In God of the majority of the people. This is the
core, guerrillas, and porters. Hard-core comWe Trust-removed from our courtrooms. freedom of religion which the authors of the
panies are outfitted in khaki twill with steel Constitution had in mind. When we stop trusting in God, when we re
or bamboo helmets and carry modern United Constitutionally, no American can be ject the principle that we are His creatures,
States or bloc-country arms. Guerrillas wear forced to act against his conscience. In war, subject to His laws, when we switch from
the standard dress of the Vietnamese peasant, we respect the rights of conscientious obmorality under God to morality by govern
black cotton or satin pajamas, and carry objectors who refuse to bear arms. This same ment committees on ethics, we will witness
solescent French or self-manufactured weapprinciple applies to activities in schools. more than the end of law and order in our
ons. Porters wear as little as a loincloth If parents, acting in conscience, decide country. We will witness the end of our
and are unarmed. VC nonexplosive weapons they don't want their child to participate in country itself. This is a challenge to every
include caltrops, spike-traps, poisoned darts, religious observances, the Pledge to the Flag one of us who loves freedom-and God.
and even enraged water buffalos. In a sense or, say, competitive athletics, they have the
their physical endurance, patience, and inright to ask for him to be excused. The
A REPORT ON VIETNAM
genuity are also VC weapons, for they have question is do these minorities have the
been known to live in dark tunnels for weeks, right to impose their judgment on all the
Mr. THURMOND. Mr. President, I to remain underwater for long periods by other children?
was pleased to attend sessions on the breathing through hollow reeds, and to lie in The answer is an obvious no. Yet this has annual meeting of the Association of the ambush for as long as 48 hours. The VC happened. Every parent, indeed every citi U.S. Army, held here in Washington dur wage their war from their ancestral strongzen, should ask: "What can we do about ing the week of October 21. In one of holds in the U Minh Ha Forest, Plaine des it?" these sessions a very informative and in
Jones, war zones C and D, and the Do Xa As a start, parents must reclaim control teresting presentation was made on the they dominate, myriad small hidden bases,
area; and from trackless provinces which of their school boards, making their wants known and heeded, assuring that govern
use of American personnel and equip- deep caves and long tunnels, and other safe ment in our country remains from the grass
ment in fighting Communist guerrillas havens. VC-initiated incidents are of four roots up instead of being imposed from the in South Vietnam. The address, en types: propaganda, terrorism, sabotage, and
armed attacks. top down. By failing to speak out, parents titled “Report on Vietnam,” was de
Their logistic support is are allowing a small vocal minority to estab livered on October 23, 1963, by Brig. Gen.
from five sources: levy on the peasantry, imlish the educational philosophy under which Frank A. Osmanski, of the Military As- port from other countries, capture from Govtheir children shall be trained. sistance Command, Vietnam. He is a
ernment of Vietnam (GVN) forces, local purFurthermore, Americans who wish to re
chase, and self-production, native of Nanticoke, Pa., and has been tain our God-centered civilization must
FRIENDLY FORCES in Vietnam since March of 1963. I ask themselves become more vocal in all areas of this controversy. unanimous consent, Mr. President, that
The Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Members of Congress are now working on this report be printed in the RECORD at
(RVNAF) consist of a regular army, air
force, and navy (including a marine corps) a constitutional amendment which would the conclusion of these remarks.
and three paramilitary forces: the civil restate the first amendment to the Con There being no objection, the report guard, self-defense corps, and special stitution to allow prayer and Bible reading was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, forces. In addition there are the civilian in schools on a voluntary, nonsectarian as follows:
irregular defense groups (CIDG), including basis. The amendment would also head off
hamlet militia, mountain scouts, border sursuits now pending to eliminate God from
REPORT ON VIETNAM
veillance units, and trail watchers; and then the Pledge of Allegiance and our coins. (Presentation by Brig. Gen. Frank A. Osman such semiautonomous but gun-bearing pa
I believe the great majority of American ski, J–4 MACV to annual meeting of the triotic organizations as the Republican people are behind this action and should Association of the U.S. Army at Sheraton Youth, Catholic Youth, and Women's Solisay so to their Congressmen in no uncertain Park Hotel, Washington, D.C., October 23, darity Movement. Assisting and advising words.
