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Republic (East Germany), Estonia, tinued to provide military equipment Senator from Ohio yield to the Senator
Mr. LAUSCHE. I yield. public, North Vietnam, Outer Mongolia, It has been argued that the people of Mr. DOMINICK. I was moved and Mongolian Peoples Republic, Polish Peo- Yugoslavia are contented, but that is not heartened by the Senator's speech, and ples Republic, Rumanian Peoples Re- a fact. Within the past month othere I agree completely with him in regard public, Tibet, Federal Peoples Republic was a handicraft exhibit in Vienna, and to the shortcomings of Tito and the of Yugoslavia, Cuba, and Union of So- Yugoslavs were allowed to go to Vienna Communist government of Yugoslavia. viet Socialist Republics.
to visit that exhibit of craftsmanship; I have some questions which I believe In the administration of this section, 83 of them refused to return to Yugo can be cleared up by the chairman of the President has declared that the Re slavia. Refugees from Yugoslavia are the committee, if the Senator from Ohio public of Yugoslavia and the Polish Peo scattered throughout the world—fugi will permit me to proceed to ask them of ple's Republic fall within the category tives from the tyranny of the man who the chairman. of exceptions under which aid may be now is in charge of Yugoslavia. Also Mr. LAUSCHE. Certainly. allowed. Under this section, the Presi- 10,000 Slovenes who at the time of the Mr. DOMINICK. I am a cosponsor dent could declare tomorrow that the end of the war were in Austria, as mili of the amendment of the Senator from Hungarian People's Republic is entitled tary men, were taken back to Yugo Wisconsin. It seems to me that if, on to be excepted from the prohibition slavia; but before they reached their further review of the act, we adopt that granting aid. If he saw fit to do so, he destination, they were seized, and finally
destination, they were seized, and finally amendment, we really will be saying that could say that Albania, Lithuania, and were decimated.
under no circumstances can our aid be the other nations which I enumerated Tragically, also, daily from Yugo provided to Yugoslavia, even though are entitled to be excepted from the pro- slavia, Croatians, Serbians, and Sloveni under some circumstances our aid could visions of the act,
ans are in flight. They have gone into be provided to East Germany or any of I point out to the Senator from Okla- Italy, Austria, and Germany. But, in the other countries listed in subsection homa that under this section not one my opinion, because of the action of our (f), of the specifically designated Commu- Government, those nations have labeled Mr. LAUSCHE. I believe that is nist countries is entitled to any type of them, not fugitives from Communist correct. aid under the act, including medicines tyranny, but volunteers seeking improved Mr. DOMINICK. Can the chairman and hospitals. Famine food would be economic conditions in other nations. of the committee clarify this point for excluded, because it is covered under a The result has been that daily they are me? Has any of our aid-under the condifferent act.
being forced back into the involuntary tingency fund or otherwise—been given A very interesting question arises. Can servitude that is being promoted and en to any of these countries since the 1961 we conclude that assistance to Yugo- forced in Yugoslavia.
act and since the inclusion of subsecslavia is vital to the security of the It has been argued on the floor of the tion (f) ? United States, and that Yugoslavia is Senate that in Yugoslavia there is free Mr. FULBRIGHT. No, and no aid is not controlled by the international Com- dom of agriculture. Truly there was a now scheduled for Yugoslavia. I am munist conspiracy; and that aid to Yugo- rebellion of the Yugoslav farmers, and, distinguishing that from Public Law 480 slavia will further promote the inde on the surface, collectivized farming has aid, because Poland has received some pendence of the Yugoslav country from been eliminated there. But, in fact, the
been eliminated there. But, in fact, the Public Law 480 aid-but under a difinternational communism?
