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G. To Keep the Peace (a) States shall reaffirm their obligations under the U.N. Charter to refrain from the threat or use of any type of armed force-including nuclear, conventional, or CBR-contrary to the principles of the U.N. Charter.
(b) States shall agree to refrain from indirect aggression and subversion against any country.
(c) States shall use all appropriate processes for the peaceful settlement of disputes and shall seek within the United Nations further arrangements for the peaceful settlement of international disputes and for the codification and progressive development of international law.
(d) States shall develop arrangements in stage I for the establishment in stage II of a U.N. peace force,
(e) A U.N. peace observation group shall be staffed with a standing cadre of observers who could be dispatched to investigate any situation which might constitute a threat to or breach of the peace.
Stage II A. International Disarmament Organization
The powers and responsibilities of the IDO shall be progressively enlarged in order to give it the capabilities to verify the measures undertaken in stage II. B. To Further Reduce Armed Forces and
Armaments (a) Levels of forces for the United States, U.S.S.R., and other militarily significant states shall be further reduced by substantial amounts to agreed levels in equitable and balanced steps.
(b) Levels of armaments of prescribed types shall be further reduced by equitable and balanced steps. The reduction shall be accomplished by transfers of armaments to depots supervised by the IDO. When, at specified periods during the stage II reduction process, the parties have agreed that the armaments and armed forces are at prescribed levels, the armaments in depots shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.
(c) There shall be further agreed restrictions on the production of armaments.
(d) Agreed military bases and facilities wherever they are located shall be dismantled or converted to peaceful uses.
(e) Depending upon the findings of the experts commission on CBR weapons, the production of CBR weapons shall be halted, existing stocks progressively reduced, and the resulting excess quantities destroyed or converted to peaceful uses. C. To Further Reduce the Nuclear Threat
Stocks of nuclear weapons shall be progressively reduced to the minimum levels which can be agreed upon as a result of the findings of the nuclear experts commission; the resulting excess of fissionable material shall be transferred to peaceful purposes. D. To Further Reduce Strategic Nuclear
Weapons Delivery Vehicles Further reductions in the stocks of strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be carried out in accordance with the procedure outlined in stage I.
E. To Keep the Peace During stage II, states shall develop further the peace-keeping processes of the United Nations, to the end that the United Nations can effectively in stage III deter or suppress any threat or use of force in violation of the purposes and principles of the United Nations:
(a) States shall agree upon strengthening the structure, authority, and operation of the United Nations so as to assure that the United Nations will be able effectively to protect states against threats to or breaches of the peace.
(b) The U.N. Peace Force shall be estab- for whom I have deep affection. I join lished and progressively strengthened.
with all my colleagues who have made (c) States shall also agree upon further improvements and developments in rules of
reference to their great characters,
strong personalities, and generosity. I international conduct and in processes for peaceful settlement of disputes and dif
am well aware of it. I said it last night ferences.
in this body. I could not say it too Stage III
often. By the time stage II has been completed,
That has nothing to do with the subthe confidence produced through a verified ject I discussed last night, which I should disarmament program, the acceptance of like to discuss at this time for 5 minutes. rules of peaceful international behavior, and I ask unanimous consent to do so. the development of strengthened interna
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without tional peacekeeping processes within the
objection, it is so ordered. framework of the U.N. should have reached a point where the states of the world can
Mr. DODD. I have put aside personal move forward to stage III. In stage III pro- feelings and, speaking as a Senator with gressive controlled disarmament and con- some responsibility to the people of my tinuously developing principles and pro- State and this country for what goes on cedures of international law would proceed here and I hear from the people in my to a point where no state would have the
own State about it-I have stated my military power to challenge the progressive- opinion, and I believe I have spoken the ly strengthened U.N. peace force and all international disputes would be settled accord
truth. ing to the agreed principles of international
I believe that any objective appraisal conduct.
of the Senate record will bear out my The progressive steps to be taken during criticism. the final phase of the disarmament program I know that different people look at would be directed toward the attainment of
the operations of the Congress with difa world in which: (a) States would retain only those forces,
fering points of view. Some people do nonnuclear armaments, and establishments
not want us to do anything, and, in their required for the purpose of maintaining in
view, a successful Congress is one which ternal order; they would also support and adjourns without passing any major legprovide agreed manpower for a U.N. peace islation. force.