these are the U.S. Military Assistance ComMeanwhile, the situation which was This report on Vietnam will be neither mand of about 14,000 and a small Australian created by court action can be corrected by profound nor prophetic but the optimism Army Training Team. Collaterally the court action. Those who have made the it will reflect sincerely is genuinely that of civilian field agencies of the GVN ministries, long, difficult, complicated, expensive journey General Harkins, whose greetings I am the U.S. Operations Mission and the U.S. Into the U.S. Supreme Court to eliminate God charged to bring to this conference.
formation Service contribute to the civil from our schools traveled with the aid of General Collins has explained this strate
aspects of the counterinsurgency. In gross organizations and individuals who shared gic importance of the Republic of Vietnam. numbers the military, paramilitary, and their goal. Others who share opposite goals I shall report on the military situation police forces of the counter-insurgency outmust be willing to travel a similar arduous there, under four headings: "Terrain, number the VC about 5 to 1.
STRATEGY AND TACTICS
ing programs of self-help and scientific im characterized by murderous fire from VC The strategy of the counter-insurgency is
provement in education, agriculture, stock automatic weapons. Countermeasures are three-pronged: the strategic hamlet pro raising, and disease control. Medical civic being developed to enable troops to survive gram, field operations, and psychological op
action trains local nurses and directly treats the withering fire of these ambushes and to erations and civic action.
local people. To date almost 600,000 treat launch a superior barrage of area fire in These three methods intermingle. In es
ments have been given by medical civic ac return. New techniques for moving and essence, the strategy is to win battles and to tion teams at an average cost of $1 each. corting convoys are being explored and new win people.
Coordinated with the supporting U.S. mili weapons systems are being developed. The strategic hamlet program is the Re
tary medical civic action program are the Communications are often a problem in public of Vietnam's national program to
USOM medical projects as well as Medico RVN because the terrain or atmospheric conphysically and ideologically separate the CARE and Hope.
ditions tend to limit the range and performpeople from the VC and to win their sup
The tactical principles and techniques ance of standard radio sets. A new family port and confidence by providing them se which are proving successful in the counter of radio antennas, which can be fabricated curity, democratic government, and social
insurgency are essentially those, especially locally and used with the standard radio sets and economic development. The program
of small-unit tactics, which have been taught already issued, is being developed to overconsists of (1) clear and hold operations, in U.S. service schools for years. The tactical come this problem. (2) province rehabilitation, and (3) por problem remains to find, fix, and destroy the
The U.S. Air Force Test Unit is also in the tions of the CIDG program.
enemy. Of prime importance in the tactical process of testing a tactical air positioning Clear and hold operations clear the VC operations of the counterinsurgency is the system (TAPS) and a tactical air control from, and deny them, a specified area in heliborne strike. To explain this here is a
system (TACS), the results from which are tended as the site of a strategic hamlet. short film.
still pending. Province rehabilitation executes Province
The ACTIV test program so far has been (SB-6: "U.S. Army Helicopter Operations
in Vietnam,” edited to 1312 minutes.) concerned with four general areas of operaprepared and nationally approved civil-mil
tion: Army aircraft, armored personnel caritary plans providing financial and supply
riers, Army engineering know-how, and support for the establishment of strategic
The military events of this past year in the
Army communications and electronics hamlets. Republic of Vietnam have contributed sub
equipment. Those portions of the CIDG program as stantially both to the development of im In the field of Army aviation, there have sociated with the strategic namlet program
proved counterinsurgency techniques and to been significant evaluations of the operation are designed to develop home-defense units
ward ultimate victory for the Republic of of armed helicopters, Mohawks, and the Carifor strategic hamlets. Vietnam.
bous. It has been found that these aircraft Strategic hamlets, originally conceived as
In order that its training advice to the substantially enhance the operational capaa defense against VC attack, now have be
Republic of Vietnam AF may be effective bilities of the ground forces and that they come a means for effecting political, eco
and timely, MAAG-Vietnam publishes a can survive in a counter-insurgency environnomic, and social progress. The Govern
series of “Lessons Learned," which are the ment, that indeed the losses have been rement of Vietnam has recognized this deafter-action distillate from both the extol
markably low when measured against sorties velopment and considers that the strategic lable and deplorable experiences of actual and hours flown or missions successfully hamlet is primarily the point of impact of
combat. In the main they reiterate and re accomplished. a political and social revolution which will
emphasize the timetested fundamentals serve as a foundation for economic progress.
