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One must recognize that there are further advanced if, beginning in Janu Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, concertain distinguishing features between ary, we had gone in at 8 a.m. every day, forming to the suggestion of the mathose several programs, but likewise including Saturdays. It would more jority leader, I shall say very little about there is also considerable overlapping. likely be less advanced because under the the incoherencies that I have found, this A well-coordinated vocational education rules of this body the committees might morning, set forth in the CONGRESSIONAL program had developed, beginning with well have been estopped from meeting RECORD. the Smith-Hughes Act, in 1917, and while the Senate was in session.
The brave crusader from the Nutmeg through the George-Barden Acts of The Senate Calendar, which repre State on his white charger has great zeal 1946 and 1956. More recently, there has sents the bills reaching the Senate floor for being here and getting on with the been a tendency to consider problems to and not disposed of, has not during this business, and he is not here. If he does be too critical to wait for adaptation of entire session contained more than a bill not know that the Senate is in session, existing programs. Special vocational or two of great significance at all times. he ought to know it. So I will be preeducation programs have been initiated. As the bills have reached the calendar, pared to suggest the absence of a quorum The table I have put in the RECORD, al it has been the policy of this leadership and see if he can find his way to the Senthough possibly not all-inclusive, does to stay with them until they are cleared; ate Chamber where the business is done. point to programs designed for 11 differ- and in this respect we have received the I shall withhold my suggestion of the ent purposes, provided under 6 major leg wholehearted cooperation of the Senate absence of a quorum long enough islative acts, administered variously by as a whole.
Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, will
the Senator yield? the Department of Labor, the Depart The work completed on the Senate ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, floor has been substantial during this
Mr. DIRKSEN. I yield. or the two in combination, and involving session.
Mr. MANSFIELD. The Senator to authorizations in excess of $650 million
whom the minority leader has referred
Those who complain of the total legisannually.
lative output would do well to look else- has been most assiduous in his attendOur concern now, Mr. President, where than the Senate floor. On the
ance. He has been present as much as should be that these programs are co Senate floor, the leadership—majority
any other Senator, to the best of my ordinated in their programing and ad- and minority–has a primary responsi
knowledge. The RECORD ought to make
that very clear. ministration, so as to assure not only the bility which it must discharge without most economic use of available funds, any greater authority under the rules
Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, what
I said still goes. but also the effective counseling and than that authority enjoyed by any other
Mr. "MORSE and Mr. JAVITS adproper training of the personnel whom single Member of this body.
dressed the Chair. they are designed to aid.
Allegations have been made that the We need to consider, for example, leadership is “dull and dreary."
Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I beI must
lieve I have the floor. whether these programs are designed to admit to the accuracy of that charge meet the needs of the unemployed gen- insofar as it involves the majority leader
Mr. MORSE. I am sorry. I beg the
Senator's pardon. erally, and are not limited to specific alone. Glamour is not the hallmark of cases and causes of causes of unemployment. the Senator from Montana. But I must
Mr. DIRKSEN. I shall relinquish the There are jobs begging for people with say that the Senator from Montana in
floor, since the Senate is in the morning
hour, but I will reserve the right to make special skills; and the source of the
20 years or more of experience in the trainee is not as important as the em- Congress has operated on the principle
a point of no quorum. I yield the floor.
Mr. MORSE and Mr. JAVITS adphasis and quality of the program which that it is not the headlines, but the re
dressed the Chair. attempts to prepare him to fill a posi- sults, which count. And the results of tion.
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The two sessions of the 87th Congress and the We need to be concerned with mean- Senate's output to date in the 1st session
Senator from Oregon is recognized. ingful coordination between these sev
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I rise to of the 88th Congress require no apologies eral programs, at both the Federal level whatsoever.
speak in defense of the majority leader's
record in the Senate. and State levels, and between these pro I believe I speak with some experience
I believe that the RECORD is clear that grams and the U.S. Unemployment Serv- when I say that the hours on the floor ice. Some, but not all, vocational edu- have been perhaps long and tedious, but
on substantive issues from time to time cation programs are keyed to area and not unproductive. No Member who has
the majority leader and I may be in regional manpower needs, as determined been here consistently to attend to his
opposition as to our position on the merby USES. Is not this a factor which all primary legislative responsibility needs
its of controversial proposed legislation.
