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on January 14, 1963—to take full advantage tion into the western territories. Without This education assistance would take the of time in the drawn-out process of making the land-grant catalyst, settlement of these form of an outright monthly payment to the a bill into law.
lands might have been delayed a decade, per serviceman. For a veteran undertaking fullHearings were held on S. 5 during April haps more.
time study, this payment would amount to and May before the Subcommittee on Vet But the real benefits to this Nation, the $110 a month if he had no dependents, $135 erans' Affairs. It was reported out of the benefits that are vitally important to us to a month if he had one dependent and $160 Senate Labor and Public Welfare Committee day in the cold war era, were accrued through a month if he had more than one dependent. on July 2 and has been on the Senate Cal the World War II and Korean GI bills.
These figures are the same as those provided endar since that time.
Senator HIRAM L. FONG, Republican, of under the Korean GI bill, although there has S. 5 has not yet been called up for floor Hawaii, testifying before the Senate Subcom been a rise in the cost of living of over 25 action, but in a recent letter to the Daily mittee on Veterans' Affairs, pointed out that percent since 1952. Iowan, Senator YARBOROUGH said, “I shall "under the GI bills of World War II and the The student veteran would be required to continue to press the Policy Committee to Korean war, nearly 10 million veterans re use these funds to pay for all expenses of schedule S. 5 for consideration at the earliest ceived educational training, adding greatly his education-subsistence, books, and tuipossible time." Currently 39 Senators are to our Nation's welfare and productivity by tion-although he would be permitted to cosponsoring the cold war GI bill.
giving us 180,000 doctors, nurses, and medi work if his grade point average remained In introducing the cold war GI bill to the cal personnel; 113,000 physicists and research above the minimum set by the institution Senate, Senator YARBOROUGH succinctly scientists; 450,000 engineers; and 230,000 at which he is studying. stated the case for the bill's enactment: "I schoolteachers.”
A wide range of educational pursuits would for one, do not believe that the day has yet In addition, a parade of witnesses told be allowed under the bill's provisions: colarrived when citizens who make up our much more to the subcommittee about the lege level study, below college level study, Armed Forces must suffer for their loyalty widespread effects of the GI bills. For in full-time cooperative courses which alternate and willingness to serve. We must begin stance, over 1 million men received on-farm school and on-the-job training, corresponda program that tells America that the draft training, about 6 million veterans purchased ence courses, flight training, on-the-job law does not cause certain of our sons to lose homes under the loan provisions of the bills training on a full-time basis, and institu2 or more years from their competitive (it has been said that one out of every five tional on-farm training on a full-time basis. civilian lives, but instead,
instead, provides a homes built since World War II was GI-bill Eligible veterans would have to start their challenging opportunity for honorable and financed), a total of $54.6 billion was loaned education or training within 3 years after patriotic service-service that will be suit by the Veterans' Administration under the discharge and would have to complete that ably recognized and not be a lifetime bur- bills' provisions.
training within 8 years after discharge. den."
Under the World War II bill alone more Career personnel on active duty whose
than 700,000 valuable technicians were terms of service go beyond the termination [From the Iowa City (Iowa) Daily Iowan, trained. In an age when about 11 techni date for training benefits—June 30, 1977– Oct. 24, 1963]
cians are needed to support 1 scientist are protected by being able to begin eligibilCURRENT LEGISLATIVE INTEREST IN GI BILL
or engineer, we can see the applicability of ity upon retirement. (By Dennis Binning)
such legislation in meeting the needs of our Currently many thousands of career veter
technological warfare age. It might be noted ans are in danger of not qualifying for readCongressional Representatives, since the
that we are currently producing only about justment assistance although many have 84th Congress, have sought to extend the his 20 percent of the technicians needed in this served in both World War II and the Korean tory of veterans' readjustment assistance leg country.
conflict. Their retirement dates come after islation. Currently there is a bill in the Benefits are still being received by this the termination date of the provisions of all Senate (S. 5, the cold war GI bill) and there Nation, as many Korean war veterans are previous GI bills. are two similar bills in the House that show still using their readjustment assistance.
Eligibility for loans would be the same as that efforts to reestablish such legislation is Veterans' readjustment assistance has nev for educational assistance. The loan provibeing intensified.
er been thought of as being a reward for sions of S. 5 are for the purpose of assisting Since the earliest days of America's sover combat duty, but rather as a means of re eligible veterans to purchase homes and eignty, this country has provided readjust- storing lost opportunities to the returning farms. Banks or other lending institutions ment assistance to its military veterans when servicemen and, more importantly, as a direct would make the loans with the Government they return to civilian life.
agent for strengthening this Nation's edu guaranteeing 60 percent of a loan for resiIn George Washington's day, the Revolu cation, economic, and defense posture.
dential real estate, or 50 percent for other tionary War veterans were given land grants A cold war GI bill, if passed, can continue real estate loans. in the area west of the Allegheny Moun this history of strengthening the United The Government's guarantee could not tains. After the Civil War, Union veterans States into the tense and volatile period of exceed $7,500 for real estate home loans or were given certificates to 160 acres of their the 1960's. If S. 5—the cold war GI bill the ceiling of $4,000 set on other real estate choice on federally owned land.
is passed, it is expected that as many as loans. The "Rough Riders" and their Spanish- 3 million veterans would be trained under The interest rate on loans could not exAmerican War contemporaries were provided its provisions through 1973. Many of those ceed the 5.5 percent per annum limit set with mustering-out pay for their military 3 million veterans will come from homes under previous GI bill loan programs. The services. World War I veterans were pro- where it is economically impossible to send loans would have final payoff dates of not vided expanded hospital care, scholarships the children to college.
more than 30 years, with 40 years available for dependent children, insurance, and other
in certain instances for farms. considerations.