But on this side of the aisle, we Dem(b) The U.N. peace force, equipped with ocrats must be judged in relation to the agreed types and quantities of armaments,
goals we have set for ourselves and the would be fully functioning.
degree to which we have reached those (c) The manufacture of armaments would be prohibited except for those of agreed types
goals. and quantities to be used by the U.N. peace
We have a 2 to 1 majority in the Senforce and those required to maintain internal ate. We have an administration of our order. All other armaments would be de- own party. We can hardly expect the stroyed or converted to peaceful purposes. American people to give us more favor(d) The peace-keeping capabilities of the
able circumstances for carrying out our United Nations would be sufficiently strong and the obligations of all states under such
program. But what has happened? arrangements sufficiently far-reaching as to
Look, first of all, at the routine busiassure peace and"the just settlement of dif- ness of the Senate which is transacted ferences in a disarmed world.
every year, the appropriation bills. Thirteen appropriation bills were supposed to
have been passed by July 1, but here we REPUBLICAN OPPOSITION
are on November 7, and only five approMr. TOWER. Mr. President, on an- priations have been enacted into law. other matter, I understand that the Re- Virtually the whole Government is oppublicans have been referred to by the erating on borrowed time. distinguished Senator from Connecticut Of our four major objectives of this [Mr. DODD] as being weak, complacent, session, a tax cut, a civil rights bill, a cozy, and ineffective in their opposition. general aid to education bill, and a medi
I believe I need only refer to the very care bill, in my judgment, none has a close votes which have been taken in real chance of enactment this year. this body on many of the New Frontier A few months ago, when Senators promeasures with which we have disagreed, claimed that they were willing to remain to show that our opposition is indeed in session until Christmas in order to vigorous and most effective.
pass a civil rights bill, or a tax cut bill, I salute my minority leader, the dis- I thought it was exaggerated rhetoric. tinguished Senator from Illinois (Mr. Then it appeared to be an extraordinary DIRKSEN], at this time.
measure to achieve yital objectives. Now it appears that we shall indeed be in
session until Christmas, not for the purSENATE LEADERSHIP
pose of passing a tax bill or a civil rights Mr. DODD. Mr. President, I should bill, or any other major innovation, but like to call to the attention of the dis- merely to mop up our regular housetinguished minority leader the fact that keeping chores that should have been I am present.
completed by July 1. Unfortunately, I was at a meeting and I do not believe a similar situation can was unable to be present at 12 o'clock. be found in the entire history of the I say this merely to show that I have Senate. The whole Senate seems to be been reasonably faithful in my attend- pervaded by a spirit of lethargy. Even ance, commensurate with other duties, comparatively minor legislation of a
I am not one who enjoys the role of completely noncontroversial nature is critic, particularly when the object is the unable to get through the committee majority leader, or the minority leader, process and onto the floor of the Senate, both of whom I respect and admire, and mainly due, in my judgment, to inertia.
Speaking from my own experience, I morning, stay late at night, work week- from people in my own State asking why have been trying for 2 years to obtain ac- ends, holidays, day in and day out, until we do not get to work and get our work tion on a bill which would put some lim- we get the people's business done, and I done. That is all I have tried to do. I ited controls on the dangerous drug pills want the RECORD to show this.
hope we can get something done. that are flooding this country by the mil- Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, will the Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I would lions and turning tens of thousands of Senator yield?
be the last Senator ever to use the Senour young people into drug addicts. This Mr. DODD. I yield.
ate Chamber for a glorified wailing wall. bill is noncontroversial. It is supported Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I spoke I would be the last Senator ever to exby every group that has anything to do exactly as the Senator has done some press publicly his own ineptitude to diswith the problem. I do not know of weeks ago, calling this a standstill Con- charge his responsibilities. If I am anyone who opposes it. Yet I cannot
Yet I cannot gress, and real umbrage was taken against something, I try to defeat it, even obtain a Senate hearing on the bill Every sentence which the Senator has and I will raise unshirted hell in order after 2 years of effort. I have spoken uttered deals with the fact that we have to get it done. When I am for someto the majority leader about it. I have not done our job and that the power of thing, I will go the second mile to get it written letters. I have talked myself governance has not been exercised. done. dumb about the matter.