supposed free farmer of Yugoslavia is ferent act. The President has put Yugoslavia into being taxed and excised from his prod There is in this bill an authorization the category of an exception. Frankly- ucts, to the point where, in effect, there for a small amount of aid for a specific and I repeat what I said a year ago—in is a collectivized farming system. There
purpose-a children's hospital-in my judgment, no Communist govern is no freedom in Yugoslavia. The op Poland. ment anywhere in the world can be rec- portunity for freedom came to an end Mr. DOMINICK. That is excepted onciled as being helpful to the future on the infamous day when—partly sub under section 214(b), I believe. life of the United States. The Commu- scribed to by Great Britain and the Mr. FULBRIGHT. That is correct. It nist philosophy contemplates the de- United States—Tito subjected Mihailo
is a special project in which we have been struction of our country. Giving aid to vich to trial. At that trial, Tito pro interested. a Communist government means giving duced his own witnesses, used his own Mr. DOMINICK. I was told by a reaid to the enemy. Aid to a Communist judge, and, finally, used his own execu liable source that early this year the government means helping that govern tioner. I am not sure, but I think that President used the contingency fund or ment to stay in power and lulling its peo in 1 day the trial was begun, the wit some other fund to provide $2 million ple into the belief that the people of the nesses were heard, and the judgment
worth of aircraft parts to Yugoslavia, United States have sympathy with the was rendered; and on the following day and that Congress was notified about Communist government of Yugoslavia. I the hero Mihailovich was put to death. that, but it was then marked secret and do not believe that the people of the But, Mr. President, Mihailovich is not not to be disclosed, but subsequently that United States are of the opinion that at dead; he still lives; and from the moun classification was withdrawn, although a crucial time, if it should ever happen, tains of Montenegro and Serbia his no publicity was then given. Tito and his government would come to voice speaks to the Yugoslav people, Mr. FULBRIGHT. Those aircraft the aid of the United States. He would “Await the day of liberation. It will
parts were sold; and there is nothing be on the side where the Communists come.” Mr. President, it will come, in secret about that transaction, and no were standing and making the fight, and evitably. For more than a thousand law or policy prohibits such a sale for on the side opposite to the one where years these people have been exploited; cash. American boys might be making the but the exploiters died, and the people Mr. DOMINICK. I thank the Senator fight.
lived on. In my opinion, the same situa from Arkansas for the explanation. This subject has deep importance with
tion will be the end of the present regime Mr. FULBRIGHT. I may explain that me. Nly progenitors came from Yugo- in Yugoslavia.
they were spare parts,
spare parts, which were slavia. I know those people. I know I cannot reconcile myself to the be bought. them intimately. I know their poetry, lief—as I have already said—that aid Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, I do and I sing their songs. I know what to any Communist country is aid to the not think the Senator from Arkansas they think of basically. They believe United States. The giving of help to has answered the original question of the in freedom. They believe in God. They governments who are avowed in their Senator from Colorado. If the Proxmire do not believe in the philosophy of com purpose to destroy free governments amendment were adopted and if the law munism advocated either by Tito or by throughout the world is the giving of
throughout the world is the giving of otherwise remained as it is, it would be Khrushchev.
help to the enemy, and I do not contem within the power of the President-if he But over and above everything else, plate supporting that program.
found certain conditions to exist
to I want my country to live. I do not Mr. DOMINICK. Mr. President, will give aid to any one of the countries I want it to give aid to an enemy, and I the Senator from Ohio yield?
have previously identified, except am afraid that that is exactly what we The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Yugoslavia. are doing and what we did when we con BREWSTER in the chair). Does the Mr. DOMINICK. Except Yugoslavia.
Mr. LAUSCHE. Except Yugoslavia. The motion to lay on the table was a large contingent of Gamal Abdel NasDoes the chairman agree with me? agreed to.
ser's troops into Yemen. This troop Mr. FULBRIGHT. I believe the
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I movement coincided with the announceSenator's interpretation is correct.
call up my amendment No. 231 and ask ment of a revolt in Yemen. Since that Mr. DOMINICK. Mr. President, will that it be stated.
time, Nasser has kept 28,000 troops there, the Senator yield?
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
The making war on the people of Yemen, at
a cost of $500,000 a day. This figure was Mr. LAUSCHE. I yield to the Senator amendment of the Senator from Alaska from Colorado. will be stated.
vouched for by our military attaché in The other day I
The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. On page 51, Mr. DOMINICK,
On page 51, Cairo. To date, the cost has been $180
million, which which is approximately offered an amendment which would take between lines 13 and 14 it is proposed to
the amount of money that the United care of the very difficult situation in the insert the following new subsection: Development Loan Fund. At the pres
“(f) No assistance shall be provided under
States, under its foreign aid program,
has poured into Egypt. ent time all receipts from the Develop- this or any other Act, and no sales shall be ment Loan Fund come back into the ment and Assistance Act of 1954, to any made under the Agricultural Trade Develop In other words, while our money is
designed to help the poor people of fund and then can be spent in any way country which the President determines is
Egypt those who are undernourished, that is desired by the AID personnel, engaging in or preparing for aggressive miliwithout any review by Congress, either tary efforts directed against
underhoused, and underclothed the in the way of authorization or appropria “(1) the United States,
money intended for their benefit is being tion. I have offered an amendment de "(2) any country receiving assistance un spent on aggressive warfare elsewhere. signed to try to take care of that situader this or any other Act, or
This is only one of the many moves tion and provide that it shall be sub
“(3) any country to which sales are made that Nasser is making to dominate the
under the Agricultural Trade Development ject to annual appropriations.