[From the Iowa City (Iowa) Daily Iowan, No direct loan could be made after June The most revolutionary veterans' read
Oct. 25, 1963]
30, 1977. justment assistance legislation, however, was THE COLD WAR GI BILL-EDUCATIONAL ASSIST
One unique provision of this bill is that passed during the waning days of World
ANCE FOR PEACETIME GI's?
veterans obtaining loans would have to pay War II. Under the Roosevelt administra
one-half of 1 percent of the total loan. tion, the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of
(By Dennis Binning)
amount as a guaranty fee. This money 1944 (Public Law 346, 78th Cong.) was passed. The cold war GI bill (Senate bill 5) is now would then be used in the accumulation of This act, commonly referred to as the World marking time in the Senate, waiting to be a reserve fund sufficient to cover losses that War II GI bill, did more to upgrade the aver- placed on the calendar for floor debate and might arise under the program. age level of education in this country and to action. This bill is designed to provide two Based on the experience of previous GI stabilize our postwar economy than any major types of readjustment assistance to bills, however, veterans have proven themother single legislation.
cold war veterans-education and vocational selves to be the safest loan risks in the The history of veterans' readjustment as training assistance; and guarantee and di Nation. The Veterans' Administration resistance ends with the Korean "police ac rect loan assistance for the purchase of ports that of $54.6 billion loaned or guarantion" veterans. The Veterans' Readjustment homes and farms.
teed, only $11.2 million has been lost (this Assistance Act of 1952 (Public Law 55, 82d Approximately 5 million cold war veterans is two-hundredths of 1 percent loss). The Cong.) built upon the World War II GI bill would be eligible for assistance under this Government in fact has made a profit on experiment and provided an even wider as- legislation. Eligibility criteria are that the the loan program from interest-about $118 sortment of benefits to the returning service serviceman must have seen active military million to date. men. Military men who had seen active duty duty for a period of more than 180 days be The average annual cost for the education since the termination date of the Korean tween the dates of January 31, 1955, and July program through 1973 is expected to run GI bill on January 31, 1955, receive no bene 1, 1963, and have in his possession a discharge about $289 million. In the long run it is fits or assistance for their service. other than dishonorable.
felt that the cost of the program will be One need only look at the benefits accrued Under the two previous GI bills, eligibility entirely self-liquidating. Again we can look by this Nation through such legislation in for benefits was based upon a 60-day active for the success of the World War II bill as an the past to see that its continuation into duty requirement.
indication that this is true. the present cold war era is not only advis The cold war GI bill would allow 112 days The Census Bureau reports that World able, but imperative.
of education assistance to veterans for each War II veterans who took advantage of the The land-grant benefits of the early days day of active military service with a maxi World War II GI bill are currently paying made possible a fast expansion of this Na mum of 36 months of benefits allowable. over $1 billion a year more in taxes by reason
of their increased earning power. The total career fields which require the greatest de. [From the Iowa City (Iowa) Daily Iowan, $15 billion cost of the World War II bill is gree of training.
Oct. 29, 1963] expected to be paid off within the next 5 to 6 Army Col. Winston G. Whall, speaking for GI COLD WAR BILL-NEVER ONE WAY BEFORE years. the Defense Department, admitted that the
(By Dennis Binning) Senator RALPH YARBOROUGH, Democrat, of biggest factors determining reenlistment on Texas, who introduced Senate bill 5, said an individual basis were the comparative
Iowa could expect $36 million in education “the bill is not an expense to the taxpaying wage scales between military and industry, assistance payments to some 20,000 of its public; it is an investment of the taxpayer's and the very basic factor of whether the man cold war veterans during the first 5 years of money on which we can guarantee them a liked military service.
operation of the cold war GI bill-Senate bill profitable dividend, because education is the
The extent to which retention of career
5—if passed by Congress this session, accordone certain method of strengthening the men will be affected by such legislation as
ing to projected figures made available by the taxpaying public." Senate bill 5 has never been adequately
Veterans' Administration (VA). The loan program would, of course, be determined.