With respect to the statement relating I believe we demonstrated that when Or look at our responsibilities to the to the majority leader or the minority we sat, not in the Senator's cloakroom, people in the District of Columbia. leader, that they are dragging their feet, but in our cloakroom, in the Republican
We are now in our fifth month since perhaps an answer could be made. Sec- cloakroom, to finally compose our differthe expiration of last year's budget for ondly, an answer might also be made to ences and approve, by unanimous vote, the District of Columbia, and there is the mere suggestion of coming in early the Mansfield-Dirksen amendment, no appropriation to enable this great and remaining late. If those arguments which had taken us so long, toward the city to carry on its functions. No city are laid aside, because perhaps good an- ultimate completion of the bill that is electorate in the country would stand swers could be made to them, we still face now before us. for this kind of mismanagement from the basic question that we are not getting
It is astonishing that a Senator, who its government. Any city government our work done, and that the only way to ought to know the rules of the Senate if which operated in this manner would be do it is to let the people know and have he does not know them, who ought to thrown out, and rightfully so. But the them get after us. The Commerce Com- know the working hours of the Senate if unfortunate people of the District of mittee sits on a report for 3 weeks or he does not know them, should come here Columbia have the Congress of the more. So far as we know, it will continue at night and emotionalize about staying United States as its governing body. to sit on it.
in session until midnight, and castigate And so they must endure a government It is said that the calendar is clear the majority leader because the Senate which, far from handling the problems Yes; the calendar is clear. No action is adjourned at 4 o'clock, 5 o'clock, or 6 of the District of Columbia with vision taken, so the calendar is clear. So it is o'clock. I have not seen a 4 o'clock adand imagination, cannot even find time said that the Senate cannot convene journment, except when there were exto consider the minimum housekeeping early and remain in session until late be- traordinary circumstances which justichores without which the city cannot cause the calendar is clear.
fied it. I believe the Senate has been long function.
I hope the Senator will concentrate on
very diligent. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The the point that the power of governance is
It may be that the distinguished Senatime of the Senator has expired.
not being exercised. It is being paralyzed tor from the Nutmeg State does not have Mr. DODD. I ask unanimous con- because we are not exercising it, or its anything to do in his office. I do not sent for 3 additional minutes.
exercise is being prevented. The people know whether he has or has not. I am 3 The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- should have their say—the only way that days behind with my mail now. That is out objection, it is so ordered.
anything can be done about it. There- only a fraction of the mail I see. I spoke Mr. DODD. So Senators may make fore, rather than criticize the majority to the press this morning. I reminded whatever defenses they wish of our per- leader or the minority leader for not con- them of the briefcase that goes home formance and when they are through vening early and staying late, I hope every night. Every morning, on the ride praising it, when they are through mak- the Senator will concentrate on the argu- to the Capitol, I read mail and keep up ing emotional defenses of the leadership, ment that the power of governance has with my chores; every weekend I sit I ask them to look again at the record, at fallen on its face and that it is up to us at my desk; and that happens even on the box score. to do something about it.
Sunday, when one ought to be enjoying They will see a record not only of Mr. DODD. Mr. President, I ask God's sunshine. unfulfilled promises, but a record of unanimous consent to have 2 additional Perhaps the Senator from Connecticut failure even in meeting the routine minutes to respond to the Senator from does not do that. I believe we owe to statutory obligations placed upon the New York.
every Senator ample time to discharge Congress.
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without the manifold responsibilities of his ofIf there were some sign of unusual objection, it is so ordered.
fice—the departmental work, the claims, exertion here then we might be able to Mr. DODD. Let us look at this situa- the protests, the mail, the detail, the peosay that forces beyond our control were tion realistically. The Senator says we ple. I do not know how many people at the root of this. But there are no are all to blame. I do not think the come to the offices of other Senators. such signs of exertion. We are just Senator has been less anxious than I to my office is always full. I have to put dribbling along, putting in our time on get on with the business of the Senate them off and put them off, to make dea limited basis and following the path and sit longer hours. I know that my ferred arrangements to see my constituof least resistance. We seem to be view is shared by many Senators. They ents, people who are taxpayers, who are waiting complacently for some miracle have told me so. We all know it very entitled to see me. to break the logjam.
well. The situation is discussed in the When I read the Senator's comments I believe that things have disin- cloakrooms. Senators sing a different in the RECORD this morning, I thought it tegrated to the point where every Sen- song there than they do here. How else was a bundle of incoherence that should ator is becoming a partner in this fiasco. can we complain, except to the leader- never have appeared in the RECORD. I
This is soon to become a great politi- ship? I cannot merely abjure our own will let my comment stand at that point. cal issue in this country, and every Sen- failure. As a matter of necessity, I have If there is ever to be an answer, I will ator will be asked by his constituents to now addressed myself to the leaders. answer the distinguished Senator from state whether he is a willing or unwill- I repeat, it is not a personal thing. Connecticut, and he will know well that ing partner in the shambles we are Senators know it is not. I have no per- he will have been answered when I am creating.
sonal feelings against the Senator from through. I have, therefore, spoken out to try to Montana or the Senator from Illinois. I Mr. DODD. I would be happy to have kindle some sense of urgency in carry- like them both. They are both fine men. the Senator make his answer. ing on the public's business. I think we But they have not gotten us to work, and Mr. DIRKSEN. I will answer in my should come into session early in the they should do it. I receive messages own good time.
