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which is in the municipality of Richmond, lumber conveyors, sawmills belch smoke. Many bogs on the coast do not have margin a suburb of Greater Vancouver, to a few miles This is still, in some respects, primitive, ditches, again different from in the East. south of Bandon in southwestern Oregon, pioneering country.
Ditches often have boarded sides and someperhaps 900 miles as the crow or airplane Yet, while cranberry growers of the coast times also boarded tops, in both margin and would fly, much more by road. This is a lot as a general run, are not much richer than
cross ditches. In marginal ditches these of territory to cover in the short time we cranberry growers elsewhere, it is amazing boards retain earth material and also help alloted for the visit.
how many have thoroughly modern homes, prevent bog side weeds from spreading onto INFORMATION SOURCES many of these at bogsites. Usually single the bogs. Also, in the other areas not many
bog railways are used. Grayland is a noSources of information for this series in- storied, flat or shed-roofed, these homes con
table example of the use of railways. clude, two surveys made by Dr. F. B. Chan- tain many beautiful woods in exterior and
More details on all these west coast pracdler, of the Massachusetts Cranberry Experi- interior finish. Private dwellings, I was told,
tices, including the use of aluminum dikes ment Station. One is his “Cranberries in are cheaper to build out there. They are
will appear in following articles. Washington,” published in 1956, following a nearer the source of supply of these woods.
All along the cranberry areas there flares visit and the other "A Survey of Oregon's
Also electric power rates are much lower,
the brilliant yellow of the Scotch Broom and Cranberry Industry,” published in 1957, after so that about every house is completely elec
the Irish Fruz, the latter a distinct fire a second visit; USDA statistics, experiment trified, from electric coffee pot, to electric
menace. This gorse contributed to the alstation publications, back files of Cranberry heating. They also do not have cellars.
most total destruction by a great forest fire magazine and more freshly, interviews on the Much glass is used and unusual woods from trip, and assistance from a number of growthe Orient_also a nearer supply source, than in 1938 of the city of Bandon, with some
loss of life. (Only last month a winders and others with knowledge of west coast on the east coast. Again, many of the crancranberry growing.
berry men build their homes with their own whipped gorse fire badly damaged a Bandon There has never been a survey of Lulu Is- ingenuity and labor. I was told by one such home, a fire in which the owner was in
. However, this gorse in its prolificland cranberry growing that I am aware of, cranberryman, "We get an idea of what we
ness and its striking color along the highand I am not attempting a real survey of this want, the kind of house and the kind of unique area, which was our first point of arrangement of everything in it. We do not ways and in the fields, is a feature of the
Pacific Northwest. hire an architect, we just go along working
Also if there are not call.
mountains, such as the low coastal range COAST VERY DIFFERENT
out of our heads." The whole coast is different than other
Likely, the most impressive of these is the through Oregon, there are hills to be seen cranberry-growing areas. For instance, you magnificant, modern home of Mr. and Mrs. from the bogs, or near the bogs.
SCENERY POWERFUL cannot stand on a cranberry bog in Massa- Frank 0: Glenn, of amazing Cranguyma chusetts or New Jersey or Wisconsin and taken up in a later article.
Farms, at Long Beach. Cranguyma will be This is not the familiar landscape of the look up at snow-clad mountains, as you can
east, nor of Wisconsin. To me the scenery at Lulu on a clear day, seeing the peaks of
BOGS ON HILLS
is so powerful, that it is a bit distracting, the high Canadian mountains. You see these To get back more specifically to cranberry making it difficult to keep the mind on the when you look to the north and also the growing, some bogs in the Bandon area are
details of cranberry growing. Everything is mountains of vast Vancouver Island 30 miles built on hills and on hillsides, not on flats.
different and interesting. out in the Pacific. In no other bog can you One bog, about 3 miles from the Pacific is hundred or more peacocks strut and scream
There is no bog, that I know of, where a see the high towers of a huge city, Van- on a hilltop about 300 feet high. A number couver. I know of no other place where you of the Bandon area growers terrace their about the shore except at Cranguyma. walk upon bog dikes topped with sawdust bogs, that is each section is lower than the
These birds serve no practical purpose. At and sawmill leavings, as here lumber is still next one. Water is scarce in the summer.
the Big Red Cranberry Co., Ltd. at Lulu king. This terracing enables the grower to drop
there are employed gangs of Chinese women The "Alpine” peaks of the Olympics are not water down from level to level for reuse, in
hand weeders. When cranberry bogs were far from the bogs of Grayland, Wash. At the water-reel harvesting, which is the prin- labor was employed.
first built at Long Beach, Wash., Chinese Grayland, nearly the entire cranberry pro
The Chinese women cipal harvest method. Incidentally, some duction is from a single vast peat bog, in a
weeders at Big Red are said to be most inOregon growers think it is ridiculous for east swale between the coastal sand dunes, and coast growers to harvest dry, and to lose 20
dustrious and do clean up the weedy areas. there each grower has his own piece of bog, percent or more of the crop.