A total of 73,000 cold war veterans from completely self-liquidating, perhaps even
Iowa are expected by the VA through fiscal
NOT SAME CONDITIONS paying a profit in guaranty fees and interest.
year 1973, proposed termination date of eligiWhat these two types of assistance could Far different grounds are cited in the Vet- bility under Senate bill 5). We could easily do for the education of a wide selection of erans' Administration's adamant opposition expect another 10,000 Iowa cold war veterans American youth and for the economic devel to the cold war GI bill.
to use the bill's education provisions in the opment of this Nation is staggering in scope. A policy letter sent to Senator HILL by
second 5-year period, although that figure Based upon the performance of previous John S. Gleason, Jr., Administrator, Veterans' was not projected by the VA. GI bill legislation, we have a graphic image Administration, said in part: "We [feel]
Over 26,000 Iowans received educational of what Senate bill 5 is capable of doing that service under current conditions does training assistance under the World War II for this Nation,
not present, on a widespread basis, the same and Korean war GI bills.
rigors and hazards as does wartime service; Expected participation by Iowa cold war [From the Iowa City (Iowa) Daily Iowan, that the specific period of service is known veterans under the loan provisions of the Oct. 26, 1963]
in advance and generally is of shorter dura cold war GI bill was not projected by the VA, (By Dennis Binning)
tion than service during wartime; and that but it did report that 78,741 Iowans received
it has a much less disruptive effect upon the loans under provisions of previous GI bills. ON GI BILL-OPPOSING SIDES STUDIED
veteran's educational plans and his career The total loaned amount went over the half On the first day of hearings on Senate than did extended wartime service."
billion dollar mark-$565,890,855. bill 5—the cold war GI bill-before the Sen
About $534 million was loaned to 69,501
NATURE OF COLD WAR ate Subcommittee on Veterans' Affairs, offi
Iowa veterans for building, buying or recers from six organizations with a total mem The thing to consider then is the nature modeling homes. Almost $20 million in farm bership of 17,580,000 went on record favor of the cold war,
loans went to 5,572 Iowans and another 3,668 ing this legislation.
Our war-the war of the generation now Iowans received over $12 million in business · Those organizations were: National Stu
sitting in the Nation's college classrooms loans. dent Association; AFL-CIO labor union; Vet
is the cold war. . It is a sophisticated war of Any way you look at it participation by erans of Foreign Wars; National Education psychology, of guess and outguess. It is a Iowa cold war veterans under provisions of Association; National Farmers Union, and
war of protracted guerilla techniques operat- Senate bill 5 is going to benefit Iowa and the American Vocational Association.
ing with brush-fire ferocity under an omi Iowans in greatly expanded educational deU.S. Senators, prominent educators and a
nous thermonuclear shield. It is fraught velopment and economic growth. parade of others representing the widest
with tension and fear. It is a war of well Iowa Senators BOURKE HICKENLOOPER and possible cross-section of public opinion went defined ideological conflict; in scope it is a JACK MILLER were queried by, letter about on record favoring Senate bill 5. World War.
their feelings toward the pending cold war Opposition to the bill, however, is cen
Our war has its casualty list-the number GI bill legislation and their voting position tered in three Government agencies: Bureau of deaths to servicemen during the cold war
on it. of the Budget, Department of Defense and period have exceeded the total number of Senator HICKENLOOPER replied in a letter the Veterans' Administration. The Ameri
American losses produced by World War I. to the Daily Iowan that he would not vote can Legion is the largest non-Government
The Defense Department reports 80,787 serv for the bill as it now stands. He said he organization on record opposing this legis- icemen have died as a result of accidents, favored the minority amendment which lation.
violence, instruments of war and disease would limit eligibility for readjustment asNOT IN PROGRAM
from 1946 to February of 1963 (not including sistance only to those cold war veterans The Budget Bureau opposes Senate bill 5 Korean conflict losses).
"who, in gnificant numbers, encounter because it does not fall within the PresiA little research will show that this Na
* foreign armed opposition, or are otherdent's current or projected program. tion has had a "hot" confronation every year
wise placed, or have been placed, in such President Kennedy is hoping to aid educa since the end of World War II. So long as the position that, in the opinion of the Joint tion through a 24-part aid to education bill. Communist nations pursue a protracted war
Chiefs of Staff, hostile action by foreign Only the first of that bill-a bill for $1.9 bil- strategy, these confrontations will continue. armed force was imminent even though it lion in grants and loans for college construc Senator RALPH YARBOROUGH, Democrat, of
did not materialize." tion-has successfully passed the House and Texas, who introduced the cold war GI bill, This amendment was rejected by the SenSenate. A controversial Senate amendment put it this way: "Areas where this limbo
ate Labor and Public Welfare Committee bewhich would allow a taxpayer's suit to be between outright war and outright peace
cause it was not in keeping with the philosofiled to test the constitutionality of any exists will increase as the cold war struggle phy of previous GI bills and because it was grant or loan made to a religious college will proceeds from crisis to crisis.
tantamount to an announcement of war, make a drawn-out compromise measure "Berlin, Vietnam, and the Sino-Indian
albeit undeclared. likely. conflict are tinderboxes which contain
Senator HICKENLOOPER also wrote that, It is interesting to note, however, that high potential for the involvement of Amer “The original bill, as reported out of comwhile still a Senator, President Kennedy ican manpower in a shooting war. When mittee, would seem to go much too far. voted in favor of a cold war GI bill. In 1960,
today's youth enter the service, they have The liberal draft policies in peacetime uscold war GI bill legislation was made a strong
no assurance that they will spend their time ually permit eligible draftees to complete plank in the Democratic platform during in garrison duty * * they have consider their schooling before being inducted and that presidential election year. able assurance that a new crisis, a new guer
thus there does not exist the disruptive MAY LOSE CAREER MEN
rilla war, another country threatened by and precipitous induction which occurs in The Defense Department bases its oppo
Communist aggression, will bring them into time of emergency." sition on one point-possible loss of career the middle of a hot war.”