Mr. DODD. I hope the Senator will party. I agree with the distinguished the majority. If they did, they would have the courtesy to let me know.
Senator from California [Mr. KUCHEL), be subject to criticism; and that would Mr. DIRKSEN. It will not be at mid- that we shall continue to have this prob- be much more justifiable criticism than night, when the Senate session is over. lem in this Congress and in the next,
lem in this Congress and in the next, that directed toward us by the Senator Mr. DODD. The Senator may choose and in the next, until we come to grips from Connecticut last evening. his own hour. with the archaic rules of the Senate.
Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, will Mr. DIRKSEN. It will not be when That is at the base of our lack of ac- the Senator from New York yield? the Senate session is over. We had ex- complishment. Not only do a minority Mr. KEATING. I yield. cused all Senators last evening, and told of Senators have the power to strangle Mr. FULBRIGHT. I agree with the them to go home, with the announce- action by the majority, but, above and Senator from New York, particularly in ment that there would be no more votes. beyond that, oftentimes bills are not this instance. I wish to pay the Repub
Mr. DODD. I did not hear that. pressed or brought before the Senate licans a compliment, particularly those
Mr. DIRKSEN. The Senator is not because of the fear or threat of a filibus- Republicans who are members of the around enough. I can prove it with the ter.
Committee on Foreign Relations. They Senator's committee record and with his We had an opportunity in January to have shown a high degree of statesmanrecord of attendance on the floor. If the reform the filibuster rule, but we muffed ship in the way they have cooperated Senator wishes to stay here until mid- it. Many of us said then that unless we in the handling of the bill, which should night, we can keep him here.
came to grips with this problem we would not be a partisan matter. It is a measMr. DODD. That is all right. If the never pass civil rights legislation in this ure dealing with our foreign relations. Senate has business to do, I will be here. session, and that we would be stymied I have been extremely pleased and A number of Senators were on the floor in many other areas.
gratified by what the Republicans have last evening. It was about 6:30, and the We must meet the problem of legisla- done. It would have been very ill advised Senator from California [Mr. KUCHEL] tive reform sooner or later. I am sorry
I am sorry if they had tried to be partisan and had had made reference to his amendment. I that the distinguished Senator from opposed the bill vigorously, and were expected the Senate to vote on it. Connecticut has departed from the fiery in their opposition.
Mr. DIRKSEN. Then the Senator did Chamber, because I wish to say a few I agree that in this instance, the critnot know what was going on.
words about what he had to say with re- icism that has been made of the ReMr. DODD. I think I did, as much as spect to the weak and vacillating and in publicans is highly unjustified. I had any other Senator does; and I think I effective minority. When John F. Ken- expected in due time to say a word about know as much as the Senator from Illi- nedy was elected President of the United how responsible and cooperative they nois does about what is going on.
States, my comment was that so long as have been on this measure, which I know Mr. DIRKSEN. It could be.
President Kennedy favored and advo- is a highly unpopular one. Mr. DODD. Of course, I am not privy cated, as he often had, measures which Mr. KEATING. I thank the distinto some of the secrets. I do not share I felt were in the interest of my country, guished Senator from Arkansas. Of them with him. However, he does not he would have my full support; that course, this measure is the very last one frighten me, if that is his purpose with when he departed from that policy, ac- into which partisanship of an obstruchis menacing words addressed to me, and cording to my lights, he would have my tionist character should enter. Naturthe implications. I shall be glad to hear opposition. That has been my consistent ally, we have our differences of opinion; his answer at any time he likes. I said position, and I believe it has been the po- that is proper. But they are not and what I think is so. I do not intend to be sition of most other members of the should not be partisan differences of frightened out of it by anyone. I assure minority. There is a great deal of differ- opinion. the Senator from Illinois that I particu- ence between obstruction and construclarly mean him. So I say to the Senator tive opposition. The President and the from Illinois, “Come on with your an- administration, in my judgment, have SENATOR KEATING PLEDGES FIGHT swer. I will be here too." advocated many measures that are good
FOR ADDITIONAL WORK AT Mr. DIRKSEN. The answer will come, for our country. but I will not come to the floor with a The PRESIDING OFFICER.