To "get down to cases,” in 1961, Washingdivided from his neighbor by a ditch only.
ton produced 139,000 barrels, the high pro
Of course, as has been published in previ- duction of the Evergreen State. Oregon in Long Beach area, Washington, is the most ous issues of Cranberries magazine, New Jerhomelike to eastern eyes. In fact, the Long sey has gone in largely for water-reel har- Washington 55,000 but 1962 was an "off
1961 produced 45,400 barrels, last year 34,000; Beach Peninsula, 28 miles of continuous vest the past year or two. In Massachusetts beach, is called the “longest beach in the
year," as far as the coast was concerned. last year (notably by David Mann, Head-ofworld,” and the sand is so hard packed that
Growing conditions simply were not right. Bay Road, Buzzards Bay) extensively tried automobiles run up and down it; there are
And, then on Columbus Day came "Freda,” out water raking, but in the Wisconsin dunes of sand, and it has been called “the method (by "mechanical scoops," Dana-Get
which was possibly a typhoon with winds Cape Cod of the West.”
exceeding 150 miles on hour, similar in desinger picking machines). Dr. Chester E.
struction to the hurricanes which have swept Lulu Island is approximately at the 50th Cross, director of Massachusetts Cranberry
the cranberry areas of Massachusetts and parallel of north latitude and is north of the Experiment Station has harvested, experi- New Jersey. bogs of Nova Scotia. At Bandon, Oreg., mentally at the State bog, by both the Wiswhich is at about the same latitude as Cape consin picker and the water-reel method, were blown right out of the bogs and the
Berries, boomed by the water reel method, May in New Jersey, you see palm and bam- and has urged such wet harvest methods be
vines were piled with the debris of fallen boo (imported) growing, thousands of wild attempted by more Massachusetts growers. rhododendrons, very beautiful. Snow is an The program and much of the pioneering timber were blown down, and today traces
shrubs and trees. Millions of board feet of extreme rarity. All of the Pacific Northwest work in these wet methods has been done
of "Freda" are still in evidence. is warmed by the Japanese current, which through the mechanical ability of Prof. John cuts in sharply. Much of the vegetation is “Stan” Norton, station researcher in en
of the 1961 production, Washington sold extremely lush, and may be described as all gineering.
115,800 barrels as processed fruit and fresh, but subtropical. Winters in the Pacific The foregoing should not give the false
23,200; Oregon 20,200 processed and fresh Northwest are extremely rainy, the greatest impression that all west coast crops are
6,100 (USDA figures). All berries sold of the rainfall in the United States being in the harvested entirely by wet methods.
Washington crop were produced in the Gray
The Olympic Mountains, not very far from Gray Grayland area which has the larger Wash
land area. I do not yet have figures as to land. Summers are dry and often almost ington acreage and more production, picks processed and fresh Oregon sales for the 1962 cool at times. entirely by dry raking, with either the West
crop, but expect to have in subsequent
MORE SOLD FRESH
Right here, it should be said that west spring flowers (and weeds) appear much
Grayland area. Lulu Island also harvests coast growers are striving to increase quality earlier than in other cranberry areas; the dry.
and want to have a larger proportion of problooming period for cranberries is much
duction go fresh. It might seem this could longer; the crop is picked later, extending
DIKES OF ALUMINUM
be accomplished this fall with the new cooler generally into November.
Bandon, also seems to be pioneering in a storage room at the Ocean Spray plant at In the Pacific Northwest the trees tower new type of enclosures for the harvest sec- Markham, Wash., where all west coast berries mightily into the sky, Douglas fir and spruce, tions. These are dikes made of aluminum, eventually wind up. even though much land has been timbered
and not of earth or wood. After use in each To get back to the growth of the cranberry off. Logging, however, continues at a great section, water is released to another through growing on the Pacific coast; in 1924 west clip; log booms are to be seen in nearly every small gates, as, of course, is done to different coast acreage (USDA figure) both Washingestuary, great tree butts, more than a yard beds of sections in other cranberry areas.
beds of sections in other cranberry areas. ton and Oregon was 570 and production was in diameter roll along the highways in huge These dikes can be in straight lines or curved. 14,000 barrels; even then barrels per acre
were 24.6, with the U.S. average 22.2. By Others work as garagemen, electricians, and cranberry growing has been steadily increas1940 acreage had increased to 840 with pro various occupations.
ing. duction to 27,000 barrels per acre that year
It might be surmised that the use of the
AMBITION were 44.6, below the U.S. average of 48.4.
aluminum dikes, developed in the Bandon By 1950 the acreage was 1,090, production
It is my impression and strong belief that
area, as a means of dividing bogs for water47,700; average production on the coast per it is the ambition of many to become full
harvest, may spread, if the wet harvesting acre, 42.2. In the decade of the 1950's,
time cranberrymen. I was told this many method continues to increase as is now the Washington production average was 62,400 times.
trend. and that of Oregon 32,490. With the high acreage production it is
M'FARLINS PREDOMINATE Latest figures (1962) for harvested acreage
felt that 15 or maybe even 12 acres would shows Washington has 1,100 acres and Ore
Nearly all of the entire west coast plantmake bog holdings, wholly self-sustaining
ings are McFarlins, although there are a few gon 560. Of this Washington acreage the
for a grower. With the few exceptions alLong Beach area has about 400 acres; Grayready noted, only a handful own as much
eastern Howes, Early Blacks, and some Searls
from Wisconsin. land about 600, while the so-called and relaas 18 acres today.