The senior Iowa Senator also stated he did personnel. In a letter of policy sent to Sen The minority report on Senate bill 5 ad not believe cold war military service, except ator LISTER HILL, Democrat, of Alabama,
vanced an amendment that would limit in isolated incidents, could be considered chairman of the Senate Committee on Labor benefits only to those veterans who served hazardous enough to warrant such wideand Public Welfare, the Defense Department in an area of hostility as designated by spread provisions as those of Senate bill 5. stated it was opposed because "this type of the President.
“As the bill now stands," wrote Senator benefit tends to encourage members to leave This amendment was rejected on grounds
HICKENLOOPER, "I doubt that I could support military service immediately after accruing that it contradicted the underlying philos- it, but I could support the amendment prothe maximum entitlement to educational ophy of the wo previous GI bills. Never viding for the benefits for those actually benefits * * * This results in a serious han had veterans' benefits been "an award" for
sent to theaters of armed conflict and extradicap to the Armed Forces in their efforts to combat. In fact, eligibity for benefits con
hazardous conditions." retain qualified personnel on a career basis." tinued for almost 2 years after the Korean Senator JACK MILLER did not reply to the
Despite two major pay increase bills in the armistice of July 27, 1953. The bulk of sery query letter. past 5 years, the Armed Forces still have a icemen have always served in areas other In past articles of this series, we have major problem of retaining men in the than actual combat zones.
seen that there is a history of diverse vet
erans assistance legislation from the found tion than those who went to school in The Small Business Investment Act, ing of our Nation until 1955. the normal way.
as enacted in 1958, provided that the We have seen that over 10 million Ameri
It is readily demonstrable that the bill Small Business Administration could can servicemen have received over $20" billion in education assistance and more than
will not in the long run really cost any- purchase up to $150,000 of the subordi$54 billion in home, business, and other
thing, because those who receive the ad- nated debentures of a small business inloans under provisions of previous GI bills.
ditional training will have a greater vestment company. The Small Business The inequities in our draft laws make only earning capacity and will return the Investment Act amendments of 1961 in45 percent of our draft eligible young men cost of the training to the Treasury in creased this amount to $400,000, an inserve in the Armed Forces with resulting lost the form of income taxes. This legisla- crease of over two and a half times the opportunities and years for those who do tion is indeed an investment.
original amount. serve.
I hope the persistent efforts of the S. 298 proposes to raise this amount to Since the 84th Congress there has been an ever-growing interest in the private and
Senator from Texas will bear fruit. I $700,000, or almost five times the origigovernment spheres to provide a cold war
know of no other legislation I consider to nal $150,000. This fivefold increase in GI bill. Several such bills have been intro be more desirable. The Senator from the available amount of Federal funds duced in the past and with persistence. To Texas is to be heartily commended for which may be obtained by SBIC's under day public sentiment largely favors such pursuing the bill. I hope the Senator this bill is completely unwarranted. legislation in the face of opposition from the continues his efforts until the bill is There is another provision in the bill Department of Defense, Bureau of the enacted.
to which I object. It completely knocks Budget, and the Veterans' Administration.
Mr. YARBOROUGH. I thank the dis out the so-called Proxmire amendment, The provisions of Senate bill 5 are far more restrictive than previous GI bill provisions,
tinguished Senator from Alaska. His which was adopted 2 years ago, limiting yet they are ample enough to provide a
dedication to the cause of justice for to $500,000 the size of loans any small valuable impetus to some 5 million cold war these 5 million servicemen is not exceed- business_investment company could veterans to either continue their education ed by that of any other Senator. There make. The SBA had interpreted this or to purchase homes or farms.
is an obligation on our Government to amendment over my protests to permit Certainly the cold war veteran needs an
help educate the 5 million men who were SBIC's to invest half their portfolios in assistance program as much as this Nation
called on to leave their homes in the in excess of $500,000. sorely needed him in the Armed Forces.