But there is nothing to which anyone programs should take into considera- to apologize for the time he has put in tion? Furthermore, is the best use made this session—and without time-and-a
can point that shows that the majority of USES, so that a responsible effort is half for overtime. A Roman circus may
leader and the Senator from Oregon are made to locate and utilize personnel with make good newspaper copy, but it does
in any conflict whatsoever with regard
to the operation of the Senate under the newly acquired knowledge and skills?
not necessarily make for greater or better It might be well to survey the admin- legislative output. So long as the Sena
able leadership of the Senator from istration of the several programs, to de- tor from Montana has anything to say
Montana. I wish the RECORD to show
that the Senator has extended to the termine whether top-level policy plan- about it, the operations on the Senate
senior Senator from Oregon unfailing ning and administrative organization re
floor will be those of a body of mature flect the increasing national concern for
courtesy, unfailing cooperation, and unmen and women charged with a serious the direction of vocational education and national purpose.
failing good will at all times.
Mr. President, I wish to speak for a rising governmental costs. I am not con
We will work on the floor when there moment about some of the accomplishvinced that a single administration is the is work to be done—when the calendar answer to all organizational problems; tells us there is work to be done. But we
ments of the present session of the Sen
ate about which the Senator from Monbut attention to a reoriented, universal- will not arrange sideshow sessions of the tana is too modest to talk. We have ly available vocational education pro
Senate for the edification of the press or made a good legislative record as far as gram may be justified at this time.
in order that this body may give the ap Senate business is concerned in connecThe many programs should certainly pearance of being busy, for the purpose tion with proposed legislation that has be reviewed in the light of these and oth
of impressing the boss, the American er questions which can legitimately be
reached the calendar. For unanswerraised, before further expansions are appeople.
able proof of the comment I have made, proved or before any new programs are
Mr. President, may I say that if I had all one would have to do would be to take authorized.
had my way—and I do not speak defen a look in the Senate Calendar as of this sively—the Senate would have remained morning. Yesterday, I had printed in in session longer last week and this week the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD the calendar
than it did; and as long as there are of the Senate. As of yesterday the calCONGRESSIONAL ACCOMPLISH
amendments to be offered and amend endar contained a listing of 14 bills. Not MENTS
ments to be voted on, the Senate can and a single one of those bills could be conMr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, should be prepared to remain in session sidered a major bill which would call for the work of this Congress would be no until late hours in the evening.
long, major discussion in the Senate
other than the foreign aid bill, which we kind of leadership that the Senate should endeavor to call up the committee bill. were then dealing with and still are deal welcome. It is a leadership that involves If the bill is reported, as propriety would ing with.
respect for the wishes of individual Sen- require, it seems to me, it would thereIn fact, aside from the foreign aid ators, and recognizes that their function fore appear on the calendar. Without bill, I do not believe that there is a bill in the Senate should be left to their its being on the calendar we are deprived on the Senate Calendar that would call consciences. That has been the policy of an opportunity to call it up. The for consideration in the Senate for more of our distinguished majority leader. I calendar may appear clear, but the fact than 2 or 3 hours at the most. We am heartily in favor of the type of leader, is that there is a critically important bill could clear up the entire Senate Calen ship that he has shown.
in the wings which the Senate should dar in a couple of days of sessions if we I wish to say an equally kind word for have the right to decide whether it went down the calendar. That speaks the minority leader, the Senator from wishes to take up or not. The Senate more than I believe anything that can Illinois (Mr. DIRKSEN], who I think has may not agree with the majority leader. be said about the leadership of the at all times shown his cooperation while Knowing him as I do, he would be the Senator from Montana in handling the maintaining his position of opposition to first to say that the democratic processes business of the Senate. measures he does not approve. His dis
which the Senate rules afford should at What that means—and he did not sent, when his party policies cause him
least be followed through. specify it, but I think it was clearly to dissent, is always performed effec Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, will implied in the remarks of the majority tively, goodnaturedly, and constructive the Senator yield? leader-is that we should not look to ly, and often with refreshing humor. Mr. JAVITS. I yield. the floor of the Senate to find out what
Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I should Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, if is wrong-if anything is wrong in re like to address a question to the ma
the Senator from New York wishes to gard to the legislative record of the jority leader based upon his statement take over the leadership of this body, he present session of Congress. I suggest that the calendar is clear. About 3 is welcome to do so, but as long as I hapthat we look to the committees, where weeks ago we all understood that the pen to be the leader on this side, I have there are some major pieces of proposed Committee on Commerce had reported announced what the procedure will be, legislation that have not yet been re the so-called public accommodations and it will be that as long as I am leader. ported from committee.
section. All of that intervening time Mr. JAVITS. With all respect to the The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The has gone by. It seems to me that an Senator, I say to him that the Senator time of the Senator has expired.
opportunity should be afforded to test from New York does not wish to, and Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask out the time when the Senate should go could not if he wished tounanimous consent that I may have 2 into the civil rights debate, which op The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. additional minutes.
portunity could be afforded if that report KENNEDY in the chair). The time of The PRESIDENT pro tempore. With were filed.
the Senator has expired. out objection, it is so ordered.