It was interesting to be tively newer North Beach has something
In all areas there is now a definite move
informed several times that California people less than 100. (These figures were provided ment among the more progressive to con
when buying fresh cranberries prefer what
they call "the big, red cranberries.” by the Coastal Washington Experiment Stasolidate holdings, especially at Grayland, to
Each cranberry area has its own growers' tion at Long Beach.) Of production the
acquire more pieces of bog, even though they
association, even to Lulu Island, a Grayland Long Beach area produced 35 to 40 percent,
Cranberry Association, Long Beach Cranwhile the balance is grown in Grayland and
This is going on also at Long Beach and at the North Beach district. Bandon, where some new bog is being put berry Club and Southwestern Oregon Cran
. As to acreage, or production there seem to
in. Actually, a little new acreage is being be no official figures for Lulu Island. Howput in, in at all areas—more than is being
WEST COAST ADVISORY BOARD ever, the Big Red, operated by the “Three abandoned.
This might be a good place to insert men
FEWER GROWERS Yanks” from Carver, Mass., "Norm" Holmes,
tion of the West Coast Advisory Board. Each "Fritz" Shaw and "Jimmy" Thomas, who In most cranberry areas, as is true in all area on the coast (but not in Canada) has migrated to Canada in 1954 (and about farming, the number of growers is tending its own elected group with membership on whom and their holding more will appear to be fewer, but each grower with larger
the board. This unit was formed back in later) has 106 acres in vines. North Amer holdings. On the first visit in 1944 the best the 1940's when Ocean Spray "went west.” ican Peat Co., Ltd. has about 18 acres of new estimate obtainable as to the number of
The board in actuality acts as a "go-bebog; Bell Farms, Ltd. has 67 in vines; Shaw growers was about 250 on the entire coast.
tween" of west coast Ocean Spray directors has 3 of his own, Thomas Yardley, a veteran Chandler in his 1956–57 surveys receives re
and the cranberry growers. Growers may grower of Lulu has about 4. Several others plies to questionnaires from 227 growers in
suggest their own ideas to the two directors, have what they call home or back yard Washington and in Oregon contacted 142,
David Pryde of Grayland and Jimmy Olson bogs of a few rods. Total at Lulu is there for a total of 379. The Cranberry Institute
of Bandon. These present the ideas, prefore figured at about 175 acres. Production in 1962 for the referendum on the marketing sumably if they are deemed worthy, at the has not yet exceeded 5,000 barrels. order had a total of 340, in Washington 205
several yearly meetings of Ocean Spray diMost of the Lulu growers, and all the and 135 in Oregon.
rectors at Hanson. There they may be larger ones sell through Ocean Spray Cran Thus it would seem growers increased in
discussed. berries, Ltd. of Canada, a subsidiary of Ocean numbers from the forties to midfifties, but
Upon returning the directors disseminate Spray, and they are therefore not direct have slightly decreased since. More exact
what information they have ascertained at stockholders of the big U.S. co-op. figures may be expected as their series goes
the meetings, not only in regard to west Some additional acreage is going in, and along.
coast suggestions, but what has taken place there is very abundant cranberry land po
LITTLE AIR CONTROL
in general at the meeting of the directors. tential. Consequently, production could be
In other words, west coast growers have a
There is very little application of chemicals substantial. So far, there have been frosts
direct pipeline to the entire board of difrom the air on the coast, but some, which is or other adverse weather conditions, but, I
rectors and as to what the plans of the unlike the east coast. Wisconsin uses ground was told "this could be the year,” which, of
board are. Cecil Richards, vice president of applications. Unlike the East and Wisconcourse, is the hope of all who grow a crop
the Grayland board firmly believes and sugsin, with mild winters, there is no appreciable gests that this would be a good idea for of any kind. ice forming on bogs, and not much winter
Ocean Spray members in other cranberry MOST COAST GROWERS SMALL flooding although there is some.
areas to adopt. These west coast growers with a few ex The west coast is relatively new to cran Last month Howard "Pete" Hull of the ceptions are growers with small holdings;
berry culture, and this beginning requires Bandon area was elected president of the the exceptions being the two big bogs at only mention here, as most of it has been
west coast board, at the seimannual meeting, Lulu, Cranguyma, at Long Beach, and the
published in this magazine before and will held this time at Bandon. Mr. Richards was Dellinger bog in Clatsop County, Oreg.
be reviewed later in the regional articles. named vice president of the board. Figures compiled by Mrs. Irene Hollings
The first planting west of the Rockies was in worth, secretary at the Markham plant, asOregon in 1885 by Charles Dexter McFarlin,
GROWERS NOT DISCOURAGED sisted by Superintendent Wilho Ross and of Carver, Mass. The second was a little later One factor of the visit seemed impressive. Mrs. Maude O'Brien, show that present pro
on the Long Beach Peninsula by a French This was that none, or few of the growers, duction per bog is approximately 350 barrels gardener, Anthony Chabot. These first talked with really seemed discouraged with at Grayland and 714 at Long Beach. This plantings were established, as is apparent, the future of cranberry growing. Were they discrepancy is explained by the fact that long after cranberry growing had become an satisfied with the returns they are receiving: Chandler in his Washington survey found industry of some import in Massachusetts Of course not. Yet the talk was mostly of that "the relative size of holdings, (in Wash and New Jersey, and the first known culti how they planned to improve their bogs, inington) may be expressed in the statement vated cranberry planting in Wisconsin was crease production per acre, and of getting that Long Beach has 17 percent of the growin the 1850's.
a little more acreage, either through builders and 39 percent of the planted cranberry
NOTABLE COAST CONTRIBUTIONS
ing, or by acquiring acreage already built, as land, Grayland has 83 percent of the grow
property became available to buy.