The committee even refused to provide Unemployment figures for the cold war vet
terest of our national survival, instead of erans group is just about the highest in the
denying them the opportunity that the a $112 million limit or the Treasury's Nation. As this Nation's global military
55 percent who do not serve received. recommended $2 million limit unless I commitments grow, the protracted and un The denial of this opportunity to this would agree to permit the present regucertain nature of the cold war makes it a 45 percent, the 5 million men, when the lation to remain in effect, which would certainty that “hot” conflagrations will also opportunity was available to those who permit one-half of an SBIC's portfolio to increase.
did not serve, is one of the grossest in- be in loans in excess of $11/2 million or $2 Is there not a reciprocal responsibility
justices that has ever been perpetrated million. The bill provides no limit whatneeded between Government and serviceman? Is it a one-way street for the service
by the Government of the United States. soever, and is a violation of the recomman only? This nation never thought of
Mr. GRUENING. In addition to being mendations of the Treasury Departit as a one-way street before.
an education measure, it is also an anti- ment.
unemployment measure, because many The bigger companies can obtain fiMr. GRUENING. Mr. President, will
of these men, when they leave the sery- nancing from banks, insurance comthe Senator yield?
ice, have inadequate training and will panies, and other regular lending inMr. YARBOROUGH. I yield.
not find jobs. But if those men were stitutions. This country is well banked, The PRESIDING OFFICER. The time
trained for a year or two, they will be and the Government should not supof the Senator from Texas has expired.
employable, which they are not now ex- port a program with subsidies and rich Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I ask
cept on unskilled jobs. That group of tax privileges to supply funds to comunanimous consent to have 1 minute to
young men has one of the highest unem panies that can obtain financing in regucomment on the remarks of the Senator ployment rates in our Nation. In fact lar commercial banking channels. from Texas.
while the draft awaits them they cannot It was almost a unanimous Committee The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without find employment easily. With
find employment easily. With a steady on Banking and Currency that decided objection, it is so ordered.
unemployment rate of 512 percent, it is against my wishes, as chairman of the Mr. GRUENING. I think the senior not going to be decreased with further Small Business Subcommittee, to report Senator from Texas is to be unquali automation.
the bill. It was done by a coalition of fiably commended for his dedicated, de Mr. YARBOROUGH. As shown by Rep'ıblicans and conservative and liberal termined, and unremitting efforts to ob the articles, there is a higher unem- Democrats, who in this case favor an intain action on one of the most important ployed percentage in that group than in crease in spending of more than $34 milpieces of legislation to come before the any other group.
lion. Under the circumstances this is Congress, the cold war GI bill of rights.
wholly unjustified. At a time when our other educational
When the bill comes to the floor, after proposals are having hard sledding, WHY INCREASE SUBSIDIES TO
the foreign aid bill debate is concluded, when some of the requests for education
I hope to discuss this bill. It is one thing legislation by the administration may not
Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, the to spend for welfare and foreign aid, but be enacted into law, here is one which, Senate Committee on Banking and Cur
Senate Committee on Banking and Cur- it is another to increase these business although not yet endorsed by the ad
rency will shortly report two bills to the subsidies expenditures. These are the ministration, although I hope it will be, Senate.
Senate. One is S. 1309, increasing the most rapidly increasing expenditures we enters into a field where we have a authorizations of the Small Business Ad
have. great obligation. ministration by $34.3 million.
I ask unanimous consent that an exThese young men called into military With our budget still unbalanced, our cellent editorial on this subject, pubservice are taken out of their civilian defense costs continuing at a high rate, lished in the Journal of Commerce, enlife and deprived of opportunities to pur and a large tax cut likely to be passed titled “The Greener Pastures” be printed sue their careers. We refer to their serv early next year, Congress should not in- in the RECORD at this point. ice as being in the cold war, but, like crease the size of these authorizations. There being no objection, the edithe men who were sent to Vietnam, they The SBIC program can and should be torial was ordered to be printed in the suffer loss of life and hardships, just as operated within its present authoriza- RECORD, as follows: the veterans of World War II and the tion limits.
[From the Journal of Commerce, Nov. 5, Korean war did.
The other bill to be reported by the Experience with similar legislation for Committee on Banking and Currency is
THE GREENER PASTURES the World War II and Korean war vet S. 298, which provides for $18 million of
When C. Northcote Parkinson promulgated erans has shown that they make greater the $34.3 million increase in the author his law of public administration in 1955, use of opportunities for further educa ization in the first bill.
many were stirred by the outrageous truth of
his assertion that, save for war periods, of - own sake? Does not the whole project un- It merely means increased cost of govficials tend (1) to multiply subordinates, not derline once again the validity of Parkinson's ernment and greater burdens on the taxrivals, and (2) to make work for each other. law?
payers, and makes more remote the probHe did not say specifically that the less a We would suggest, at the very least, that bureau has to do the more personnel it ac
ability of ever getting an honest cut in Congress ought to wait until the SBIC's
taxes. cumulates to do it, though this implication have carved out a respectable niche for themwas present. Even public organizations that selves and employed more of their abundant have completed the tasks for which they were uncommitted capital before pumping any DEDICATION OF THE BIG THICKET created tend to hold themselves intact, if more money into an enterprise that either
SCENIC AREA IN SAM HOUSTON necessary by moving into new and perhaps doesn't need it or can't yet find enough opgreener pastures. The Rural Electrification portunities to invest it prudently and pur NATIONAL FOREST, SAN JACINTO Administration provides one example. Hav posefully.