I should like to join my colleagues Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I ask Mr. MORSE. Those major pieces of in saying to the majority leader and the unanimous consent that I may have an proposed legislation have not yet reached minority leader that I do not believe additional minute. the floor of the Senate. I do not there is any question about their good The PRESIDING OFFICER. Withcriticize the committees. I merely say faith or their dedication to the tasks at
out objection, it is so ordered. that that is where much of the major hand in their endeavor to accomplish Mr. JAVITS. The Senator from New proposed legislation still is. That is not the business of the Senate, but I have a York has no desire to take over the leadthe fault of the majority leader. It is very strong difference with the majority ership. I believe that is a completely not the fault of the committees, so far leader as to when debate on the civil
different question from the question of as I am concerned. I do not know what rights issue shall begin.
an opportunity to test out this very serithe facts are about the proposed legis The question I am addressing to the
ous question. I hope that we shall see lation, but I know something about what Senator from Montana is not invidious. the bill to which I have referred placed we have done, because I have worked I am puzzled by the long delay which on the calendar. I understand that it is long and hard hours on some of the has taken place. After all, the Senator fully ready for the calendar. I am very things that we have done. I know what does not bear that responsibility unless much puzzled by the fact that the report the Senate has done in connection with he knows the facts. If he does not, I has not yet been filed. the proposed legislation related to edu shall address myself to the chairman of
Mr. MANSFIELD. I am not interested cation.
the committee. But, as was said, the in a headline or an issue. I am interWe have taken through the Senate, calendar is clear. I raised the question
ested in results. And if we want rewith the able assistance of the majority because there is a major domestic issue sults-if it is at all possible to get leader, a higher education bill and a bill before us. Three weeks ago we under results the Senate will wait for the on vocational education that represent stood that the Committee on Commerce whole bill, and not merely a part of it. weeks of work of the Senate Committee had ordered reported a bill. In all the
If we want a sideshow or a Roman holion Labor and Public Welfare and long intervening time the report has not been
day, we will take up one segment of the debate in the Senate. So today I rise
So today I rise made. I wonder what is holding it up, civil rights bill and then let everything in complete and total defense of what I if the majority leader happens to know. take its course. believe has been a remarkable job of Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, in Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, I fine leadership that the Senator from response to the question raised by the have not in past years been reluctant to Montana has given to his body at the distinguished Senator from New York, criticize the previous leadership of the present session of the Congress, as he may I say that even if the public accom Senate. I have done so, and I have done has given in the past. modations bill is reported from the Com
so vigorously. But I believe that the Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I be- mittee on Commerce, it is not my inten
present distinguished majority leader is lieve neither the majority leader nor the tion to call it up. I repeat again what absolutely right when he points to the minority leader needs any defense. Al. I have previously said.
I have previously said. When the Sen calendar and says that if we dispose of though I am a comparatively recent ate faces the civil rights bill, it will face the foreign aid bill we shall not have comer to the Senate, I heartily approve as whole a civil rights bill as is possible. other pending legislation before us on of the character of leadership given the If a fragment of the civil rights bill is which we could act for very long. I do Senate by our majority leader and the reported, we shall be here until dooms- not believe we can blame only the majorquality of cooperation, and occasionally day.
ity leader for holding up action in the effectively presented dissent, given by Again I wish to say that I will not Congress. I believe that the Senator the minority leader. I think it is unfor- engage in any kind of Roman holiday or from Oregon was correct when he said tunate that any doubt as to the ability of sideshow. When the Senate faces the he did not have the facts. I do not have the leadership of those two men should issue, it will face it as a whole.
the facts, either. None of us has the have been raised. I dissent from it com Mr. JAVITS. I should like to say to facts. We do have this single fact, howpletely. On the contrary, we have had a the Senator that if other Senators differ ever: this is November 7 and there fine example of leadership. It is the with him, they should have the right to are still a number of appropriation bills
to handle in addition to the civil rights we can take up each issue, one at a time, DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLICAbill and the tax bill. Although Con- debate it thoroughly, and then dispose TION, "FREEDOM FROM WAR" gress may adjourn on December 20, of it.