Perhaps the most interesting test contaught in current U.S. military doctrine at ducted to date has been that of the armed Field operations are directed variously at
our service schools. With content particu- helicopter, along the lines of the film just securing sites for strategic hamlets, destroy- larly derived from counterinsurgency experi
larly derived from counterinsurgency experi- shown. ComUSmac has on numerous OCing the vc logistic structure, killing or capence in Republic of Vietnam are lessons
casions paid tribute to the outstanding acturing VC's, or gaining or regaining control
learned about U.S. ny helicopter opera complishments of Army and Marine heliof Government of Vietnam territory. They tions, M-113 operations, Vietcong ambushes, copter units, both armed and transport, in are of three basic types:
organization and employment of artillery, support of the counterinsurgency. (1) Clear and hold operations, executed
province rehabilitation operations, psy war The testing of the Mohawk in target acin direct support of the strategic hamlet pro
and civic action, the limitations of para quisition continues in the southern part of gram, with the mission to clear an area of,
military forces such as the CG, SDC, and Vietnam, following the completion of initial and deny it to, the VC during the construc
hamlet militia, and guidelines to U.S. ad tests in a surveillance role in the north. The tion phase of a strategic hamlet. visers with Allied forces.
tests have demonstrated that a limited num(2) Fix and destroy operations, based on MAAG-Vietnam also has published and ber of Mohawk aircraft, decentralized and specific intelligence, with the mission to keeps current a manual on the “Tactics and
placed under the control of the division, are contact and destroy VC forces or installa Techniques of Counter-Insurgency Opera compatible with ground operations and that tions; and tions,” which is excellent.
this aircraft is well suited for the accom(3) Search and clear operations, with the Under the Commander, U.S. Military As plishment of the full range of counterinmission to destroy or clear VC from an area sistance Command Vietnam (Comusmacv) surgency reconnaissance missions, excepting of suspected activity. In addition, recon there is a Joint Operations Evaluation Group, those requiring large area coverage. naissance, security, and search and rescue Vietnam (JOEG-V), whose director has two Caribou's, as used in RVN for tactical operations and ambushes are conducted. functions: first, to represent the U.S. Ad transport of troops and materiel, have proved
Psychological operations and civic action vanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in to be exceptionally versatile because of their each consist of two related programs. Psy the combined U.S.-RVN Combat Develop- capability to take off and land on short, unchological operations are aimed, first, at sup ment and Test Center-Vietnam (CDTC-V); improved runways without damaging them. porting the strategic hamlet program by ra and, second, to evaluate from the U.S. joint At present the Caribous in the Republic of tionalizing the need for rural citizens to viewpoint the results of tests conducted by Vietnam are assigned to the southeast Asia move to, or at least to organize into, a more CDTC-V and the two U.S. service test airlift system but so far some of them have secure locality and by providing them the agencies in RVN: the U.S. Army Concept invariably been further allocated to the diincentive toward self-development for politi Team in Vietnam (ACTIV) and the U.S. Air rect support of the U.S. senior corps adcal, social, and economic improvement. The Force Test Unit (AFTU). The more signifi visers. These Caribous are proving to be other aspect of psychological operations is cant of their tests of equipment and tactics effective in both the forward area transport directed at the softer strata of the VC, to are the following:
and centralized airlift roles. whom radio and loudspeaker broadcasts and In May of this year test was completed of In the field of armored personnel carrier airdropped or artillery-fired leaflets are a version of the C-123 aircraft, modified to utilization, both M-113's and M-114's were aimed, primarily to induce them to avail shorten landings. This aircraft demon tested. M-113's are used in Republic of Vietthemselves of chieu hoi, the “open arms” strated improved capabilities to carry heavy nam both for their intended purposes or “welcome home” amnesty program. loads into short fields.
and in the role of tanks, which is feasible beCivic action is aimed at improving the Another test project completed by the Air cause the Vietcong lack armor and antitank socio-economic welfare, political integration, Force, in which the Army was interested, was weapons. However, numerous modifications
personal security of the citizenry that of the U-10B helio-courier plane. Its have had to be made to transform the M-113 through Federal support, education, and self report recommended that further test and into a more suitable counterinsurgency fighthelp. Its two basic programs are civic action evaluation be conducted to select an aircraft
ing vehicle. To protect machine guns proper and medical civic action. Civic ac better suited to perform the counter mounted on it, the M-113 has been modified tion proper advises, trains, and assists ham insurgency mission.