COUNTY, TEX. ing largely achieved its mission of bringing If and when the need becomes demonelectricity to the American farm, it is now strably real, it will be time enough to con
Mr. YARBOROUGH. Mr. President, seeking a more permanent footing for itself sider whether more funds should be supplied
on Friday, November 1, 1963, I particias a supplier of energy to country towns and
and whether the SBIC program should func- pated in a stirring dedication of the perhaps even small cities.
tion not only as a stimulus to small business 1,130-acre Big Thicket Scenic Area, Is the Small Business Administration like but to larger forms of enterprise as well. which is a part of Sam Houston National wise inclined? We don't know for sure, but
Forest in San Jacinto County, Tex. The of late it has been acting that way. We grant there was always something EXPANDED BUREAUCRACY OF THE originally covering 12 counties, has been
Big Thicket area of southeast Texas, arbitrary about the time-honored assump U.S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE
cut back to about 4 counties and about tion that whether a business was small or big depended on whether its resources added up
Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, last 400,000 acres in extent. Its flora and to more or less than $5 million. Meaningful August 7 I offered an amendment which fauna are unusual—it is a tangled jundefinitions cannot be that sharp. Some would have reduced the appropriation to gle land of ferns, vines, trees, shrubs, companies with more than that rate are the USES from $425 to $400 million. mosses, herbs, and plants, furnishing a very small in their field. Some with less I offered the amendment on the basis wonderful habitat for many species of carry a good deal of weight.
that the U.S. Employment Service birds and animals. Giant magnolias But SBA Administrator Eugene P. Foley
was entering into fields never intended grow wild, along with tall bay trees and now appears bent on carrying his organization's activities into the area of larger busi- by the original law to be its domain. It large wild peach trees, with palmetto ness while simultaneously expanding on the
was going into the universities of the Na- plants underneath. scope, and consequently on the cost, of SBA's tion, attempting to act as a placement The Big Thicket Scenic Area, dedicated general program. He is citing with approval agency of graduating students, thus do- last Friday, is to be preserved in its certain amendments proposed by the Small ing work that was being done already by wilderness state for present and future Business Subcommittee of the Senate Bank the universities. It adopted a program generations to enjoy. ing and Currency Committee-amendments of extensive advertising in the news
The Sam Houston National Forest was at which the full committee should take a
initiated by act of the Texas Legislature hard look before giving them its approval. papers, not for the purpose of finding emOne would increase from $400,000 to $700, ployment for the unemployed but sery- in 1933. It covers 158,000 acres and is
one of four national forests in Texas. 000 the amount of small business investment ing those who were employed. company debentures which SBA could buy on To my great amazement, those adver The Big Thicket Scenic Area is a fura dollar-matching basis; it would also in- tisements pointed out that jobs paying ther example of what the National Govcrease from 3 to 5 years the time in which $20,000 a year were available. The law ernment, in cooperation with State and such a company could take down this Gov
never intended service to that type of local persons dedicated to conservation ernment money. (A small business investperson.
of our natural resources, can do in setment company (SBIC) is an entity through which the Government puts up funds, to
I now come to the point that causes ting aside areas for public enjoyment. gether with private capital, to finance small me to discuss this subject today. It has The work in this case was under the business ventures of all kinds.)
been disclosed in Cleveland that the em- leadership of John W. Cooper, former Also recommended is an increase from $4 ployment service agency, financed by the forest supervisor of the Texas National to $5 million in what an SBIC can borrow U.S. Government, in order to build up a Forests, San Jacinto County officials, and from SBA as operating loans. Still another record which would entitle it to more many interested citizens, and I am very recommendation is that the $500,000 limit money for the operation of its office, pleased to have had a part in initiating on which an SBIC may invest in a small business enterprise be eliminated, leaving as the
falsified records to show placements that this project in 1961. This is a feather outside limit an amount equal to 20 percent never were made. The record, however, in the cap of the U.S. Forest Service. I of its capital and surplus.
as revealed in Cleveland, shows that there ask unanimous consent that the program We would have no objection to the last- is one supervisor for six caseworkers. of the citizens of San Jacinto County mentioned amendment were it not for the There will soon be more officers than men
and the national forests in Texas for consideration that the removal of this dol- working in the ranks. The Cleveland this dedication and an excerpt from my lars-and-cents limit could very well carry situation may be reflective of what is remarks at the dedication be placed in SBA into the financing of larger business happening in the country. To get more
the RECORD. enterprises and could even mark a first step money the agency must show that it has
There being no objection, the material in a very considerable movement in that
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, direction. We don't see it yet as a move to placed more people in jobs, and to prove create another Reconstruction Finance Cor
as follows: that it placed more people in jobs, it has poration. But in view of the assumption begun to falsify the record.
PROGRAM, BIG THICKET SCENIC AREA DEDICAunder which SBA was created-namely that The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
TION, SAM HOUSTON NATIONAL FOREST, the larger companies would finance them- time of the Senator has expired.
NOVEMBER 1, 1963 selves—we wonder just how far the line be Mr. LAUSCHE. I ask for 1 additional
9:30—Music, Prison Band. tween small and big can be bent without minute.