Mr. TOWER. Mr. President, it has much of the work of the Senate will not My judgment is that the average U.S. come to my attention that a publication be done this year. If we seek to do a Senator, whether he serves on the ap- of the Department of State, entitled complete job next year we are likely to propriate committees or not, is reason “Freedom From War,” has caused a good restrict our opportunity to go to the ably well acquainted with the merits deal of concern around the Nation. American people in the campaign and I and demerits of a major issue such as
This publication sets out what is resuspect not do a nearly adequate job in the mutual security program so that he ferred to as "The U.S. program for genthe Senate.
can make an intelligent judgment on eral and complete disarmament in a Mr. President, I suggest that, if there particular aspects of it as they arise.
peaceful world.” It is felt by many is no one to blame here, we certainly Under those circumstances, I was one
Americans that the disarmament proshould get the facts and find out why of those who fondly hoped, in the open
gram set forth in this publication would proposed legislation is taking so long to ing moments of this debate, that we lead to: First, elimination of U.S. Armed reach the Senate. I believe that, under could proceed to agree to a unanimous
Forces, bases, and weapons; second, these circumstances, we always indulge consent agreement.
transfer of weapons, including nuclear in a round of back slapping, and we say Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the
weapons to a United Nations force; and no one is to blame, that everyone is doing Senator yield?
third, world government under the Unita fine job.
Mr. KUCHEL. I am sorry-not at
ed Nations. I believe we have two wonderful the moment. But we have not been
I might note that two steps under this gentlemen as leaders, both Democratic able to do so. Thus, we have experienced disarmament proposal already have and Republican. The majority leader a situation which has become exacerhas been very courteous, friendly, and bated by the bitterness of feelings on the of the Moscow treaty proposing a partial
taken place. The first was ratification helpful to me on many occasions. But
But issue. The issue has been raised in debate nuclear test ban-although the treaty I believe all Senators should get the facts to the point that we could not have the does not provide inspection as the plan and find out what the situation is, and kind of orderly procedure which, as a intimated it would. The second step is then move not remain in session inter- young man, I thought was completely the United Nations' action calling for a minably and be unable to finish our pro- inherent in the conduct of the U.S. Sen
ban on placing weapons in space-algram competently. ate.
though here the action concurred in by Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, some The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
the United States was taken without the time, after most Senators have gone time of the Senator from California has
American Congress or people voting on home in the evening, a few of us remain expired. here and strange things occur. I must Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, I ask it, and again no inspection was provided. say, very frankly, that I regret some of unanimous consent that I may proceed ment under this State Department pro
Since it would appear that disarmathe comments which were made in the for 2 additional minutes. Chamber last night.
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without posal has indeed started, and since it ap
pears that disarmament can continue Let me try to be constructive for a objection, it is so ordered.
through United Nations action not voted moment. Mr. President, do Senators Mr. KUCHEL. Last night some of the know what is wrong with the Senate divergencies of view came forward. I am upon by the American voters, or their
elected Congressmen, I ask unanimous today? It is the archaic rules under a Republican, and I want my Republican
consent to have printed in the RECORD which we operate. First, we on this party to do what I believe it is doing;
the complete text of the publication to side of the aisle, as Republicans, clothe that is, to act constructively. I want my a very able American statesman, the party to object vigorously to those issues which I refer. I take this step because Senator from Illinois [Mr. DIRKSEN),
DIRKSEN), to which—in terms of its historic prin- I am informed that the Department of with the responsibility of being our
State no longer distributes this booklet ciples, its platform, and the commitminority leader.