with a gun shield and cupola. The M-113 let inhabitants in setting up local govern The AR-15 Armalite rifie is still being has performed well, particularly in the flat ment and trains both the hamlet adminis tested in the Republic of Vietnam. Pros rice paddies of the Mekong Delta, where its trators and citizenry in building and estab pects for its wider use are favorable.
cross-country mobility was hampered only lishing physical facilities such as market Motor convoys in RVN are frequently sub- by the many canals. To overcome this places, schools, dispensaries, information jected to costly ambushes, in some of which obstacle, several techniques have been decenters, chapels, pagodas, and water supply U.S. advisors have been killed. These am veloped, among them brush fill, block and points and in formulating and administrat bushes are extremely short in duration and tackle, capstan and anchor, aluminum balk
bridging, and push bars. On the other hand, being developed. The CIDG forces were be construction and organization up to more the M-114, although present in Republic of ing trained. Modern battle equipment was recently established standards. Vietnam, has not been employed near in country. The strategic hamlet program Most significantly of all, the Government ly so extensively as the M-113. As a first had been formalized and was beginning to be of Vietnam gained in the year between July generation vehicle, several changes will be put on a planned basis with programed sup 1962 and July 1963 some 6 percent in effective required before it will achieve full opera- port. It all asked to be used in a concerted control of the rural population whereas the tional compatibility with the M-113, a third effort to beat the VC.
Vietcong during the same period lost 10 pergeneration vehicle. The national campaign plan was con
(The apparent discrepancy of 4 perAmong the most productive of ACTIV's ceived to concert that effort. All ministries cent is a gain in the neutral or undecided evaluations has been the test of U.S. Army of the Government of Vietnam, branches of category, wherein the population have engineer teams, called engineer control and the Republic of Vietnam NAF, and allied switched at least from being Vietcongadvisory detachments (ECAD's), which have supporting agencies were cooperatively and oriented to being neutral, in effect a further been introduced to provide engineering as- coordinately to intensify their actions to gain for the Government of Vietnam.) sistance and direction for small construction help defeat the Vietcong. Significant prog The Government of Vietnam gain in area projects of benefit to the rural population. ress can now be reported.
control is less spectacular, only 1 percent in Materials for the ECAD's projects were sup The intensity of operations measured in
the past year; in fact, in a sense, it is overplied by ACTIV, USOM, and the local gov- terms of the percentage of available forces shadowed by a Vietcong statistical gain of 5 ernment at minimal cost and labor was pro on the average engaged in daily combat, percent in the neutral or previously unconvided by local civilians. During the 120-day has been rising steadily, to the point where trolled areas. In simple terms, this signifies period of the test, 2 ECAD's supervised the it is now about 242 times what it was a that the Government of Vietnam has gained construction of 96 projects ranging from year ago.
in the populated areas—that is, has won simple pigsties to a 200-foot bridge. It has In the last months Republic of Vietnam
people—whereas the Vietcong have extended been concluded from their activities, as well AF operations of battalion or larger size their control over relatively uninhabited as from the activities of the parallel U.S. have at times doubled in number over what areas—that is, has gained control of empty Navy Seabee training advisory teams they had been when the NCP was initiated territory. (STATS), that small, well-trained engineer- and small-unit actions have increased by 50
The security of road movement is a cogent ing teams can successfully implement civic percent. On the other hand, Vietcong index to gains by the Government of Vietaction aspects of counter-insurgency opera- initiated actions have remained essentially
nam. Many roads which a year ago were tions. unchanged in numbers. Republic of Viet
death traps by ambush are now traveled regIn the area of communications and elec- nam-initiated operations outnumber Viet
ularly by unescorted or lightly escorted Retronics, ACTIV has been engaged in confirm- cong-initiated incidents about 10 to 1. public of Vietnam AF military convoys. ing the suitability of current communica Secret bases of the Vietcong which had
The railroad, too, is now more fully used. tions doctrine and developing new concepts, not been entered by other than the Vietcong
Whereas until September 1962 all night techniques, and hardware for use in coun in 14 years have since been reconnoitered,
traffic had been suspended for fear of attack ter-insurgency operations, such as a new invaded, and fought through with signal
from ambush, trains now run 24 hours every heliborne command post utilizing the UH- success.