10:00—Opening remarks and introduction breaking
of special guests, R. L. "Bob" Hunt, master As for the SBIC's there are already hun
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
of ceremonies; Extension Service, College dreds federally chartered, and it seems their
Senator is recognized for 1 additional Station. numbers may be quite near to the saturation minute.
10:20–Welcome to San Jacinto County, point. Desirable as they may be in principle,
Mr. LAUSCHE. This is a serious sit
J. R. Page, county judge, San Jacinto County. most of them have had a rather dismal rec uation. It requires attention. I have McElroy, Forest Supervisor National Forests
10:30–Welcome to Big Thicket, Jack W. ord in earning something on their stock- written a letter to the chairman of the
in Texas. holders' investments. And most still have Committee on Government Operations, 10:35—History and purpose of Big Thicket large amounts of uncommitted funds on
asking him to give consideration to a scenic area, John W. Cooper, Assistant Chief, tap. general check into this problem. We
Division of Information and Education, U.S. Why should the Government's funds be drawn down further to replenish the coffers have here a clearly delineated operation Forest Service, Atlanta, Ga.
10:45-Dedication of area, unveil sign, Senof an SBIC network that can't seem to find of Parkinson's law: A bureau, once estab
ator RALPH YARBOROUGH, employment for the money it now has ayail- lished, within itself has a force that de
11:15—Hike scenic trail (short loop). able? Is there any real reason other than the mands expansion. That force is aggra 11:45—Depart for Double Lake recreation perpetuation and expansion of SBA for its vated by the weakness of bureaucrats. area.
12:00–Lunch and tour, Double Lake rec- They have been the firm foundation for the resources protection from floods and proreation area.
Nation's marvelous industrial structure viding industrial and municipal water sup1:30-Optional tours.
which is the wonder of the entire world, and plies and provide many additional recrea3:30—Free guided service. a standard of living the envy of all,
tional facilities at Federal reservoir projects. A. Historical sites, conducted by San However, we are learning now that there The watershed development and flood Jacinto Historical Society.
is a limit to all good things. Some of our prevention program of the Department of B. Sam Houston National Forest, con natural resources are seen not to be limit Agriculture has been continued as a producted by Forest Seryice.
less, but in some cases to be reaching the gram of major caliber.
lation explosion has 190 million Americans national park system in these 242 years in PRESERVING THE BIG THICKET
crowding the parks, lakes, rivers and scenic widely spaced portions of the country—from Judge Page, Chairman Sims, distinguished areas gasping for fresh air and a view of the Hawaii to New York and the Virgin Islands, guests, fellow Texans, it is a singular privi- primitive America that was.
including the Old Fort Davis historic site lege for me to be invited to take part in this It is up to us to exercise due caution to at Fort Davis in the Davis Mountains of dedication of the Big Thicket scenic area in
see that our natural resources are sufficient Texas, which I sponsored in the Senate. Sam Houston National Forest in San Jacinto
not only for our generation, but for those Now before the Senate after House pasCounty and to meet all of you in what proves yet to come in this glorious land of ours.
sage is the clean air bill. This would acto be one of my most pleasant visits to
The great forests that once covered al celerate and strengthen the Federal program Texas.
most the entire Nation are dwindling. True for the prevention and abatement of air As a native of Henderson County, east conservation measures such as reforestation,
pollution. Texas, in that part of east Texas where my protection from damaging fires and pest
A number of additions to the national people have lived for long more than a cencontrol will not only preserve timber re
parks systems are under consideration in tury, I am proud to come back home to the sources but maintain and protect the vital the Congress. land of pine and hickory, of swamp and watersheds of our great water rivers and
I have proposed the Lorenzo De Zavala slough, of hardwood and shrub and under- ground waters.
Park in Harris County. My bill would inbrush, of birds and animals, fish and reptiles
Water in some places is becoming a scarce
volve transfer of surplus Federal land on in this woodland area to help in its preservacommodity. Much is being done to cope
Buffalo Bayou in Harris County opposite tion for all generations. This timbered with the ever-increasing water and land
the San Jacinto Battlefield to either the thicket area of the southeast Texas Gulf demands of agriculture, industry, transpor; State of Texas or Harris County to preserve Coastal Plains, between the San Jacinto and tation and municipalities.
the home and burial place of the first vice the Trinity Rivers, is blessed by nature with must still be done to conserve water, to
president of the Republic of Texas and great a rich and varied flora and fauna. Within utilize it for the most beneficial use, pre
patriot, Lorenzo De Zavala. This bill has this 1,130-acre scenic area we are dedicatserve the quality, and prevent it from creat
passed the Senate and is pending in the ing today, with markers and trails for access, ing disastrous floods. This necessity has
House. are found 66 species of trees, 21 species of given rise to the great civil works, reclama
Also in the Senate I have introduced a bill small shrubs, 22 vines, 10 ferns and mosses, tion and watershed protection and flood
for creation of a national monument at the and 45 herbs and other plants. Among them prevention programs of the Federal Govern
Alibates Flint Quarries and pueblo ruins live many species of bright colored birds; ment. From this has evolved the multiple
in Potter County, near the Canadian River colonies of waterfowl nest on the margins purpose project which develops and con
in the panhandle. This would preserve the of the small lakes. serves many related resources. Navigation,
source of flint for weapons and tools for preThe Big Thicket Texans love is described hydroelectric power, flood control, irrigation, by a native, Solomon Alexander Wright, in wildlife and fish enhancement, pollution
Columbian Indians, and the easternmost
pueblo settlement. “My Rambles as East Texas Cowboy, Hunter, abatement and control, water supply and
recreational Fisherman, Tie-cutter" and by another na
In the Senate I have introduced a resolu
are resulting tive, Mary Lasswell, in "I'll Take Texas.” benefits of these activities.