to the public, and because I believe the ments which it has made to the AmeriYou, on that side of the aisle, as Demo
American public has a vital stake in the can people to keep their faith-it should
booklet's disarmament blueprint. crats, clothe a very able American states- object. Such an objection should be man, the senior Senator from Montana made, and has been made, regardless of
There being no objection, the booklet [Mr. MANSFIELD], with the responsibility the occupant of the White House. Ob
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, of being majority leader,
as follows: jections have been made by the leaderWhat is the situation? There still ship and membership on this side of the
FREEDOM FROM WAR—THE U.S. PROGRAM FOR remains a miserable, despicable rule of aisle to various proposals, both foreign
GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT IN A filibustering, under which one or two or
PEACEFUL WORLD and domestic which have emanated from three or four or more Senators can
INTRODUCTION the White House and this administrafrustrate the business of the U.S. Senate. tion. But, Mr. President, I do not want
The revolutionary development of modern It is because of the power that one or nor do Republicans generally want-our
weapons within a world divided by serious
ideological differences has produced a crisis two or three or four Senators can exer party to be a blindly disruptive, opposing
in human history. In order to overcome the cise that even if we could put Paul the political organization which opposes danger of nuclear war now confronting manApostle in the majority leader's seat merely for opposition's sake. That might
merely for opposition's sake. That might kind, the United States has introduced at the he could not conduct the business of be opposition but it is not responsible op 16th General Assembly of the United Nathe Nation in the Senate in the absence position. I want my party, the Repub tions a program for general and complete of general, perhaps unanimous, consent lican Party, to follow the leadership of
disarmament in a peaceful world. to go forward. We also lack, for a this or any other administration when
This new program provides for the progres
sive reduction of the warmaking capabilities limited time each day, a rule of germane- our party believes that leadership on a
of nations and the simultaneous strengthenness which would put each Senator on particular question represents the best
ing of international institutions to settle notice that the full attention of the Sen interest-the national interest, the pub
disputes and maintain the peace. It sets ate would be devoted to the pending lic interest-of all of the American peo forth a series of comprehensive measures business, whatever that might be. ple. That is what we have done in this which can and should be taken in order to
I recognize that in the situation such debate. That is why I salute today, as bring about a world in which there will be as we have been in last week, yesterday, I did last night, these two Americans,
freedom from war and security for all states. and now today in this Chamber, there one a Republican and one a Democrat
It is based on three principles deemed essen
tial to the achievement of practical progress are honest divergencies of view. We one on our side and one on the other
in the disarmament field: have on occasion similar divergencies side—who are uniquely equipped by exon this side of the aisle. perience to know what they are doing,
First, there must be immediate disarmament
action Under those circumstances, it is al- who arrived at a proposal that was so most impossible to maintain an orderly overwhelmingly—indeed, unanimously
A strenuous and uninterrupted effort must
be made toward the goal of general and comprocedure in the Senate unless every approved yesterday in the Senate so that plete disarmament; at the same time, it is Senator in attendance agrees to some for the first time in many days some important that specific measures be put into reasonable limitation of debate so that progress was made in this Chamber. effect as soon as possible.
Second, all disarmament obligations must international security and the peaceful set arbitration, for the development of interbe subject to effective international con tlement of disputes;
national law, and for the establishment in trols
Disarmament must proceed as rapidly as stage II of a permanent U.N. peace force. The control organization must have the possible, until it is completed, in stages con
An International Disarmament Organization manpower, facilities, and effectiveness to taining balanced, phased, and safeguarded
Would Be Established for Effective Verifiassure that limitations or reductions take measures;
cation of the Disarmament Program place as agreed. It must also be able to
Each measure and stage should be carried certify to all states that retained forces and out in an agreed period of time, with tran
Its functions would be expanded proarmaments do not exceed those permitted sition from one stage to the next to take
gressively as disarmament proceeds. at any stage of the disarmament process. place as soon as all measures in the preceding
It would certify to all States that agreed stage have been carried out and verified and
reductions have taken place and that reThird, adequate peacekeeping machinery as soon as necessary arrangements for verifi
tained forces and armaments do not exceed must be established cation of the next stage have been made;
permitted levels. There is an inseparable relationship be Inspection and verification must establish
It would determine the transition from tween the scaling down of national arma both that nations carry out scheduled limi
one stage to the next. ments on the one hand and the building up tations or reductions and that they do not States Would Be Committed to Other Measof international peacekeeping machinery and retain armed forces and armaments in excess ures To Reduce International Tension and institutions on the other. Nations are un of those permitted at any stage of the dis To Protect Against the Chance of War by likely to shed their means of self-protection armament process; and
Accident, Miscalculation, Surprise in the absence of alternative ways to safe Disarmament must take place in a manner Attack guard their legitimate interests. This can that will not affect adversely the security of States would be committed to refrain only be achieved through the progressive any state.
from the threat or use of any type of armed strengthening of international institutions
force contrary to the principles of the U.N. under the United Nations and by creating a The program provides for progressive dis Charter and to refrain from indirect agUnited Nations peace force to enforce the armament steps to take place in three stages gression and subversion against any counpeace as the disarmament process proceeds. and for the simultaneous strengthening of try. There follows a summary of the principal international institutions.