Yet, the west coast had made several notaers and 61 percent of the land," which means that Long Beach holdings are generally ble contributions to cranberry growing. One
NO WEST COAST "BOOM" IN SIGHT larger. Situation has not changed too much
was the development of the first mechanical Need the other cranberry areas "worry"
picker, near Bandon, principally by the late because of a sudden big spurt in west coast since then.
Joe Stankovich. This mechanical harvester production? It would seem not, immediWhile this may be disputed, it seems
was developed into the Western Picker and ately. There may come a year when all conprobable that Grayland growers on the av
Rudy Hillstrom came East to introduce it; ditions are favorable and production will erage, produce more to the acre than do
it came into wide use, and changed the har zoom as in 1961. those of Long Beach district.
vesting of cranberries from the manual scoop Otherwise, it would seem there may be In regard to Oregon, Chandler found that
to mechanical harvest, as revolutionary as a little increase in production per acre, a 59 percent of the growers had 3 acres or less
had been the earlier scoop over the snap little increase each year in total production. and 77 percent had 4 or less and only 17 permachine and hand harvest.
No big amounts of acreage are likely to be cent had more than 5 acres.
It was in the Bandon area, by Summer Fish put in, as in all cranberry areas, until cranGROWERS HAVE OTHER INCOMES
and others, that the water reel was devised, berry returns to growers become better, this A large majority of the growers of both and its use is spreading today.
seems true with the exception of Wisconsin Washington and Oregon need other sources First use of sprinkler systems for cran where there is an almost steady increase of of income than cranberry growing. Some berries, appears to have been a Long Beach, a hundred or so acres every year. work at logging, some work in sawmills, a Wash., development. Their use was pioneered A word of appreciation to those who espenumber go salmon fishing in season, many in the 1920's by D. J. Crowley, then director cially helped us most on the coast: Wilho cater to the thriving summer tourist trade of the Washington Cranberry and Blueberry Ross, and Mrs. Irene Hollingsworth of Markat Grayland, Long Beach, and Bandon. Station. Since then use of sprinklers in ham plant; "Norm" Holmes at Vancouver;
David Pryde at Grayland, also Cecil Richards which to appease the Communists and stimulus to peace and understanding is. But and John R. O'Hagan; to D. J. Crowley at
strengthen their economy so they can I'm a little worried about the Western AlLong Beach and Dr. Charles C. Doughty and the more effectively weaken our security. Look at me. Already I'm sore at the West
liance. Can it survive this new program? Mrs. Aloha Gustafson of the experiment sta
Thus this one-shot deal has become a tion, to Mr. Glenn, and in the Bandon area
Germans. to Ray Bates, Jimmy Olson, and Jack Dean. mighty fusillade of new concessions to
I guess it's that I can't stand their greedier the Communists.
than thou attitude. TRIED TO BE CRANBERRY MISSIONARIES
I ask that the Hoppe article be printed Finally, on this trip we tried to be good at this point in the RECORD.
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there cranberry missionaries. In casual talk with
further morning business? There being no objection, the article
If not, people at railroad, bus, and air terminals, on trains, etc., we would fall into casual con was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, morning business is closed. versation as people do. When we mentioned
as follows: cranberries there seemed to be only a little SUREFIRE PEACE FORMULA: GREED RESEARCH- AMENDMENT OF FOREIGN ASSISTremembering of the "cranberry scare" of ER FINDS MOTIVATION MAKES WHEAT GO
ANCE ACT OF 1961 1959, but still something vaguely "connected ROUND, WITH PROFIT TO ALL with cancer." We asked for a cranberry
(By Arthur Hoppe)
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The product at eating places, we got cranberries
Chair lays before the Senate the unonly once, on a Santa Fe railway diner, and
In our constant search for world peace, as this was sauce, served with-you guessed it, you know, we've kind of given up relying on finished business.
the old standbys of love and brotherhood. poultry, in this case roast turkey.
The Senate resumed the consideration While nice in theory, they didn't pan out of the bill (H.R. 7885) to amend further Also, at the mention of cranberries to
too well. So now all we do-gooders are pin- the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as many, it rang a bell—"Ocean Spray, oh,
ning our hopes on a far more basic, univer- amended, and for other purposes. I've heard of that,” when we had only men
sal human emotion. Greed. tioned cranberries.
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The And I'm delighted to report the peace question is on agreeing to the amendIf this article sounds "too much Ocean
through greed program is going great guns ment (No. 248) proposed by Mr. KUCHEL, Spray,” it is not so intended, but the fact
already. remains about 83 percent of the industry is
But let us add a note of caution: There are for himself and the junior Senator from Ocean Spray and among west coast growers dark clouds on the horizon.