Middle East. When we visited there, and Assistance Act of 1954,
we were informed by the military atUpon further review of the act I find until the President determines that such
tachés that their movements-those of that the same situation is true in respect military efforts or preparations have ceased
the air attaché, the army attaché, and to the Alliance for Progress fund. There and he reports to the Congress that he has
the Navy attaché-were severely reare certain provisions in the act which received assurances satisfactory to him that provide that receipts coming back from
such military efforts or preparations will not stricted. They could move only a few loans under the Alliance for Progress can
be renewed. This restriction may not be blocks from the Embassy or from their
waived pursuant to any authority contained also be spent by the administrators of in this Act.”
location. But the Russian technicians,
the Russian military, were allowed to go the Alliance for Progress without any
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I am congressional review and without annual
everywhere. Indeed, they were supplyabout to suggest the absence of a quoappropriation or authorization.
ing Nasser with all his arms. So, at the I send to the desk for printing an
rum. After the presence of a quorum has same time while Nasser has Russian amendment which would take care of
been ascertained, I shall speak briefly equipment, Russian technicians, and ex
and then ask for a yea and nay vote on Nazi technicians, we-the United that situation in respect to the Alliance my amendment.
pour money into Egypt. Nasser for Progress fund in the same way that I have tried to take care of it in respect
Mr. President, I suggest the absence of is making war with our dollars just as to the Development Loan Fund. a quorum.
though we were paying for his military
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The adventures. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
clerk will call the roll. amendment will be received and printed,
Within the past week, Egyptian troops
The legislative clerk proceeded to call have moved into Algeria, to help Algeria and will lie on the desk. the roll.
in its war on Morocco, in consequence of Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, at this point I should like to make inquiry unanimous consent that the
order for the
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I ask which the King of Morocco has severed about a parliamentary situation that
relations with Algeria.
Last week there were riots in Lebanon; might develop. The Senator from Wis- quorum call may be rescinded.
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Withconsin has an amendment which would
each day, some Middle East country is
agitated and stirred up by Nasser. Nasdeal solely with Yugoslavia under the out objection, it is so ordered. provisions of subparagraph (f) of sec
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I ser has never ceased to declare his inten
tion to invade Israel and drive the Israelis tion 620. My inquiry is regarding the ask for the yeas and nays on the amendvalidity of a subsequent amendment in ment.
into the sea. His broadcasts nightly, the event the Proxmire amendment is The yeas and nays were ordered.
beamed over the Cairo radio, to the opadopted. The subsequent amendment Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I
Mr. President, I eration of which we unfortunately conwould strike from subparagraph (f) the shall be very brief. This amendment
This amendment tributed, beam hatred, and preach assaslanguage dealing with conditions which might be called, for short, the "antiagres- sination of rulers of countries Nasser if found by the President to exist, would sion amendment.” It is cosponsored by
sion amendment.” It is cosponsored by wishes to destroy. He has preached warrant the granting of aid. The lan- the distinguished Senators from New
assassination of the King of Jordan. He guage that I would ask to strike would York [Mr. JAVITS and Mr. KEATING), the
has preached assassination of the lead
ers of Lebanon. He has preached assasleave the section reading to the follow- Senator from Oregon [Mr. MORSE], the ing effect: Senators from New Jersey [Mr. CASE
sination of others.
I believe it is time that our aid, under No aid shall be granted to any Communist and Mr. WILLIAMS), the Senator from country except under section 214(b). Connecticut [Mr. RIBICOFF], the Senator
those circumstances, should stop. That from Ohio [Mr. YOUNG), the Senator
is the purpose of the amendment. The three conditions which, if found from Maine (Mr. MUSKIE), the Senator
The amendment is not nearly so strong to exist, would allow the President to from Illinois [Mr. Douglas), and the
as I should like it to be. I believe it is provide aid, would be stricken. Would Senator from Connecticut [Mr. Dond).
unfortunate there is a discretionary such an amendment be in order? I shall take 2 minutes to explain the pur
clause in it, but it seems to be necessary The PRESIDING OFFICER. The pose of the amendment.