BROOKLYN NAVY YARD
The 20-page effusion, first having delivered time of the Senator has expired.
Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, I it to the press, to make it appear what a Mr. KEATING. I ask that I be wish to say a word or two about a matgreat crusader the Senator from Con- granted 3 additional minutes.
ter of great concern of the people of necticut purports to be, emotionalizing The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without New York, and which should be of great on a 24-hour Senate day.
objection, the Senator is recognized for concern also to the people of all the Mr. DODD. I do not know whether 3 additional minutes.
other States who are working to create I understood that comment. I want to Mr. KEATING. Very often I have and maintain a strong U.S. Navy. be sure that I did. I did not come here voted in favor of such measures, and I Yesterday at a meeting in the Navy with any prepared speech. As a matter shall continue to do so, just as I shall Department, which was attended by of fact, I was not prepared to speak. My vote against proposals which I do not representatives of the Metal Trades remarks were entirely impromptu, if that believe are in the national interest. Council, Representative CAREY, of Brookis the word. I had no intention of I believe it is a mark of constructive lyn, and I received disturbing news. We speaking at all. The speech had not opposition not to be constantly obstruc- learned that as a result of decisions made been delivered to the press, either. tive. It is a dilution of the effectiveness in the highest levels of Government,
Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, all of opposition if one merely stands and there will be no new aircraft carrier conSenators, regardless of party, have con
says "No" to every proposal that is struction at the Brooklyn Navy Yard in sistently enjoyed the courtesy and con
made. Each proposal must be weighed the near future and there will be very sideration of our distinguished majority
on its merits and the criticism of the dis- little if any new construction of any leader and our distinguished minority tinguished Senator from Connecticut kind. That is very bad news. leader. They have always been thought [Mr. Dond] is unjustified if he is at- It is bad for the New York Naval Shipful of the interests of all Senators. Any tacking Senators on this side of the yard, which has well deserved its tradicriticism of what has been accomplished aisle for supporting administration pro- tional title of the “Can-Do Yard." It is in this Congress-and there can be crit- grams which some of us might favor. bad for the whole New York area, for icism and with respect to lack of action, We are elected by our constituents to which the Brooklyn yard has been an imas mentioned by the distinguished Sen- serve here and use our judgment, not portant mainstay. And, in my judgator from Connecticut, I entirely agree to be rubber stamps either for an ad- ment, it is also bad for the Navy to deny with. This has not been a Congress of ministration or, indeed, for a minority outright to public yards the opportunity which we can be proud so far as output leadership. We are elected by our con- to participate in or even compete for is concerned. However, there are many stituents to use our own judgment. I the kind of work that they depend on. who share that responsibility. In my believe that is what the Members of the Over the last few years the New York judgment it cannot be laid entirely at minority have done. They should not Naval Shipyard has pulled in its belt. It the door of the leader of either party, be criticized because they are not saying has increased its efficiency and cut down specifically, of course, of the majority “No” to everything that is proposed by costs to a commendable extent. It is now one of the most efficient yards on the first landing operation—the successful are justifiably proud of past accomplisheast coast.
raid on New Providence in the British ments, we realize that the gallant men of Yet, despite the continuing contention Bahamas in March, 1776—U.S. Marines
yesterday cannot assure our freedom of to
morrow. Therefore, we can be equally proud that the Navy is using private yards to have fought selflessly and determinedly
of our corps as it stands today, prepared to save money, the fact is that the Brooklyn to defend and preserve freedom for strike hard and fast when the need arises. yard is very close to being competitive. America.
I am confident that marines will meet the There is no doubt that New York has a This history of the Marine Corps in challenges of the future with the same high better record than some other public America is a long and colorful one. As sense of valor, loyalty, and steadfast deteryards which have been assigned more the Nation's amphibious force-in-readi
mination which has characterized our corps
since its earliest beginnings nearly 200 years work for fiscal year 1964. In my judg- ness, the Marines have distinguished
ago. A Marine Corps strong in heart, strong ment, it is in the interests of the Navy themselves in both land and sea opera
in spirit, and strong in arms is the best and of the taxpayers to encourage im- tions all over the globe. In America,
assurance of preserving the heritage passed provement, instead of, as is the case Marine Corps operations have not been on to us by generations of marines since right now, penalizing the Brooklyn yard strictly confined to wartime maneuvers. 1775. for its good work.