day. 1B helicopter equipped with additional ra Vietcong casualties have been considerably
There are economic indicators also of dio equipment, a heliborne public address higher than those of the Republic of Vietnam
Government of Vietnam gain in the past set for psychological operations, a new navNAF, with an overall favorable ratio of about
year; rice is again available for export and igation system for Army helicopters, and the 4 to 1 for killed in action and 3 to 2 overall.
Losses of weapons have averaged close to
its price is stable. introduction of high frequency single-sideband radios into Army aircraft. even on both sides. While, admittedly, the
Finally, despite some recent distractions
caused by the Buddhist and student demonNow, a note about U.S. Army helicopter weapons being lost to the Vietcong are better
strations and the rumors of coups, the attimaintenance, which plagued ali Army per- quality than the crude home-made ones be
tude of the Government of Vietnam and of sonnel for the first 6 months after the in- ing captured from them, the loss of any troduction of the CH-21's into the Republic weapon by the Vietcong is more nearly dis
its public servants is definitely in the vein
to solve, in this order of priority, its domiof Vietnam. The maintenance problems astrous to them than is the loss of even a which have arisen have been concerned es fine weapon to the Republic of Vietnam NAF
nant problems of communism, disunity, and
underdevelopment. sentially with defective rotor blades, engines, because of the great disparity in supporting
There have, of course, been costs for this and control cables in the CH-21's and, more logistic systems. recently, with drag-struts and magneto as
Whereas the volume of Vietcong anti
progress, some of them serious. Whereas sembly arms in the CV-2B's and main aircraft fire seems to be increasing and the
strategic hamlets are being built at an avermast bearings in the UH-1B's. These prob- quality of VC antiaircraft weapons may be
age cost of only about $5 per person accomlems have all been solved so that, whereas a improving, it is still limited principally to
modated, there are more than 1,000 Vietna
mese casualties monthly; and U.S. casualties year ago the CH-21's were operating at about 30 caliber rifles and only a few machine50 percent average availability for about 25 guns.
in personnel and aircraft have not been inhours average flying each per month, the
The Vietcong are limited logistically for
significant: present averages for all U.S. Army aircraft in food and medicines in the highlands and
For the 21 months between January 1, 1962, the Republic of Vietnam are 70 percent and for weapons everywhere; and they are grad
and October 15, 1963, there were 63 U.S. 50 hours, with twice the original numbers of ually losing the support of the people as killed, 348 U.S. wounded, and 5 U.S. missing; aircraft now on hand.
sources of funds, intelligence, and recruits. and for the 9 months between January 1963 About a year ago it was discerned that all
Defectors from the Vietcong are surrender
and October 1963, while many U.S. aircraft programs necessary to the winning of the ing themselves at a rate twice what it was a
were shot down or crashed, not all were lost. counter-insurgency would by spring 1963 be
year ago. On the other hand, the rate of Finally, what of the prospect for ultimate either completed or in process definitely to- Republic of Vietnam AF desertions has victory? In January 1963, Admiral Felt, ward satisfactory completion. The MAAG steadily decreased. Moreover, villagers are CINCPAC, predicted here in Washington that advisory detachments had in the preceeding now more readily disclosing information of the counterinsurgency in RVN would be won year expanded manifold, had extended down the Vietcong to the Republic of Vietnam AF “within 3 years.” General Harkins is on recto battalion level, and were being effective in and the provincial administrators.
ord as saying he considers that a "realistic advising, persuading, and assisting the
The Chieu Hoi program is swelling with target date” but “believes we can do even RVNAF toward victory. The combat intel
returnees who wish to foreswear and repent better.” More recently, Secretary McNamara ligence network was complete and tied totheir misadventures into communism.