in order to secure the passage of the Chair is of the opinion that such an
This amendment would deny aid to
amendment, which is identical with one amendment would be in order. those who wage aggressive war. The
which has been accepted by the House. Mr. LAUSCHE. I yield the floor. President would have the right to deter
So if this amendment is accepted, it The PRESIDING OFFICER. The mine that fact. mine that fact. In other words, there
will not be eliminated in conference. I question is on agreeing to the amend- is to be an escape clause, that no assist
hope it will be adopted. It is depressing ment of the Senator from Wisconsin ance would be provided to any nation
to think our policies are promoting ag[Mr. PROXMIRE] to the committee until the President determined that mili
gressive war in the Middle East. It not amendment.
tary efforts or preparations had ceased only permits countries to use our aid for The amendment was agreed to. and he reported to the Congress that he
aggressive warfare, but it causes nations Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I had received assurances satisfactory to
such as Jordan and Israel to fear for move that the vote by which the amend- him that such military efforts or prep
their lives and increase their arms. So ment was agreed to be reconsidered. arations would not be renewed.
we are in effect stimulating competition Mr. PROXMIRE. Mr. President, I A year ago last September, Russian in war in the Middle East. We are inmove to lay that motion on the table. Ilyushin planes were waiting to carry deed promoting an arms race. How
inconsistent is the practical effect of our inating language approved by the House lars which have so far been spent in an blind policy of financing Nasser with our of Representatives to suspend assistance effort to win Nasser's favor. professions of wanting a world of peace. to nations preparing aggressive military Mr. President, I am not impressed by
Mr. CASE. Mr. President, will the activities. Nothing could be further the argument that Nasser or anyone else Senator yield?
from the purpose of our foreign aid pro will immediately turn to the Soviets for Mr. GRUENING. I yield to the Sena gram than for U.S. funds to be used even aid if we retract our own. The Soviets tor from New Jersey.
indirectly in aggressive activities against are not in a position at this point to exMr. CASE. Mr. President, I am one other aid-receiving nations. Take, for tend themselves financially overseas. of those who have joined the distin- instance, the actions of the United Arab And Nasser, at least, has learned only guished junior Senator from Alaska in Republic—although I want to make it too well that Soviet aid is not always sponsoring the antiaggression amend very clear that this amendment does what it seems to be. That argument will ment to the foreign aid bill. I would like not, in my view, apply exclusively to that not stand. It does not have merit, and to summarize my own reasons for urging nation. Nasser's troops are heavily en should not be used, in an effort to defeat that this country deny assistance to any gaged in military activities in Yemen. this amendment. nation which the President determines is On-the-spot reporters maintain that Mr. President, if this present developengaging in or preparing for aggressive Egypt is making a massive effort in Ye ment is not enforced, it may be necesmilitary efforts against this country or men to prop up a regime that could not sary specifically to cut aid to the United any nation receiving aid from us.
survive without foreign arms and troops Arab Republic until such time as Nasser's One of the fundamental aims of our behind it. Without U.S. assistance in troops are withdrawn from Yemen and foreign aid program, Mr. President, is to the form of surplus food, it would be con until such time as Nasser gives specific strengthen the capacity of other coun siderably harder for Nasser to maintain evidence that he is more concerned with tries to maintain their independence this kind of expeditionary force.
the economic development of his own from foreign domination, particularly Reports also indicate that Egyptian people than he is concerned with the against the threats posed by Communist pilots have been fighting on the Algerian military conquest of his neighbors. expansionism. The capacity for main side in the recent border dispute with Mr. President, I believe the Foreign taining independence depends upon Morocco.
Relations Committee has acted wisely in sound and healthy economic develop The hate propaganda which emanates tightening up a number of areas in this ment, as well as upon military forces from the Arab Republic, I may say, in foreign aid bill, and I think it altogether adequate to contribute to the common cidentally, is also directed against the appropriate and long overdue to cut out defense. But this objective of our for- United States and Members of this body.
United States and Members of this body. assistance to nations which divert their eign assistance program is frustrated Mr. President, I believe that an own resources into military and propawhen nations receiving our aid engage amendment along the lines of the one ganda efforts directed against other in aggression or prepare to do so. What passed by the House would be very use nations. ever form our assistance may take, it ful in bringing U.S. pressure to bear to Mr. President, I am proud to be the releases resources which can then be used put an end to aid programs where the author of language in the bill which exto further the military effort.
nations being assisted are not making presses this principle as the sense of When countries are preparing for a comparable effort themselves.