Marines have responded on numerous To all marines throughout the world, and As a result of the bipartisan meeting occasions when their country has called to all marine families, on the 188th anniwith Admiral Brockett, Chief of the Bu- upon them. Throughout the world, the
versary of our beloved corps, I extend my
heartiest congratulations and my very best reau of Ships, those present agreed that marines have always stood ready to
wishes. additional information was needed, restore order and to preserve the dignity
DAVID M. SHOUP, which we have asked for. I am deter- of the American flag. Order sometimes
General, U.S. Marine Corps, mined to do everything in my power, and was peacefully restored as it was in Egypt Commandant of the Marine Corps. I am convinced that the New York State in 1882; sometimes extensive fighting congressional delegation will do every- was involved as in Korea in 1871 before thing in its power, to preserve competi- America's flag could wave over the em- THE HIGH COST OF U.S. SHIPPING tion in the shipbuilding picture and that bassy in peace.
Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. President, a means competition for public yards as Mr. President, in this world of mingled
thought-provoking article entitled "The well as private ones. That means en- tension and relief, Americans are in
High Cost of U.S. Shipping," written by couragement and work for the yards that debted to the Marine Corps for their
Charles Bartlett, was published recently do a good job. constant alert. Their force-in-readi
by the Washington Evening Star. I ask Not only in repair and conversion work, ness role was clearly and dramatically unanimous consent that the article be at which the Brooklyn Yard is unex- demonstrated when President Eisen
printed at this point in the RECORD. celled, but also in new construction work, hower committed 6,000 marines to the
There being no objection, the article the Brooklyn Navy Yard is able and Lebanon operation. The “Leathernecks" determined to do as fine and efficient a responded to their call with their usual was ordered to be printed in the RECORD,
as follows: job as anyone anywhere else in the coun- timeliness and skill. Their presence in try, and the representatives of the State and around the city of Beirut not only
THE HIGH COST OF U.S. SHIPPING—FATE OF
SUBSIDIZED SHIPPERS HELD LIKELY TO BE of New York, in bipartisan cooperation, preserved law and order in that tense
OMEN FOR OTHER PINCHED INDUSTRIES are determined to see that they have that city but protected American lives and
(By Charles Bartlett) opportunity. This is not the end of the property which otherwise might have
Having drawn attention to the noncompetfight for fair treatment in New York. As been lost or damaged. A more recent
itive nature of this country's shipping, the far as we are concerned, it is just the example of Marine preparedness was
negotiations on the wheat sale may serve the start. In fact, as the great U.S. naval graphically illustrated in October of 1962
national purpose of stimulating a serious hero John Paul Jones said when his ship when the United States was engaged in effort to revive a merchant marine that is the Bonhomme Richard was sinking one of the hottest scenes of the cold falling prey to the vulnerability of high under him: war-the Cuban crisis.
costs. I have just begun to fight.
America is proud of the Marine Corps. The shipping industry is being maintained
Their selfless loyalty to duty, their deter- in a condition of modest health through Mr. JAVITS. The Navy has appar- mined efforts to defend freedom have
Federal subsidies and protection and the fate ently made a decision to assign the con- written a permanent chapter in U.S. his
of the shippers will be an important omen
for other American industries that are being struction of a new aircraft carrier to a tory. Always ready to quell a spark be
increasingly obliged to coexist with high private shipyard. This is a sad blow to
This is a sad blow to fore it becomes a forest fire, the U.S. costs and foreign competition. 11,000 skilled Brooklyn Navy Yard work- Marine Corps can boast of a long tradi- The Norwegian Journal of Shipping, angry ers, many of whom may lose their jobs. tion of heroic deeds.
at the move to restrict the wheat shipments This reported decision raised the Mr. President, I congratulate the U.S. to American vessels, bluntly asserted last gravest concern for the Brooklyn Navy marines on the celebration of their 188th week that the United States is violating its Yard, which is seemingly not being anniversary. May their fine traditions
business traditions by maintaining a slow
and expensive "horse-and-buggy” merchant treated by the Navy as the indispensable of the past be reflected in the years to
marine that has been drugged with economic arm of the Nation's security, which it is. come, as America moves on to meet the
narcotics. The cost comparisons, which the Navy challenges of the future.