California (Mr. ENGLE], to insert on page the percentage is not more than a hair be
The program was officially launched by Mr. 48, after line 3, of the committee sublow 100 percent. And, as regards the name
Kennedy's announcement that we would stitute, as amended, the following lanOcean Spray being well-known Ocean Spray
swap the Russians 4 million tons of wheat, guage: does do a lot of national advertising.
which they are greedy for, in return for $250 Future articles, as stated, will take up million in gold, which we are greedy for.
SEC. 302A. Section 620 of the Foreign Asarea by area and individual growers and
sistance Act of 1961, as amended, which reAnd it seemed like the rosy dawn of a new properties and others with west coast cran
lates to prohibitions against furnishing asera of peace through mutual greed, in which berry interests. There may be a little repetiall men would lay down their swords at last. adding the following new subsection:
sistance to certain countries, is amended by tion of fact but only enough to maintain
In order to pick each other's pockets. the continuity of each article.
"(i) No assistance shall be furnished True, there were some complaints from
under this Act to any country which (1) midwestern Congressmen, whose militantly has extendea, or hereafter extends, its jurisanti-Communist constituents also grow
diction for fishing purposes over any area HOW IS THE NEW PEACE THROUGH wheat, we are only selling the Russians
of the high seas beyond three miles from GREED PROGRAM
4 million tons? When our allies are selling ACTUALLY
the coastline of such country, and (2) herethem 15 million? What's happened to AmerWORKING?
after imposes any penalty or sanction against ican salesmanship?
any United States fishing vessel on account Mr. MUNDT. Mr. President, ever But generally the reaction here to the peace of its fishing activities in such area. The since President Kennedy, by executive through greed program has been favorable.
through greed program has been favorable. provisions of this subsection shall not be
After all, it's an approach our Congressmen applicable in any case in which the extension action and over the protests of many
can understand. And the only real opposi- of jurisdiction is made pursuant to interSenators and Congressmen, switched our
tion has come from our stanch friend, West national agreement to which the United cold war policy from one of curtailing Germany.
States is a party.” trade with Communist countries to one
You know how virulently anti-Communist of trading with the enemy and giving the West Germans are. And you can't blame
On this question, the yeas and nays aid and comfort to those who would them, living as they do in the shadow of the
them, living as they do in the shadow of the have been ordered. bury us, the repercussions of the so Berlin Wall. Who knows better the horrors Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, first, I called wheat for Communists deal have
of communism? Who better understands ask unanimous consent that I may mod
the need to put the economic screws to the ify the amendment in two particulars. been increasingly sour and disturbing.
Soviet bloc in hopes their evil regime will The first is a purely technical amendAs predicted at the time, this was not
fall? repeat not-a one-shot deal. It was,
And oh, what an impassioned warning ment. On line 5, I ask unanimous coninstead, the forerunner of more and even
sage old Mr. Adenauer, of West Germany, sent that the letter in parentheses “(i)" more distasteful and disillusioning con delivered to us before Mr. Kennedy approved be changed to “(k)”. cessions to the Communists. It appears the wheat deal. How, Mr. Adenauer asked The second request would not change appeasement is again to dominate our with tears in his eyes, could we even think of in any respect the intent of the amendattitudes toward Khrushchev and his such a thing? Would we, he demanded, all
ment offered by my colleague from fellow Communist overlords and dicta
choked up, really sell wheat to the Com; California (Mr. ENGLE] and me; I think
munists, and thereby betray, our loyal it would improve it. I have been asked tors.
West German allies, who have stood by our Using sarcasm and cynicism, Arthur
side for 15 long years? Would we, he asked, by the Senators from Alaska (Mr. BARTHoppe in the Washington Evening Star his voice rising, "sell the Communists the LETT and Mr. GRUENING] to make this pins the label of "Peace Through Greed” noose with which to hang ourselves?" Would change. I believe it is in the interest of on this new twist in our ever-changing we, he summed up, rising to oratorical
we, he summed up, rising to oratorical clarity that I make this request. but never-consistent foreign foreign policy. heights, "fatten up our own butcher?”
Mr. President, I ask unanimous conFirst, we were to sell the wheat only for
Oh, how moving it was to hear this old
sent that on line 8, after the word cash and it was to be shipped in Ameri
statesman put principles ahead of profit. "beyond,” the remainder of the language can bottoms with American seamen with
Of course, it might have been more moving
ending with the word "country" on line no subsidy from the Government and no 35,000 tons of West German wheat flour to
9 be stricken, and that in lieu thereof concessions to the low wage rates of the Communists the day before, which was
there be inserted: "that recognized by Communist ships. Now, we hear our part of 350,000 tons the West Germans are the United States,". Government is to guarantee credit sales selling the Soviet bloc, which is part of
Let me explain what the amendment to the Communists. Ways are being
the $1.4 billion in annual trade between
West Germany and the Iron Curtain counsought to beat down the wages of Ameri
is designed to do. As now offered by the
amendment tries. But, as I say, it was good to hear him California Senators, this can seamen or to have American taxpayers subsidize the low-cost delivery of
put principles above profit. His principles provides, in part, that
above our profit. wheat to Communist countries. Corn,
No assistance shall be furnished under
But a speech like that kind of builds your this act to any country which (1) has extobacco, rice, and cotton are now being faith in the peace through greed program.