Congress. However, my queries to the aggression, the primary effect of our as Mr. President, my only criticism of AID agency as to how this language has sistance is to promote the tensions of this amendment is that it does not go been implemented have elicited not one an armaments race. This may, of far enough. It calls upon the President single example from the agency as to course, lead to the tragedy of armed con to make an affirmative declaration that how this principle was applied. For that flict, with all its unpredictable and far- aggressive military efforts are being con reason, although I favor the language reaching consequences. But, at best, the ducted.
ducted. Personally, I am dubious that approved by the House, I would be far resources and energies drawn into an such a declaration would ever be made. more optimistic of action in the long run armaments race are diverted from Whenever the Yemen situation, for in if the Senate explicitly recommended healthy economic development, weaken- stance, is called to the attention of the that aid to President Nasser be entirely ing rather than strengthening the foun State Department, a concerted effort is suspended until Egyptian troops have dations of the countries we are trying made to deny any aggressive activities ceased fighting against neighboring nato assist, contrary to the interest of their on anyone's part, and to attribute the tions and until Nasser's hate propaganda own people.
whole situation in that country to con against Israel ceases to flood the Middle Mr. President, I do not want our coun fusion and misunderstanding on the part East. try to bear even a share of the respon of those concerned.
But, as the Senator from Alaska has sibility for encouraging a dangerous Mr. President, I feel it would be far indicated, half a loaf is better than none. arms race in the Middle East. Rather, more effective, in the Yemen situation And I think this amendment is a step in I believe we must actively use our in- at least, to point the finger of blame the right direction. fluence to prevent such arms races and to specifically upon the culprit. The United Mr. GRUENING. I agree with the discourage aggression.
States agreed, in a deal with Nasser, to junior Senator from New York that this The present amendment properly recognize the new government in Yemen amendment could be strengthened, but leaves the determination of whether a in return for Nasser's withdrawal of his it is identical with the House language, , country is engaging in or preparing for troops. As might have been expected, and I fear that if we tinker with it, if aggressive military efforts to the Presi- Nasser has not withdrawn his troops, we try to strengthen it, it may be lost in dent, who is, of course, under our Con but merely rotated them. I would
them. I would conference, as so often amendments stitution, charged with the primary re- strongly favor an amendment which
strongly favor an amendment which adopted by a majority of the Senate have sponsibility for the conduct of foreign would simply cut off aid to Egypt, in
would simply cut off aid to Egypt, in- been lost in the past, not merely in the affairs. But the amendment does safe- cluding surplus food, until such time field of foreign relations, but in others. guard one of the fundamental purposes as Egyptian troops are withdrawn from During the debate there could be another of our foreign assistance program, and I Yemen. Such action would clearly pin- amendment which could be called the strongly urge its passage.
point Nasser's failure to abide by his propaganda amendment, in line with Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, will prior commitment. It would be virtually Senator KEATING'S thinking which I the Senator yield?
impossible for the Soviets to supply Nas would highly approve of and support; Mr. GRUENING. I am happy to yield ser with the surplus food he needs, since but in this case I think it would be well to the distinguished Senator from New they require additional supplies them
they require additional supplies them- not to change the amendment, because it York. selves.
is identical with the House language, Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, I am To date, Mr. President, the United and we want to be sure to copper-rivet glad to join the Senator from Alaska in States has given Nasser the impression it into the bill. sponsoring this amendment to suspend that we value his supposed good will Mr. KEATING. I see the merit of the aid to nations preparing for or conduct more than we value our own interests proposal. That is the reason I have not ing military aggression against other na in the Middle East, more than we value offered a clarifying or perfecting amendtions that also receive U.S. aid.
our legitimate right to insist that Nasser ment to cover the hate propaganda probI am deeply concerned over the action fulfill his commitments, and apparently
fulfill his commitments, and apparently lem. I do not want to interfere with the taken by the Senate committee in elim more than we value the millions of dol Senator's plans. I agree with him com
pletely that if we change the language, tinents.
tinents. I commend the distinguished aggression against Pakistan; that the Init might provide some reason for drop- Senator from Alaska for his leadership dian armies were on the borders of ping the amendment in conference. If in this field, to protect the nations Pakistan for the purpose of aggression. we adopt this language, it cannot be around the world, particularly smaller Does that mean that under the amenddropped in conference and will stay in or weaker nations, which, if they are to ment the President would have to deterthe bill, which, of course, is what we retain their independence, must receive mine that when there was a collection desire.
military aid to offset the aid that is given of troops on the borders of two countries, Later in this debate we may be able to to aggressor countries.
both sides were preparing for aggression? do something about the propaganda. We must prevent such aid; otherwise, The President of Pakistan says so.