The impact of labor and construction costs has given as a reason for the decision, Mr. President, the commandant of the upon the American fleet may be measured by represent a narrow view, for there is no Marine Corps, Gen. David M. Shoup, has the extremely limited construction of new comparability for security.
issued a birthday message on this signifi- ships, by the markedly higher cargo rates, As a result of this discouraging ex- cant occasion. I ask unanimous consent and finally by the fact that American ships, perience, we have a right to demand that that following my remarks, the text of
which transported almost one-third of the
Nation's foreign commerce in the 1930's, are the Navy spell out a far more concrete, his statement be printed in the RECORD.
now carrying less than 10 percent of it. long-term policy for the Brooklyn Navy There being no objection, the state
It is necessary, in examining the plight of Yard which will guarantee a reasonable ment was ordered to be printed in the the industry, to note the difference between continuity of its workers. RECORD, as follows:
liners, which operate passenger and freight HEADQUARTERS, U.S. MARINE CORPS,
service on regularly scheduled routes, and OFFICE OF THE COMMANDANT,
tramp ships, which are not common carriers ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY
and are free to travel anywhere on any terms. EIGHTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE COMMANDANT'S BIRTHDAY MESSAGE, NOVEMBER
The construction and operation of the U.S. MARINE CORPS
American flag liners, owned by 16 companies, 10, 1963
are heavily subsidized by the Government. Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, on
Today, November 10, 1963, the 188th an- The unsubsidized tramp fleet comprised of November 10 as we celebrate the 188th niversary of the founding of our corps, finds 130 ships in 79 companies, is protected by the anniversary of the founding of the U.S. as always to perform our traditional role as
marines around the world poised and ready Jones Act, which restricts coastal shipping Marine Corps, Americans can reflect the Nation's amphibious force-in-readiness.
to American vessels, and by the requirement with pride on the long and proud tradi
that 50 percent of all Government cargoes
Our traditions as professional fighting men be shipped in U.S. bottoms. tion of this distinguished branch of our are founded on a heritage of service, selfless The tramp fleet is being badly squeezed by armed services. Since the time of their loyalty, and past achievements. While we two factors. Their operators are obliged to pay the wage scales negotiated by the sub
affords Senators an opportunity to procedural protection in the Senate sidized companies, which are able to pass the increased costs on to the Government. They formation and facts that are contrary to
change their minds if it brings out in- which can be used if a Senator thinks must build their ships in American yards,
formation and facts that are contrary to good-faith tactics are not being used or where the prices are considerably higher than
the points of view that Senators formerly that good-faith debate is not occurring.
The cloture rule can be applied whenSome tramp operators maintain that sub- I do not believe we can justify unani- ever an abuse of practice exists in the sidies are the only answer to the squeeze, mous-consent agreements that would so Senate. However, I do not believe the but others are bold enough to believe that limit the time as I think a unanimous- Senate or the American people will ever if they can be allowed to purchase highly consent agreement in this case would
consent agreement in this case would vote to take away from this parliamenautomated vessels at foreign prices they can have done, thus preventing a full discus- tary body the precious weapon which meet the competition. The domestic ship
sion of the merits of this highly com- the people have, through their Senayards would not, they say, lose business through these foreign purchases because they
plicated bill. In addition to comment- tors—namely, that this floor is always have not been asked to build a new dry cargo
ing on the implication that there has free for a representative of the people ship for years.
been an unwarranted delay in the han- of any State to stand up and discuss, to The labor unions have a practical enthusi- dling of the bill, I do not believe anyone the extent he believes necessary, the asm for the objective of expanding the mari
can say, with any justification, that any merits of any issue. time fleet, and their leaders appear sympa
dilatory tactics have been or will be used The PRESIDING OFFICER. Under thetic to the necessity of reducing labor costs
in connection with the progress of the the morning-hour limitation, the time through automation. They have had small
bill. The majority leader knows that I available to the Senator from Oregon has success at persuading the foreign maritime unions, particularly the British, Dutch, and
have said to him time and time again expired. German, to press for higher pay, and they that we intend to proceed to consider Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I asl realize they must join the operators in seek- the bill amendment by amendment with- unanimous consent that I may proceed ing competitive costs through speed and out a unanimous-consent agreement, but for 2 minutes more, and then I shall be mechanization.
that we have no intention to engage in through. But they are unwilling, at least publicly, "prolonged debate,” which is interpreted The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there to endorse a breach of the traditional pro
by many persons to mean a filibuster. objection? Without objection, it is so hibitions against foreign-built vessels. They prefer, instead, to induce the Government to Now I wish to come to grips with the ordered. offer tramp vessels the same subsidy arrange
basic issue. I have said before, and re- Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I wish to ments that have proven so comfortable to peat today, that I believe the Senate has go on record once again in support of the both the companies and the unions in main- permitted the practice of unanimous- Senate's unlimited debate rule as one of taining the liners.