faith in the peace through greed program. tended, or hereafter extends, its jurisdiction considered as additional products with It makes you realize how overwhelming this
It makes you realize how overwhelming this for fishing purposes over any area of the
high seas beyond that recognized by the which committed the illegal act to re in the case of the Russians torn up our United States
imburse the Government of the United crab fishermen's gear, and in addition to And so forth. The Senators from States for that amount of money. Not inflicting these losses upon them have Alaska are hopeful that the Government 1 cent has ever come back to the Federal impaired their livelihood. of the United States may ultimately find Treasury from an offending country. A week or so ago the Senate passed a it to be in the national interest to change Indeed, with only one country and with bill sponsored by my colleague from the historical 3-mile limit to a 12-mile but three claims out of many, has the Alaska (Mr. BARTLETT) and other Senalimit. I do not quarrel with that sug- Department of State even filed a claim. ators, which provided that any future gestion at all. The language suggested,
The amendment now before you is violations by foreign fishermen of our therefore, "that recognized by the United simple and direct.
3-mile limit-which is the limit at presStates,” would, in my judgment, make
ent-shall be punished by fine and imabundantly clear what we intend to do. No assistance under the Alliance for Prog prisonment. But first it is necessary to
Mr. President, I ask unanimous con ress shall be furnished under this Act to any catch the violators. At present, the U.S. sent that the amendment may be modi- country which (1) has extended, or here Coast Guard vessels patrolling those wa
after extends, its jurisdiction for fishing purfied in those two respects.
ters are not as fast as the modern, up to poses over any area of the high seas beyond The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there
date Russian fishing vessels, which that recognized by the United States, and objection? The Chair hears none, and
merely slide away when they are de(2) hereafter imposes any penalty or sancit is so ordered. tion against any United States fishing vessel
tected, and whose crews laugh at us. The amendment, as modified, is as fol on account of its fishing activities in such
I hope the amendment will be adopted. lows:
It should be adopted unanimously.
Mr. KUCHEL. I thank the distinOn page 48, between lines 3 and 4, it is Then the amendment provides: proposed to insert the following:
guished Senator from Alaska for his elo
The provisions of this subsection shall not "SEC. 302A. Section 620 of the Foreign be applicable in any case in which the ex
quent contribution to the discussion. Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, which tension of jurisdiction is made pursuant to
Mr. President, I yield to the distinrelates to prohibitions against furnishing international agreement to which the United
guished senior Senator from Alaska. assistance to certain countries, is amended States is a party.
Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. President, I do by adding the following new subsection:
not attempt to render judgment as to “'(k) No assistance shall be furnished un
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, will how this problem should be approached, der this Act to any country which (1) has the Senator yield?
either in connection with this bill or extended, or hereafter extends, its jurisdic
Mr. KUCHEL. I yield to the able Sention for fishing purposes over any area of ator from Alaska.
otherwise; but I most assuredly and emthe high seas beyond that recognized by
phatically congratulate the Senator from United States, and (2) hereafter imposes any
Mr. GRUENING. I wholeheartedly
I wholeheartedly California [Mr. KUCHEL] and his colpenalty or sanction against any U.S. fishing support the desirable amendment spon- league [Mr. ENGLE] for having sought to vessel on account of its fishing activities in sored by the two distinguished Senators solve this very grave problem, which is such area. The provisions of this subsection from California. What has happened off especially grave for the American tunashall not be applicable in any case in which the coast of South America is positively fishing industry. the extension of jurisdiction is made pur- shocking.
shocking. It is time for the United I believe the amendment of the Senasuant to international agreement to which
States to crack down hard on flagrant tor from California is all the better bethe United States is a party.''
abuses and protect our citizens. This cause of the modification he has acMr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, last amendment should do that. It is out- cepted by striking out the language night I spoke at some length concerning rageous that American fishermen, fishing which dealt with a specific 3-mile limit, the proposed amendment. I pointed out on the high seas, have been seized, taken and by having the amendment read, at that, historically, the most widely ac- to court, imprisoned for weeks, and then that point, "that recognized by the cepted standard under international law fined heavily.
United States." is a 3-mile territorial jurisdiction out Although statistics may vary some Am I correct in assuming that the from those countries which abut the seas what, I find that a total of 77 such sei amendment, as modified in the way I and the oceans. I then stated that three zures has been reported by the American have just noted, means the territorial of our Latin American neighbors in par- Tuna Boat Association alone. This does limits or the fishing zone limits of any ticular-Chile, Peru, and Ecuador-have not include another category, not tuna other nation which are recognized by the attempted to arrogate to themselves soy- fishermen, as to which we are now col United States ? ereign jurisdiction over the open seas to lecting statistics, in which our shrimp Mr. KUCHEL. I interpret the amenda distance 200 miles from the shoreline. fishermen have been seized similarly off ment, as it now reads, to apply the words If they are permitted to do that, they the coast of countries to the south of us. "recognized by the United States” to might as well attempt tomorrow to arro- Up to June 28, 1963, fines have been lev- all waters seaward of the traditional or gate complete jurisdiction a 1,000 miles ied on our tuna fishermen in the amount historic jurisdictional boundary, subject, seaward.