I Mr. GRUENING. I would find it very we shall be opening a Pandora's box in do not think so. I do not believe Presidifficult for even the pro-Nasser men in the two Africas. There are two Africas, dent Kennedy thinks so, and I do not the State Department, of which there the Africa south of the Sahara and the think the previous President thought so are plenty—not to find that Nasser has Africa north of the Sahara, in the Near either. There are instances in north been an aggressor. He has been an East.
Africa in which two countries have subaggressor in Yemen, in Syria, in Leba It will happen in South America also stantial forces on their borders. There non, and now in the Morocco-Algerian as soon as another Castro rises in a is now an actual struggle between Moconflict. I think it would be difficult country down there. Of course, Castro rocco and Algeria, but prior to that time even for his warmest apologists to find is not receiving aid, but the next coun there was evidence of potential aggresthat he has not been an aggressor. We try that is taken over by a Castro-type sion. should not give him aid if it were found government will not admit that it has a Mr. HICKENLOOPER. Mr. President, that he was the aggressor in Yemen or Castro-type government, but will try to will the Senator yield? was building submarines or rockets and obtain foreign aid nevertheless. Our Mr. GRUENING. I should like to reprocuring military jet planes and all country must correct that situation. ply to the Senator from Minnesota. sorts of aggressive weapons.
Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, will Mr. HUMPHREY. This raises some Mr. KEATING. I shall join the Sen- the Senator yield?
concern in my mind about the amendator in his efforts to convince the State Mr. GRUENING. I yield.
ment. I feel very keenly about giving Department that Nasser has been the Mr. HUMPHREY. I find a very American aid to countries which are acaggressor. Under the sense-of-Congress worthy purpose in the Senator's amend- tually engaged in aggressive activities, or resolution, aid should have been stopped ment. I should like to ask him to discuss in aiding aggression.
in aiding aggression. We have discussed before this.
with me two or three words in the this amendment before. It has hapIf this amendment does not work, I amendment which I believe might cause pened in the instance of Yemen, for exshall join the Senator in proposing even trouble. I am not now arguing about ample. stronger language to stop this ridiculous the strict application of the amendment. Mr. GRUENING. It is still happening proposition of giving lavish financial aid I note that the Senator has nailed down there. to a country which at this moment is the intention in the last words of the Mr. HUMPHREY. Yes; and in Moengaging in aggression. It makes no amendment, which read:
rocco and Algeria. As to who the agsense.
This restriction may not be waived pursu
gressor is there, I have not determined, Mr. JAVITS rose.
ant to any authority contained in this act. but I do know that some shooting has Mr. GRUENING. I yield to the dis
been going on there. tinguished senior Senator from New
Therefore, no discretion is allowed, as
Mr. GRUENING. When Mr. Nasser York.
is the case in respect to many other sends his Egyptian troops into Algeria to Mr. JAVITS. I should like to have
amendments. the floor in my own right.
I should like to ask the Senator from help Morocco, I do not know that there
can be any question about whether he is Mr. YARBOROUGH. Mr. President, Alaska whether he would consent to a
or is not an aggressor. Of course he is. will the Senator yield? modification in his amendment at line
Mr. HUMPHREY. Which is the agMr. GRUENING. I yield to the Sena- 7, page 1, by striking out the words “or
gressor as between Algeria and Morocco? tor from Texas. preparing for".
Mr. GRUENING. That is not pertiMr. YARBOROUGH. I congratulate
The present wording would impose a
nent to this amendment. In this case the Senator from Alaska and the co- very difficult decision on the President,
we have a dictator-Nasser-sending sponsors of the amendment, the Sena in trying to ascertain motive, or even
troops to another country to help fight tor from New York and the Senator from ascertaining the motive. Potential ag
a third country. Oregon. In addition to the aggressions gression is very hard to discover.
Mr. HUMPHREY. The amendment that have been mentioned, it is also true
That would make the language read:
reads: that Nasser has committed aggression No assistance shall be provided under this
No assistance shall be provided
and Assistance Act of 1954 to any country
to any country that the President determines aid has been given to both those coun
in aggressive military effortstries. He has also committed acts of
The President aggression against Israel. He has also interfered in the dispute between Algeria Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, will the must make that determination.
Mr. HUMPHREY. It also provides: and Morocco, which has been friendly Senator from Alaska yield before he retoward us. This action has extended be- plies?