consent agreements to grow up, partic- the most precious safeguards the AmeriThe new Under Secretary of Commerce,
ularly in the past 10 Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., has spurred the
years. My can people have in their entire system of administration's desire to revive the mer
experience during the first 9 years of my representative government.
service in the Senate was that unanichant marine and he is preparing a proposal
I will cooperate in connection with to bring forward next winter. The alterna- mous-consent agreements to limit debate cloture whenever I find that debate is tives of proposing a subsidy, which will in- were rare and were for extraordinary sit- being abused. But I do not want to sit crease the budget, or the foreign purchases, uations; they were not common. Now here in silence and thus make possible which will agitate the balance of payments, the point has been reached where unani- any implication that I have been guilty are difficult at this time.
mous-consent agreements are common of using dilatory tactics in connection But the war-built vessels are moving toward obsolescence and automated ships,
procedure in the Senate for the handling with the foreign aid bill.
of proposed legislation. In my opinion, which have proven their worth on the sub
I close by saying that many other Sensidized routes, are being launched by com- the practice ought to stop. I intend to ators have said to me—that if at the bepeting maritime nations. A new shipping use my rights under the existing rules to ginning of this debate there had been a
A boom is discerned to be at hand and the stop it, not only in connection with this unanimous-consent agreement, the bill time is clearly ripe for basic decisions on piece of major proposed legislation, but would not have been cut to the point to the American tramp fleet.
with other measures as they come along. which it has already been cut. Nor shall I serve that notice today.
I give unanimous consent to any rePARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE
Unanimous-consent agreements in the quested agreement to limit debate in
Senate should be used for extraordinary connection with the bill at any time. Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I respect- circumstances, not as a general practice. I also want the leadership to know that fully ask that the distinguished Senator They are coming to serve in the Senate
They are coming to serve in the Senate I will not give my consent for limitation from California (Mr. KUCHEL] be present
the same purpose as the Rules Commit- of debate in regard to any major issue while I make an observation or two relat
tee serves in the other body of prescribing which will come before the Senate being to some remarks he made earlier to- the limitations on debate on a given sub
the limitations on debate on a given sub- tween now and the time of adjournment. day concerning the pending measure.
ject. If there is no purpose in having If I correctly understood the Senator unlimited debate in the Senate, we may from California, he favored a unanimous change the rule. If we do not want un
THE ALASKA MARINE HIGHWAY consent agreement for a limitation of limited debate to be the policy, let us debate on the bill, and he was of the view change the rule. But if that rule is Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, the that most Senators were pretty much of changed, the Senate will change one of
State of Alaska is shortly to conclude a mind as to the position they would take
the most historic strengths it has the first year of operation of a great on the amendments and the issues that namely, that this is a great parliamen- pioneering venture in transportation. are involved. It is also true that there is tary body. If there is muzzling, strait- When Alaska was a territory, and a point of view that is being expressed in jacketing, or steamrollering, a Senator
jacketing, or steamrollering, a Senator prior thereto, when it was a district, it conversations in the Senate and also in will not be able to exercise his rights as suffered great discrimination as a steparticles in the press that in some way, the representative of a sovereign state child in the national family. One of somehow, the conclusion is inevitable
in this body. Our forefathers were very those discriminations was the total exthat there has been unnecessary delay in wise when they established these basic
wise when they established these basic clusion, from the time of enactment in the consideration of the bill.
guarantees, which stem from Jefferson's 1916 until 1956, of Alaska from the beneI say to the Senator from California Manual. I am not referring here to fits of Federal aid highway legislation. that Senators have told me that they cloture, which is also part of the rules, As a consequence of that exclusion, were not aware of a good many things but to unlimited debate short of cloture. and despite the efforts made, for more that are in the bill, the implications of I am referring to the limiting of debate
I am referring to the limiting of debate than 40 years by Alaska's voteless Delethem, and the information relative by the unanimous-consent procedure. gates in the House of Representatives, to thereto. They have said that the debate Until the Senate rule is changed-but I have Alaska included, when it entered has been exceedingly helpful to them do not expect to live long enough to see the Union it was in the unique situation and has caused them to change their po- the Senate change its rule of unlimited of having not merely a few but the masition on issues connected with the bill.
debate—that will be my position. I do jority of its cities unconnected by highBe that as it may, that is the purpose not mean to say that I will not support ways, a situation which in the other of debate in the Senate. At least, debate the existing rule on cloture. There is States would be unthinkable.