of $162,042.70. The Department of the however, to the last sentence of the But with respect to their unilateral Interior has no record beyond that date, amendment, which would permit nego200-mile attempted jurisdiction, they which is now several months past. So tiated agreements to which our country have prevented our fellow Americans we can assume that the amount of fines would be a party. from fishing in the open seas, seaward of has risen. I am hopeful that when the Mr. BARTLETT. In other words, in the 3-mile limit, 10 miles, 20 miles, 30 amendment is adopted—as it should be
dealing with one nation, the United miles, 40 miles, and more. Indeed, they the State Department will take further States might recognize a distance of 3 have confiscated American fishing boats. steps to recover illegally levied fines and miles; in another case the United States They have put American citizens in jail. to reimburse the fishermen who have might recognize a greater or lesser disThey have fined them. They have made suffered.
tance? our fellow Americans, exercising a clear Mr. KUCHEL. I agree with the Sena Mr. KUCHEL. That is true. international right to journey and to tor from Alaska.
Mr. BARTLETT. I cannot conceive fish upon the high seas, subject to all Mr. GRUENING. The mere reim of a situation in which the distance kinds of personal indignities.
bursement of the amount of the fines would be lesser; but in that way we would There is a rather peculiar statute in will not compensate the fishermen for have entire flexibility. this country. A number of years ago, in their loss of time in fishing. I am not Mr. KUCHEL. That is correct. 1954, Congress authorized the Secretary so sure that a larger claim should not be Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. President, after of State to pay compensation to Ameri- made. But I hope that if the amend- reading the amendment I read it for can fishermen if their boats were taken ment is adopted, the State Department the first time only this morning, and I away from them on the open sea and can be counted upon to protect with
can be counted upon to protect with blame only myself for not having been they were fined for their activities in in vigor the fishermen who have suffered in the Chamber yesterday afternoon ternational waters. Under that act, pro- for so long.
when the Senator from California subvision is made for the Secretary of State, I am speaking forcefully because a mitted so ably, factually, and eloquently having once approved reimbursement by similar situation exists in Alaskan wa his argument in favor of the amendthe Treasury of the fishermen who have ters, where Japanese and Russian fisher ment-I notice that at one point the paid fines, illegally, to ask the country men have invaded Alaska's waters, and Senator from California quoted а.
member of the U.S. delegation to Cameroon: June 23, 1962, claimed a 6-mile ENGLE] for making this affirmative move the 1958 conference as saying that the territorial sea.
to end this situation. I am particularly net effect of the conference was to un
(China: While the Republic of China rec- glad that he has modified his amenddercut the arguments made by those who ognizes the 3-nautical-mile territorial
sea, ment, so as to make its provisions
fleximaintain that their nations had a right
Communist China claims a 12-mile terri-
ble, in order that the executive branch to proceed unilaterally beyond the dis
Denmark: June 1, 1963 extended the fish
of the Government will have room in tance of 3 miles, or 1 league.
eries limits for Greenland to 12 miles. A which to operate. Events since that time have disproved similar limit for the Faroes Islands will take Not long ago, and rather unexpectedly, that statement. For example, we know effect March 12, 1964. Certain countries are the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries that only a few months ago Canada exempted from the Greenland limits until
Commission adopted a resolution reunilaterally served notice of her intenMay 31, 1973.
questing that the U.S. Government extion to establish a 12-mile fishing zone.
Malagasy Republic: February 27, 1963,
tend our jurisdiction over fishing beyond claimed a 12-mile territorial sea. We of the United States are highly hope
Morocco: Extended fishing jurisdiction to
the 3-mile limit. While that demand ful, and believe, that because of negotia
12 miles, except for the Strait of Gibraltar, from fishing groups is not yet universal, tions which are in process, the historic for which such jurisdiction was extended to it is growing almost every month. They fishing rights of Americans, as estab 6 miles.
feel that we must have that added prolished in Canadian waters, will be hon Norway: Extended fisheries jurisdiction to tection. I am sure that the legal opinored. But here we have an example of 6 miles on April 1, 1961, and to 12 miles on
ions, when called for, will assert our right the United States negotiating in recogSeptember 1, 1961.
to act unilaterally to adopt a 12-mile nition of Canada's unilateral action as
Senegal: June 21, 1961, claimed a 6-mile territorial sea, plus a 6-mile contiguous zone.
fishing zone when and if we choose to do it relates to a 12-mile fishing zone.