No assistance shall be provided under this low the Mediterranean, in Ghana, where
Mr. GRUENING. I yield.
or any other act. threats have been made to take over that Mr. JAVITS. Anything the Senator Does the Senator mean, for example, country. There have been threats to the changes would eliminate the idea of
that the Peace Corps would be eliminated Republic of Dahomey. There have been copper riveting the amendment into the
in some of those countries, on the suspithreats in the area of the Volta River.
bill. I hope the Senator will remember cion that the country might be preparWe see what is happening around the that. If the President is to make a judg
ing for aggression? world. A country receives aid, and when ment that there is aggression, that is a
Mr. GRUENING. The Peace Corps it seems to feel strong enough, it at quality and quantity judgment, as such has not been admitted into most Arab tacks a neighboring country. Then the as a judgment relating to preparation nations because of their anti-Semitic weaker country also asks for aid in order for aggression.
prejudice, and of course our Peace Corps to protect itself. We should not be giv For the life of me I cannot see what recruits being Americans belong to all ing aid to countries that build up their would be gained in terms of the Presi races. strength to the point where they can dent's discretion by making the change Mr. HUMPHREY. Then it would be obliterate or seize or annex a friendly except to submit the entire section to necessary to put the amendment on the neighboring country which is not as is not as conference.
basis of Arab nations. The Senator has strong as the first country.
Mr. HUMPHREY. Not long ago I read not done that. I do not wish to labor What I have said extends to many the speech of the President of Pakistan. this point. I have taken my stand on countries on at least three different con- He said that India was preparing for the Arab-Israel struggle. However, what
about the struggle over Kashmir? What sure, from the State Department, to Let us see if we can give the AID a about the struggle between India and emasculate and eviscerate his amend
emasculate and eviscerate his amend- little elementary, kindergarten, ABC Pakistan? What about the struggle be- ment.
lesson in what aggression obviously is. tween Chile and Bolivia? There has Mr. GRUENING. I thank the Sena How many troops did the Senator from been some shooting there, too. tor from Illinois.
Alaska say Nasser has in Yemen? Mr. GRUENING. There is no com Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the Mr. GRUENING. He has 28,000 parison between those border incidents Senator from Alaska yield?
troops in Yemen and has had them there and the cold, calculated methods of ag Mr. GRUENING. I yield to the Sen for 14 months. He dispatched them gression which the dictator of Egypt has ator from Oregon.
there simultaneously with the anbeen engaging in.
Mr. MORSE. The language in the
The language in the nouncement of the revolt in Yemen, Mr. HUMPHREY. I do not say that amendment on line 6, “or preparing for knowing, of course, that it was going to there is any comparison, but the Sen- aggressive military efforts,” is one of the happen, he being in fact, if not the inator's amendment would not establish most important phrases in the entire stigator, then the collaborator in that qualitative standards. amendment.
revolt. Mr. GRUENING. The President is Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I in Russian planes were ready to take obliged to decide that question. I agree vite the attention of the Senator from Nasser's first convoys of troops, and have with the Senator from New York that Minnesota to what the Senator from transported them ever since. In fact, as if we change a word or two, we shall lose Oregon is saying.
he pulls his battle-weary troops back and the amendment. This is too important Mr. MORSE. That language deals
That language deals sends in fresh troops, keeping the total an amendment to risk having it thrown with the matter of prevention. We number the same, they have been transout in conference, as so many have been should not have to wait until some coun ported back and forth by Russian planes, in the past. When the bill is in con- try engages in aggression before we cut with Russia supplying all his military ference, people from the State Depart- off aid. When we become satisfied that equipment. ment will be running to the conference, their acts show that they are preparing Mr. MORSE. Do the AID officials saying, “This will ruin the whole pro- for aggressive military efforts, we ought contend that that does not constitute gram.” We have seen that happen more to stop them then, before people start some kind of aggression? Does the Senthan once in conference, although an dying.
ator have a suspicion as to what the amendment thrown out in conference Supposedly, we have a highly efficient motivation of the AID people may be in may have represented the will of the intelligence service, in at least three trying to defeat this amendment-namemajority of both Houses.
branches of the Government; namely, ly, that they are pro-Nasser? Mr. DOUGLAS. Mr. President, will the State Department, the CIA, and the Mr. GRUENING. That is the inevithe Senator yield?