A U.N. peace observation group would be provisions of the U.S. program for general
available to investigate any situation which and complete disarmament in a peaceful
The first stage contains measures which
might constitute a threat to or breach of world. would significantly reduce the capabilities
the peace. SUMMARY— DISARMAMENT GOAL AND OBJECTIVES of nations to wage aggressive war. Imple
States would be committed to give advance The overall goal of the United States is a mentation of this stage would mean that:
notice of major military movements which free, secure, and peaceful world of indepen
might cause alarm; observation posts would
The Nuclear Threat Would Be Reduced dent states adhering to common standards
be established to report on concentrations of justice and international conduct and
All States would have adhered to a treaty and movements of military forces.
effectively prohibiting the testing of nuclear subjecting the use of force to the rule of
Second stage law; a world which has achieved general
weapons. and complete disarmament under effective The production of fissionable materials for
The second stage contains a series of international control; and a world in which use in weapons would be stopped and quan
measures which would bring within sight a tities of such materials from past produc
world in which there would be freedom from adjustment to change takes place in accordtion would be converted to nonweapons
war. Implementation of all measures in the ance with the principles of the United Na
second stage would mean:
substantial reductions in the relinquish control of such weapons to any
armed forces, armaments, and military esof that goal, the program sets forth the fol
nation not owning them and would not lowing specific objectives toward which na
tablishments of States, including strategic transmit to any such nation information or
nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and countions should direct their efforts:
tering weapons; The disbanding of all national armed
material necessary for their manufacture. forces and the prohibition of their reestab
States not owning nuclear weapons would
Further development of methods for the
peaceful settlement of disputes under the lishment in any form whatsoever other than not manufacture them or attempt to obtain
United Nations; those required to preserve internal order
control of such weapons belonging to other
Establishment of a permanent internaand for contributions to a United Nations
A commission of experts would be estab
tional peace force within the United Napeace force; The elimination from national arsenals of lished to report on the feasibility and means
tions; all armaments, including all weapons of mass for the verified reduction and eventual elim
Depending on the findings of an experts ination of nuclear weapons stockpiles.
commission, a halt in the production of destruction and the means for their delivery,
chemical, bacteriological, and radiological other than those required for a United Na Strategic Delivery Vehicles Would Be
weapons and a reduction of existing stocks tions peace force and for maintaining in
or their conversion to peaceful uses; ternal order;
Strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehi On the basis of the findings of an experts The institution of effective means for the
cles of specified categories and weapons de commission, a reduction of stocks of nuenforcement of international agreements, for
signed to counter such vehicles would be clear weapons; the settlement of disputes, and for the main
reduced to agreed levels by equitable and The dismantling or the conversion to tenance of peace in accordance with the prin balanced steps; their production would be peaceful uses of certain military bases and ciples of the United Nations;
discontinued or limited; their testing would facilities wherever located; and The establishment and effective operation be limited or halted.
The strengthening and enlargement of the of an international disarmament organization within the framework of the United
Arms and Armed Forces Would Be Reduced
International Disarmament Organization to Nations to insure compliance at all times
The Armed Forces of the United States
enable it to verify the steps taken in stage and the Soviet Union would be limited to
II and to determine the transition to stage with all disarmament obligations.
Third stage els not exceeding that amount for other The negotiating states are called upon to militarily significant States); levels of arma During the stage of the program, the States develop the program into a detailed plan for ments would be correspondingly reduced of the world, building on the experience and general and complete disarmament and to
and their production would be limited. confidence gained in successfully implementcontinue their efforts without interruption An experts commission would be estab
ing the measures of the first two stages, until the whole program has been achieved. lished to examine and report on the feasi
would take final steps toward the goal of a To this end, they are to seek the widest bility and means of accomplishing verifiable
world in which: possible area of agreement at the earliest
reduction and eventual elimination of all States would retain only those forces, nonpossible date. At the same time, and withchemical, biological, and radiological weap
nuclear armaments, and establishments reout prejudice to progress on the disarmament ons.
quired for the purpose of maintaining inprogram, they are to seek agreement on those
ternal order; they would also support and immediate measures that would contribute
Peaceful Use of Outer Space Would Be
provide agreed manpower for a U.N. peace
Promoted to the common security of nations and that
force. could facilitate and form part of the total
The placing in orbit or stationing in outer
The U.N. peace force, equipped with agreed program. space of weapons capable of producing mass
types and quantities of armaments, would GOVERNING PRINCIPLES distruction would be prohibited.
be fully functioning.