tion calling for the United States to take the And some Big Thicket people who live in it
The present administration and the 87th
lead in convening an international conferstill and love it more, like Lance Rosier, de
ence for conserving the world's wildlife. and 88th Congresses have contributed great
Mankind has in recent years rendered exscribe its beauties with oral words not yet ly to the conservation of the Nation's natural
tinct by its cupidity and carelessness over written down.
resources. Let Sol Wright, Big Thicket born and The first substantial additions to the na
200 species of wildlife-over 250 others are raised, describe its wild life a minute: tional park system in 16 years were approved
nearly extinct or in danger of becoming so. "I never have, in all my rambles, been to during the 87th Congress. These were the
Something must be done to prevent this, to a place where there was as many small aniPadre Island, Cape Cod, and Point Reyes
preserve a source of food and leather, particmals: coons, possums, rabbits and squirrels national seashores. I am proud to have
ularly in the undeveloped nations of the
world. Wildlife is a true natural resource and birds-owls, hawks, crows, quail, played a rart in bringing this about. These meadowlarks, woodpeckers, blue jays, redthree areas increase the total American
and important to all nations. birds, whip-poor-wills and mockingbirds. seashore freely available to the public by
Creation of a Guadalupe Mountains NaSometimes hoot owls will talk and laugh
285 miles or by over one-third. I was moved tional Park in the Trans-Pecos and recrealike people." to author the Padre Island bill and to sup
tional developments at the Amistad ReserAnd the Big Thicket is a land of deer, wild port all the others, realizing how little of
voir on the Rio Grande are also projects turkeys, alligators and wildcats. the thousands of miles of America's sea
worth prosecuting, and on which I am workThis 1,130 wilderness acres we dedicate is a shores were open to the public, free of com
ing. beginning, but only a beginning, not enough mercial changes for their use and enjoyment. Here this big thicket area is unique in yet to preserve the flora and fauna of this Even more should be acquired by the Govern character, but is in danger of losing its exceptional area. But at last and at least, we ment. Padre Island national seashore rec
identity. have begun.
reation area, 81 miles long, is the longest This area, now about 340,000 acres, of In 1961, I inquired about the possibility of public seashore area in the Nation.
sandy soil and rolling terrain includes some saving some of this area in its natural state, The Wetlands Acquisition Act makes it virgin forest, many varieties of trees, innuand the U.S. Forestry Service under the possible to establish, over a 7-year period merable flowers and other native plant life leadership of Mr. John W. Cooper, former new waterfowl refuges to the extent of which are found nowhere else. Its soil and forest supervisor of the Texas National For 100,000 acres. This is badly needed as many
weather conditions favor rapid and dense ests, and the entire San Jacinto County of the places naturally frequented by mi growth, particularly of pine. Many interCommissioner Court, under the leadership of grating waterfowl have disappeared in recent esting and historical events have taken place Judge J. R. Page have worked to bring about years due to the advances of civilization; within the region and its beauty and this result we proudly celebrate today. that is, drainage, real estate development, uniqueness make more than these 1,130 acres
So the opportunity to preserve and make airport runways, super highways, and other worthy of preservation as a national park or available for viewing one of the world's encroachment. The millions of duck and monument. great remaining unspoiled scenic areas in geese that formerly came over the Big America is becoming increasingly conmy native east Texas means a great deal to Thicket in clouds have dwindled to small scious of the need for conservation of its me. The Big Thicket that once extended flocks. The wetlands program will help natural resources. It is indeed fortunate over 12 southeast Texas counties has shrunk bring them back.
that the present Congress and administrato about 4 in the face of advancing civili The Water Pollution Control Act has been tion are acutely aware of it and are prozation. I hope that not another inch of extended and strengthened. More funds ceeding vigorously with a broad program of this magnificent forest of sandy soil and have been made available for research grants such activity and will continue to. Growing rolling terrain with its wildlife, varieties of in aid, administrative and technological up 1 mile from the Neches River, I grew up trees, flowers and other native plants will assistance to State and local agencies and with a love of nature and will continue to be given up to man's relentless tendency to real enforcement provisions have been pro support conservation in all its aspects. destroy that which is beautiful, in order to vided for abatement of sources of pollution. Congratulations to all of you on what you pile up more unmarketable surpluses.
An omnibus river and harbor-flood control have done here. Let us resolve with this For many years America has been counting act was approved which will go far to step dedication, to advance this good work much its blessings in bounteous natural resources. up the development of the national water further.