Sudan: August 2, 1960, extended the ter
So. We know that even a 12-mile fishThe Senator from California, in pursu ritorial sea to 12 miles.
ing zone would not afford adequate proing the same line of thought, said, “that Tunisia: July 26, 1962, extended the ter tection to New England fishermen, whose in 1958, 40 coastal states claimed no more ritorial sea to 6 miles with an additional 6 historic fishing banks have recently been than i league as the breadth of their miles of fisheries jurisdiction for a portion covered—and I suppose that is about the territorial seas"; and just before relating of its coast from the Algerian border to Ras
correct word in that case-by foreign that fact, he said, "that 27 of the 73 Kapoudia, and extended the territorial sea
fishing vessels, particularly huge Ruscoastal states claimed a territorial sea from there to the Lybian border to the 50
sian fleets with big ships that remain for meter isobath line. in excess of 1 league in breadth.” Every
months at a time on the Atlantic coast,
Uruguay: February 21, 1963, claimed a 6thing he said in that connection is cor mile territorial sea plus a 6-mile contiguous on the gulf coast, and on our own Parect; but there have been some dramatic zone for fishing and other purposes.
cific coast. changes since 1958, and I believe they
With my colleague from Alaska, I
Mr. BARTLETT. Mr. President, with should be made a part of this RECORD. the permission of the Senator from Cali- us in Alaska-must move rapidly and
point out that we particularly those of Even since the 1960 conference on the fornia, I should like to read from a letter positively if the United States is to mainlaw of the sea, 10 more nations, so I am which I received from the State Depart- tain any place at all in the fishing world. informed, have extended their territorial ment on June 17 of this year: limits or adopted fishing zones beyond
In only 5 years we have slipped from
Since that timethe 3-mile limit. In addition, some eight
second place to fifth place. The amendother nations have indicated they intend So Assistant Secretary Frederick G. ment, if adopted, would be a move to proto do the same thing. Among them is Dutton informs me—“that time,” being tect our fishermen, at least in their legitithe United Kingdom. I am told that the
I am told that the the time of the holding of the Law of mate search for tuna. United Kingdom has called a conference the Sea Conferences at Geneva in 1958 The Senator from California deserves for this fall, that it will be participated in and 1960—
support in his effort to do that which he by several European nations, and that it several countries have made claims to an
seeks to do. is very likely that from that conference, extended territorial sea or an exclusive fish Mr. KUCHEL. Mr. President, I am several nations—and, almost assuredly, ing zone. A summary of such claims since very grateful to my able friend from the United Kingdom will be among
the 1960 Law of the Sea Conference, based on Alaska. I thank him very much for his them-will abandon the 3-mile limit for information reaching the Department, is also
excellent contribution. enclosed. fisheries.
Mr. President, I ask unanimous conSince 1960, Albania has restricted in That is the table I have already sub- sent to insert two editorials at this point. nocent passage in a 10-mile territorial mitted for printing in the RECORD.
There being no objection, the editorials sea, and claims fishing jurisdiction up to
According to the latter, it appears were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, 12 miles.
likely that at least eight other nations as follows: Cameroon, in June of last year, exwill take similar action. It is clear that
[From the Los Angeles (Calif.) Times, Oct. tended her territorial sea to a 6-mile as of today, a full majority of coastal
6, 1963] limit.
nations either have or are planning in NEW VERSION OF THE BARBARY PIRATES Denmark extended the fisheries limits the near future to expand their jurisdic
The notion prevalent in parts of Latin for Greenland to 12 miles, in June of this It follows that these extensions up to 12
tion over fish beyond the 3-mile limit. America that the United States is a fat patsy year. A similar limit for the Faroes miles for fishing jurisdiction are accepted cheek should be discouraged.
with a masochistic urge to turn the other Islands will become effective next March. under international law and must be by
Senator KUCHEL is on the right track-or Morocco likewise extended her fishing the United States.
has the right emotion-in suggesting that jurisdiction to 12 miles.
Mr. President, I know the situation
any nation which interferes with U.S. fishing On September 1, 1961, Norway ex- which confronts California tuna fisher
craft on the high seas shall automatically tended her fishing jurisdiction to 12 men and all other American tuna fisher
forfeit all foreign aid grants from the United miles.
States. men. A few months ago I had the high Nations on the northwest coast of South Other nations have acted likewise.
honor-at the designation of the chair America have made a profitable game of Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- man of the Commerce Committee, the claiming sovereignty over waters 200 miles sent to have printed at this point in the Senator from Washington [Mr. MAGNU
offshore, to harass the southern California RECORD a list of the nations which have SON), to conduct hearings at San Diego
tuna fleet. acted in this field since 1960. and San Pedro. I was told then—and
Tuna skippers have been forced to pay There being no objection, the list was was told in vigorous language, and at
tribute in the form of "licenses" on each trip,
much as the Barbary pirates once levied toll ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as length-of the woes and hardships suf on passing vessels. follows:
fered by hard-working, competent In those forthright days, a little gunSUMMARY OF UNILATERAL CLAIMS TO EXTENDED
American fishermen because their boats boat diplomacy had a salutary effect on the TERRITORIAL SEAS OR EXCLUSIVE FISHING werê seized while at various distances off blackmailers. Since we have become so civZONES, SINCE THE 1960 UNITED NATIONS the coasts of certain South American ilized, we now make ineffectual clucking CONFERENCE ON LAW OF THE SEA countries clearly outside any rational noises when our rights are ignored by the
spiritual heirs of the 18th century brigands. Albania: March 1, 1960, restricted in- concept of the territorial limits.
Since we apparently regard it as a violanocent passage in a 10-mile territorial sea. I applaud the Senator from California
tion of our Boy Scout oath simply to tell Fishing jurisdiction claimed to 12 miles. [Mr. KUCHEL] and his colleague [Mr. these nations we will blow their ships out