States would give advance notification of The program sets forth a series of general
The manufacture of armaments would be principles to guide the negotiating states in space vehicle and missile launchings.
prohibited except for those of agreed types their work. These make clear that:
U.N. Peacekeeping Powers Would Be and quantities to be used by the U.N. peace As states relinquish their arms, the United
force and those required to maintain interNations must be progressively strengthened Measures would be taken to develop and nal order. All other armaments would be in order to improve its capacity to assure strengthen United Nations arrangements for destroyed or converted to peaceful purposes.
The peacekeeping capabilities of the United security of any state, whether or not a party (b) The production of fissionable materials Nations would be sufficiently strong and the to an international agreement or treaty for use in weapons shall be stopped. obligations of all states under such arrange (d) As states relinquish their arms, the (C) Upon the cessation of production of ments sufficiently far reaching as to assure United Nations shall be progressively fissionable materials for use in weapons, peace and the just settlement of differences strengthened in order to improve its capac- agreed initial quantities of fissionable matein a disarmed world.
ity to assure international security and the rials from past production shall be transAPPENDIX-DECLARATION ON DISARMAMENT
peaceful settlement of differences as well as ferred to nonweapons purposes.
to facilitate the development of international (d) Any fissionable materials transferred The nations of the world,
cooperation in common tasks for the benefit between countries for peaceful uses of nuclear Conscious of the crisis in human history of mankind.
energy shall be subject to appropriate safeproduced by the revolutionary development
(e) Transition from one stage of disarma guards to be developed in agreement with the of modern weapons within a world divided
ment to the next shall take place as soon IAEA. by serious ideological differences;
as all the measures in the preceding stage (e) States owning nuclear weapons shall Determined to save present and succeed
have been carried out and effective verifica not relinquish control of such weapons to ing generations from the scourge of war and
tion is continuing as soon as the arrange any nation not owning them and shall not the dangers and burdens of the arms race ments that have been agreed to be necessary transmit to any such nation information or and to create conditions in which all peoples for the next stage have been instituted. material necessary for their manufacture. can strive freely and peacefully to fulfill their
Agree upon the following outline program States not owning nuclear weapons shall not basic aspirations;
for achieving general and complete disarma- manufacture such weapons, attempt to obDeclare their goal to be: A free, secure, ment:
tain control of such weapons belonging to and peaceful world of independent states ad
other states, or seek or receive information hering to common standards of justice and international conduct and subjecting the use
A. To Establish an International Disarma- or materials necessary for their manufacture. ment Organization
(f) A nuclear experts commission consistof force to the rule of law; a world where adjustment to change takes place in accord (a). An International Disarmament Orga. ing of representatives of the nuclear states ance with the principles of the United Nanization (IDO) shall be established within
shall be established within the IDO for the tions; a world where there shall be a perthe framework of the United Nations upon
purpose of examining and reporting on the manent state of general and complete disentry into force of the agreement. Its func
feasibility and means for accomplishing the armament under effective international con
verified reduction and eventual elimination tions shall be expanded progressively as re
of nuclear weapons stockpiles. trol and where the resources of nations shall
quired for the effective verification of the be devoted to man's material, cultural, and disarmament program.
D. To Reduce Strategic Nuclear Weapons spiritual advance; (b) The IDO shall have: (1) a general con
Delivery Vehicles Set forth as the objectives of a program
ference of all the parties; (2) a commission (a) Strategic nuclear weapons delivery of general and complete disarmament in a consisting of representatives of all the major vehicles in specified categories and agreed peaceful world:
powers as permanent members and certain types of weapons designed to counter such (a) The disbanding of all national armed other states on a rotating basis; and (3) an vehicles shall be reduced to agreed levels by forces and the prohibition of their reestab
Administrator who will administer the Orga- equitable and balanced steps. The reduction lishment in any form whatsoever other than
nization subject to the direction of the shall be accomplished in each step by transthose required to preserve internal order and
commission and who will have the authority, fers to depots supervised by the IDO of for contributions to a United Nations peace
staff, and finances adequate to assure effec vehicles that are in excess of levels agreed force;
tive impartial implementation of the func- upon for each step. At specified periods dur(b) The elimination from national arsenals tions of the Organization.