and General Taylor reported to President gether with adequate communications. While infiltration of Vietcong personnel Kennedy “their judgment that the major Additional U.S. aviation units and MAP-pro
and material is known to take place, the part of the U.S. military task (in the revided armored personnel carriers had en
exact volume and trend are still imponder public of Vietnam) can be completed by the hanced the mobility of the RVNAF. Adequate ables. Nevertheless, large groups and quan
end of 1965.” General Don, Acting Chief sealift and airlift systems would soon be tities are not involved, the infiltration of
of the Joint General Staff of the Vietnamese established and operating on a combined cadres is dropping significantly, and smug
Armed Forces, declared just 2 weeks ago that basis for the movements support of opera- gling is the biggest problem.
victory will be achieved in the war against tions. The formal training of the RVNAF The strategic hamlet program has pro
the Vietcong in 1964. These stand as the was well underway, oriented on such sub- gressed from 40 percent of hamlets com
authoritative predictions. jects as security, shooting, small unit tactics, pleted and 45 percent of population included
The remaining battles will be fought most and lessons learned from recent operations. as of January 1, 1963, to a present position
savagely in the delta, the traditional strongThe program to resettle the Montagnards and of about 75 percent completion both as to hold of the Vietcong, where they are most train them into hamlet militia, strike forces, construction and population included, with
numerous and deeply entrenched, where stratrail watchers, and scout detachments were another about 15 percent currently under
tegic hamlets are the most difficult to build in full swing. U.S. Special Forces detach- construction. Although the program will
and the program for building them got off to ments had been introduced in significant soon be completed, much still remains to be a late and sporadic start, and where counternumbers and Vietnamese Special Forces were done to bring some of the earlier hamlet insurgency operations are the most strenuous
and the death throes of the Vietcong will be Senate, I move, in accordance with the
CONFIRMATION most violent. It is there that the toughest order previously entered, that the Senate fighting and the fiercest Vietcong reactions stand in recess until 12 o'clock noon to- the Senate November 6 (legislative day
Executive nomination confirmed by are still in prospect before final victory will be
of October 22), 1963:
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Douglas Henderson, of Massachusetts, a took a recess, under the order previously Foreign Service officer of class 2, to be AmbasMr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, if there entered, until tomorrow, Thursday, No- sador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of be no further business to come before the vember 7, 1963, at 12 o'clock meridian. the United States of America to Bolivia.
EXTENSIONS OF REMARKS
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Continues Rec- organization on recent additions and im
B. & O. DESERVES OUR APPLAUSE provements. I likewise pointed out the We join with all progressive West Virord of Progress and Service in West immeasurable benefit which has come to ginians in congratulating the Baltimore & Virginia—Morgantown (W. Va.) – West Virginia as a direct result of the Ohio Railroad for its great main line imDominion-News Commends Recent Im- enterprise and dependability of the provement between Clarksburg and ParkersB. & O.
burg. provements in Main Line Between
The prosperity—or lack of it-of this imI request that this correspondence be
portant railroad is of vital concern to every Clarksburg and Parkersburg—Presi- printed in the RECORD.
West Virginian because the B. & O. is a dent Jervis Langdon, and Many West respected editor and publisher of the ress all of us have a real stake.
Mr. President, the experienced and major taxpayer and in its continued progVirginians Have Made Notable Contri- Morgantown (W. Va.) Dominion-News, This main line improvement makes it butions to Transportation
Walter L. Hart, commented meaning- possible to haul all major freight items fully on the contributions of the Balti
on the most direct route to the great South
west through the St. Louis gateway. This more & Ohio Railroad to the develop- is expected to greatly increase the revenues EXTENSION OF REMARKS
ment in our State. In his October 31 edi- of the railroad.
torial, "B. & O. Deserves Our Applause, Adding this to the forward look the railHON. JENNINGS RANDOLPH Editor Hart stresses the importance of road has adopted in pioneering on unit coal
the new main line improvements. Fur- freight trains and other projects designed to OF WEST VIRGINIA ther, he states that
make the railroad a better facility for its IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES
customers and therefore a more profitable We in West Virginia salute the railroad Wednesday, November 6, 1963
enterprise certainly is most desirable from and hope, under its new management, it
all standpoints. Mr. RANDOLPH. Mr. President, in continues to make progressive moves de
We in West Virginia salute the railroad 1838 the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad be- signed to increase its service to the shippers
and hope under its new management it congan construction of the first railroad valuable to all the areas it serves, including increase its service to the shippers of the of the world and in doing so become more
tinues to make progressive moves designed to tracks in West Virginia, building west- our own State of West Virginia.
world and in doing so become more valuable ward from Harpers Ferry. In the century and a quarter which has elapsed
I request that Mr. Hart's editorial be to all the areas it serves including our own
State of West Virginia. since then, the development of the rail- printed in the RECORD. road has provided significant contribu
There being no objection, the material tions to the economy of West Virginia, was ordered to be printed in the RECORD,
as follows: and to the well-being of its citizens. Among the responsible individuals who Mr. JERVIS LANGDON, Jr.,
OCTOBER 29, 1963.