Pentagon. It should not be difficult for table conclusion, from the generous way Mr. GRUENING. I yield.
our intelligence service to advise the in which Nasser has been treated by our Mr. DOUGLAS. I commend the Sen. President that country X is preparing
President that country X is preparing foreign aid program. It should not have ators from Alaska and New York on for aggression and satisfy him, on the been necessary for Congress to offer an their amendment. It is directly aimed basis of their intelligence reports and amendment of this kind. Action should at the aggressive preparations and ac- evidence, that such is the case. Until have been taken by our executive detions of the United Arab Republic. It is they did, the amendment would not be- partment long ago. important to make that declaration in
come applicable. But when the Presi Mr. MORSE. In support of what the clear language.
dent has been made aware of the fact Senator from Illinois (Mr. DOUGLAS) has I do not believe in indulging in pro that some country is preparing for ag- said, it is my opinion, based upon my exvocative talk. The Arabs seem to exer gression, he ought to stop the aid to that perience with the State Department, cise great fascination over at least two country immediately. The amendment that for a long time many people in that types of persons: maiden Englishwom is that simple.
Department have been pro-Nasser and en and diplomats. The number of Eng We would not be placing any burden anti-Israel. It is about time for us to lishwomen, from the time of Lady Hes on the President. If he has a good in- adopt this amendment and make it perter Stanhope down to Gertrude Bell who telligence service, he ought to be kept fectly clear to the State Department that have fallen for the Arab line, is almost informed anyway, if the intelligence the Senate is not anti-Israel and does not unlimited. The Arabs also have a tre service is worth the appropriation we are favor aggression by Nasser or anyone mendous fascination for diplomats, both giving it, whether or not a country is else. It is rather sad that we even have British and American. I certainly do I certainly do preparing for aggression.
to debate the soundness of the principle not think these diplomats are in any Next, I join with the Senators from of this particular amendment. It ought sense anti-Jewish. Let me make that New York [Mr. JAVITS and Mr. KEATING] to be adopted by the Senate with a unanclear. But they are pro-Arab.
and the Senator from Illinois [Mr. imous vote. But let the RECORD show If it had not been for Harry Truman, DOUGLAS], and other Senators, who have
DOUGLAS], and other Senators, who have that some of us know that the State Dethe State Department would have pre- pointed out that if the amendment is partment lobby is fighting the amendvented the United States from recogniz- adopted, that is it. It is identical with ment. Their representatives are in the ing the Republic of Israel. President the House language, and an important gallery at the very moment I speak. I Truman had to act over the opposition policy question would be established.
policy question would be established. tell them that I have no respect for their of prominent officials. Virtually every This is a vital amendment.
activity in opposition to this amendment. step we have taken to try to help Israel Mr. GRUENING. I thank the Sena Mr. GRUENING. While Nasser is getsince then has been over the opposition tor. He is absolutely correct.
ting a battle-trained army and has never of prominent officials in the State De Mr. MORSE. I have a few facts to ceased to declare his purpose to drive the partment. The State Department has present on my own time, in a moment, Israelis to the sea, he is also building up moreover sabotaged the Douglas-Keating but I desire to take this time to buttress
but I desire to take this time to buttress a fantastic arsenal of other weapons, inresolution which would have sought to the position of the Senator from Alaska cluding missiles, jet planes, and subprevent Egypt from closing the Suez in my colloquy with him.
marines. Canal to goods destined for Israel.
Am I correct in understanding that Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the Mr. GRUENING. That is true.
the Senator from Alaska has already Senator from Alaska yield once more? Mr. DOUGLAS. The State Depart- placed in the RECORD the number of Mr. GRUENING. I yield. ment has consistently favored Egypt troops that Nasser has in Yemen at the Mr. MORSE. Does the Senator know and the United Arab Republic. The present time?
of any contradiction of the statement of State Department has many real virtues, Mr. GRUENING. That is correct. Nasser that he intends to drive Israel but the ability to withstand the seduc There are 28,000. He has had them into the sea as soon as he is strong tion of the Arabs is not one of them. there for about 14 months.
enough to do so? I shall say no more, except that I Mr. MORSE. I was told by a certain Mr. GRUENING. On the contrary; heartily endorse the Gruening amend Senator this afternoon that the AID he has never denied it. ment.
people had advised him that aggres Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, will the I hope the Senator from Alaska and sion is a matter of definition; that it Senator from Alaska yield? his fellow sponsors, of whom I am one, is difficult to determine whether Nasser Mr. GRUENING. I yield to the Senawill resist the attempt, coming, I am is an aggressor.
tor from New York.