ing the stage I reduction process, the vehicles of all armaments, including all weapons of
(c) The IDO shall: (1) Insure compliance that have been placed under supervision of mass destruction and the means for their
with the obligations undertaken by verify- the IDO shall be destroyed or converted to delivery, other than those required for a
ing the execution of measures agreed upon; peaceful uses. United Nations peace force and for maintain
(2) assist the states in developing the details (b) Production of agreed categories of ing internal order;
of agreed further verification and disarma- strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles (c) The establishment and effective opera
ment measures; (3) provide for the estab- and agreed types of weapons designed to tion of an International Disarmament Orga
lishment of such bodies as may be necessary counter such vehicles shall be discontinued nization within the framework of the United for working out the details of further meas or limited. Nations to ensure compliance at all times ures provided for in the program and for (c) Testing of agreed categories of stratewith all disarmament obligations;
such other expert study groups as may be gic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and (d) The institution of effective means for required to give continuous study to the agreed types of weapons designed to counter the enforcement of international agreements, problems of disarmament; (4) receive re such vehicles shall be limited or halted. for the settlement of disputes, and for the ports on the progress of disarmament and
E. To Promote the Peaceful Use of maintenance of peace in accordance with verification arrangements and determine the
Outer Space the principles of the United Nations.
transition from one stage to the next. Call on the negotiating states:
(a) The placing into orbit or stationing in B. To Reduce Armed Forces and Armaments (a) To develop the outline program set
outer space of weapons capable of producing forth below into an agreed plan for general lion each for the United States and U.S.S.R.
(a) Force levels shall be limited to 2.1 mil mass destruction shall be prohibited. and complete disarmament and to continue
(b) States shall give advance notification their efforts without interruption until the
and to appropriate levels not exceeding 2.1 to participating states and to the IDO of
million each for all other militarily signifi launchings of space vehicles and missiles, towhole program has been achieved; (b) To this end to seek to attain the widest
cant states. Reductions to the agreed levels gether with the track of the vehicle. possible area of agreement at the earliest will proceed by equitable, proportionate,
F. To Reduce the Risks of War by Accident, and verified steps. possible date;
Miscalculation, and Surprise Attack (c) Also to seek-without prejudice to (b) Levels of armaments of prescribed
(a) States shall give advance notification progress on the disarmament program
types shall be reduced by equitable and bal-
to the participating states and to the IDO of agreement on those immediate measures that
major military movements and maneuvers, would contribute to the common security of plished by transfers of armaments to depots supervised by the IDO. When, at specified
on a scale as may be agreed, which might give nations and that could facilitate and form a periods during the stage I reduction process,
rise to misinterpretation or cause alarm and part of that program.
induce countermeasures. The notification Affirm that disarmament negotiations
the states party to the agreement have
shall include the geographic areas to be used should be guided by the following principles:
and the nature, scale, and timespan of the (a) Disarmament shall take place as rapidare at prescribed levels, the armaments in
event. ly as possible until it is completed in stages depots shall be destroyed or converted to
(b) There shall be established observation containing balanced, phased, and safe
posts at such locations as major ports, railguarded measures, with each measure and stage to be carried out in an agreed period of armaments shall be limited.
way centers, motor highways, and airbases time.
(d) A chemical, biological, radiological to report on concentrations and movements
(CBR) experts commission shall be estab of military forces. (b) Compliance with all disarmament ob
lished within the IDO for the purpose of (c) There shall also be established such. ligations shall be effectively verified from their entry into force. Verification arrange
examining and reporting on the feasibility additional inspection arrangements to reduce ments shall be instituted progressively and
and means for accomplishing the verifiable the danger of surprise attack as may be in such a manner as to verify not only that
reduction and eventual elimination of CBR agreed. agreed limitations or reductions take place weapons stockpiles and the halting of their
(d) An international commission shall be but also that retained armed forces and production.
established immediately within the IDO to armaments do not exceed agreed levels at any C. To contain and Reduce the Nuclear Threat examine and make recommendations on the stage.
(a) States that have not acceded to a possibility of further measures to reduce the (c) Disarmament shall take place in a treaty effectively prohibiting the testing of risks of nuclear war by accident, miscalculamanner that will not affect adversely the nuclear weapons shall do so.
tion, or failure of communication,