The Vast Amount of Money Gambled have been instrumental in the B. & O.'s President, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co.,
Every Year in the 24 States That Have success in the Mountain State were Parkersburg, W. Va.:
EXTENSION OF REMARKS of operations for many years. Another diner today. Your company has contributed
of our State. It is especially appropriate
OF NEW YORK general counsel of the line.
is the new B. & O. as it meets its responsibil IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES It is noteworthy that Charles R. Van ities for improved transportation vital to the Horn, the son of Mr. Van Horn, is now
Wednesday, November 6, 1963 movement of coal and other traffic across our Washington representative for Govern. State and throughout an important part of Mr. FINO. Mr. Speaker, for the past ment affairs of the Baltimore & Ohio the country. Congratulations and please several months, I have brought to the Railroad. convey my greetings to all in attendance.
attention of the Members of this conAnd, the concern for progress and
gress the vast amounts of money gamservice which was so evident in frontier
bled, legally and illegally, every year in days has not diminished with the years, THE BALTIMORE & OHIO RAILROAD Co.,
each of the 24 States that have paribut continues to expand and to bring
Baltimore, Md., October 30, 1963. mutuel betting. forth achievement and benefit. A nota Hon. JENNINGS RANDOLPH,
I have discussed in a series of 24 stateble example of growth is the recent com Senate Office Building,
ments inserted in the CONGRESSIONAL pletion of important main line improve Washington, D.C.
RECORD, the panorama of gambling and ments in the B. & O. system between
DEAR SENATOR: Thank you very much for crime in these States and how we have, Clarksburg and Parkersburg, W. Va. your thoughtfulness in sending the tele
because of our stubborn refusal to open gram to me at Parkersburg yesterday. It This improved line will provide a direct arrived at the end of a luncheon we held
our eyes to the bold print of commonroute for major freight shipments to the on the special train which had come over
sense, turned this Nation into a gamSouthwest, through the St. Louis gate- from Clarksburg during the morning. blers' paradise. way, and correspondingly improved sery The project, I am sure, will be a great We have, Mr. Speaker, thanks to the ice to the businessmen and citizens of the success and I look forward to a substantial hypocrites and the bluenose moralists, Mountain State.
increase in B. & O. traffic not only through helped the underworld crime syndicates It has recently been my privilege to stations in that great state.
northern West Virginia but to and from our to fatten themselves from untapped correspond with the president of the
gambling revenues and allowed them to Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mr. Jervis
JERVIS LANGDON, Jr.,
expand their illicit activities into a naLangdon, Jr., congratulating his efficient
President. tionwide web of dirt. We have permitted
gambling in the United States to grow like attitude is beyond human compre- lion which brought into State treasuries into a gigantic tax-free $100 billion a hension.
legally, over $288 million. According to year monopoly which has supported and Only a Government-run lottery can the testimony before the McClellan comwill continue to support, unchained and legally satisfy the American thirst to mittee, 1692 times as much money is uncontrolled, every filthy ramification of gamble-only a Government-operated wagered off the racetracks on horses as underworld activity.
lottery can shut off this tremendous flow is bet on the tracks. The total national We have, by permitting this tax-free of billions of dollars to the underworld offtrack betting turnover allocated to business to fall into the hands of the mob—only Government regulation and these 24 States is estimated at over $2812 crime syndicates, heavily subsidized the control of gambling through a national billion. This, according to the McClellan forces of organized crime which, in turn, lottery can cut into these billions of dol- hearings, represents only 42 percent of has corrupted the processes of law en lars now siphoned off by the crime the total illegal gambling in these States. forcement and government. syndicates.
It can be estimated therefore, that the We have paid and will continue to pay The time has come, Mr. Speaker, to ex total illegal gambling in all 24 States apa steep price for the foolishness and change our rose-colored glasses of wish- proaches about $60 billion. Out of these blindness of those who refuse to recog ful thinking for the more accurate lenses funds, almost $6 billion–10 percent of nize and control the natural human urge of financial and social reality. Just as the total turnover-goes right into the to gamble. We have made America the repeal of prohibition brought an end filthy pockets of the gambling crime synplayground of crime syndicate opera to the bootleg era and tremendous new dicates. tions.
revenues to our Treasury, so would the How much longer are we going to conMr. Speaker, it is very difficult for our end of hypocrisy in our treatment of tinue to subsidize the forces of organized hard-pressed taxpayers to understand gambling strike a lethal blow at orga crime? How much longer are we going our Government's sanctimonious atti- nized gambling and pump a substantial to keep the crime syndicates fat and tude about gambling when we know that part of these moneys into our Govern- happy? How much longer are we going gambling is a $100 billion a year indus ment coffers.
to continue to make America the gamtry which is the chief source of revenue In 1962 24 States, listed below, enjoyed blers' paradise? What are we waiting to the underworld. Our entire ostrich a total parimutuel turnover of $3.7 bil- for?
Hawaii Sugar Workers Still Best Paid Hawaii's sugar crop is a 2-year crop
mass revolt throughout the while others are 1-year crops but, even country, and, judged by their initial sucEXTENSION OF REMARKS
if cut in half, Hawaii's yields outstrip all cess, they seemed on their way of reothers, the statistics showed.
gaining their freedom. The Soviet OF
The average daily earnings including garrisons in the country, even where HON. SPARK M. MATSUNAGA both cash wages and fringe benefits, they were of considerable size, surrenOF HAWAII
based on an 8-hour day were as fol- dered to the rising forces of revolt, and IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES lows:
new democratic leaders at once overWednesday, November 6, 1963
Hawaii, $21.89; Florida, $11; the sugar- threw the Communist government in
beet areas, $10.80; Louisiana$8.19, and Budapest. For more than a week freeMr. MATSUNAGA. Mr. Speaker, dur- Puerto Rico, $6.32.
dom reigned in many parts of the ing the debate on the floor last Thurs We in Hawaii are proud of the fact country. day, in speaking against the extension that while our sugar workers are the
In this hasty turn of events favoring of Public Law 78, the Mexican Bracero highest paid in the world, we are still freedom and independence, Hungarians Importation Act, I mentioned the high capable of maintaining a competitive po- expected quick and effective aid from the wages which sugar workers in Hawaiisition in the sugar market.
West. If this were not forthcoming, receive. According to comparative fig
they feared that their own efforts would ures for 1962 recently released by the
be doomed to failure against any serious U.S. Department of Agriculture, Hawaii's
Soviet effort to take over Hungary once sugar workers are still the highest paid Hungarian Revolt in 1956 (Seventh more. This is exactly what happened. sugar workers in the world. Workers in
Most unfortunately, Hungary did not Florida, the next highest paid, receive
get the expected Western aid; Soviet only half as much.
forces were regrouped, and within a week Hawaii's field hands last year received
EXTENSION OF REMARKS
most of the country was in the firm grip an average of $21.89 a day, including
of the Red Army. By November 3, Com$16.02 in cash wages and $5.87 fringe
HON. HUGH L. CAREY munists were back in power in Budapest, benefits.
and then they began their horrors of opCash wages in other domestic sugar
OF NEW YORK
pression, persecution, and terror. areas ranged from $4.80 per day in Puerto IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thousands upon thousands of innocent Rico to $9.48 per day in Florida, where
Wednesday, November 6, 1963 and helpless people were victims of the workers also receive a maximum of $1.52
biggest postwar terror perpetrated by the per day in fringe benefits.
Mr. CAREY. Mr. Speaker, in late OC- Kremlin. Once again the Hungarians Hawaii also led in sugar yield per acre, tober of 1956, the Hungarian people tried
were subdued and cruelly held down, and getting more than three times as much to shake off the inflexible Soviet tyranny
to shake off the inflexible Soviet tyranny all freedom seemed vanished from Hunsugar per acre of cane as Florida, the imposed upon them by the Kremlin.
imposed upon them by the Kremlin. gary. They paid heavily for their couranext most productive.
They rebelled against their oppressors, geous and righteous deed of late October