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Socialist or non-Socialist government. stops for Romulo. Even the usually con munist activity. With Machado and What is important is that the nation servative Readers Digest has joined the Villalba he had set up an underground should not live under a dictatorship. In ""amen” chorus and has twice published Communist movement in Venezuela fact, a rereading of the Berle book will glowing panegyrics of the Venezuelan while Gomez was President. He fled to give us a theoretical background of all President. It was most unfortunate that Costa Rica, and, with Manuel Mora, he the misbegotten ideas which President at the height of the whole buildup, Presi- founded the Communist Party of Costa Kennedy apparently has accepted un- dent Kennedy greeted Betancourt at the Rica. He remained a member until 1935. questioningly since he stepped into the White House last November with the However, his keen mind began to play White House. Once we understand the words:
around with the idea that communism basic premises on which the strategy is
You are the kind of President the United could best be won in Latin America by based we can understand why our coun- States wants in Latin America.
detaching itself from Stalin and Moscow. try has met failure after failure in its
He envisaged a nationalistic form of Latin American policy, and incidentally
For all the evidence indicates that
communism which would assume a difin its entire foreign policy. If we would Romulo Betancourt has put over on the only view the strategy through the eyes American people, one of the most colos
American people, one of the most colos- ferent and deceptive shape and name in
It is a
each country. Already, Haya de la Torre of reality rather than through the rose sal hoaxes ever perpetrated. colored glasses of idealism divorced from hoax which he has maintained, in vary
hoax which he has maintained, in vary- in Peru had been thinking along parallel reality, we could easily discover the basic ing forms, for a quarter of a century. lines and had launched his Peruvian fallacy of this strategy. The catch in For years, despite all his astute efforts to For years, despite all his astute efforts to Aprista movement, after returning from
Moscow. the whole proposal is that there is no entice the United States to help him to
And then Betancourt made the greatreal certainty that the crypto-Com- get and hold control of Venezuela, we
est mistake of his careful career. He put munists and the Socialists—the Bosches, refused to bite. It has remained for the the Betancourts, the Ramon Villeda Mo- present administration to fall for him, present administration to fall for him, his plans down on paper. He sent them
in the form of letters to his Communist raleses, the Haya de la Torres, the Paz boots, baggage, and money. Today, not
comrades who were still operating as an Estenssoros, the Arevalos-are really on only are we helping him to hold Vene
underground in Gomez's Venezuela, with our side, that they have actually agreed zuela, we are also urging him to extend to play on our team. Do we have any his influence over other strategic points his influence over other strategic points their base in Barranquilla, Colombia.
One of those who received these letters bona fide proof in fact that they are of Latin America. We are accepting
was Raul Leoni, who is now Betancourt's Their present pretense of friendliness him, wide-eyed and open-mouthed, in
candidate to succeed him as President of may be only a Dr. Jeykll act of expethe face of one of the longest and most
Venezuela in the December 1963 elecdiency to get U.S. help in their struggle subversive Communist records in Latin
tion. for power. Since they share with the American history.
One of the minor absurdities of our
In these letters, he told his little band Moscow Communists a common belief in
of disciples that Venezuela could be won the Marxist picture of the world, why times is to hear one of our misinformed
for communism if Communists would should we assume that they would not American liberal friends stand up and be just as great a menace to the United eulogize Betancourt because he is a great only be smart enough to stop using the States as Castro, once they are secure in democratic leader and the foe of mili- Communist label. On January 27, 1932, power? tary coup d'etats. Unfortunately, the
he wrote to Valmore Rodriguez:
We already know how those people fear Indeed, Fidel Castro is himself the record shows that Mr. Betancourt is
the aforesaid little word (communism). And prime exhibit of the deadly danger of against coups d'etat only when he is not conducting one himself. On October 18,
with vaseline we may be able to insert into this Washington attitude. Put into 1945, President Isaias Medina Angarita,
the people all of Marx and all of Lenin, the power originally in Cuba with American
most vehement hatred of private property, who had been elected democratically in aid and acclamation, Castro, as late as
the most intense and active desire to do the election of 1941, was overthrown by his visit to Washington in April 1959,
away with the capitalistic regime without described himself as a “liberal” and de- this coup d'etat? You have guessed it. a coup d'etat. Who was the leader of
ever having to use this word which smells of clared in Washington that "I am going It was Romulo Betancourt. Betancourt
sulfur-communism. back to Cuba to fight the Communists.'
In another letter of the same date, he was raised by the military to the post of Then less than 2 years later on Decem- Provisional President. In the crypto
wrote: ber 2, 1961, he revealed to the world Communist rulebook, the important
In Europe, the peasants and laborers have what he really was. If he declared him- thing is who pulls off the coup.
reached a stage of political intelligence which self divorced from Khrushchev would he
To get the real picture of Betancourt aries. But in Latin America the peasants
allows them to act as government functionbe any less Castro? Would the people it would be revealing to consider his and laborers haven't that level of intellihave any more freedom than they have whole career in Venezuela. Betancourt now? What assurance do Americans is one of the few men in public life who
gence. Therefore, a Marxist party founded on have that the present company of our have ever drawn a diagram of their life a high general staff to direct, and that high
that basis is doomed. The party has to form Socialist and crypto-Communist allies in plan. This diagram, when we look at it, level staff should be formed by us because Latin America, whom the State Depart- gives a complete refutation to the touted I am confident that we will not allow a deviament is frantically backing, do not en- claim that Betancourt is an anti- tion until we, with our high intellectuality, tertain the same intentions of a final Communist.
will determine the right time has come to doublecross?
make the left turn to the extreme leftwing
At this point, a question of semantics Perhaps the best example of the dyna- faces us. If, by communism, one means from the writings of Lenin who said: “The
and ultimately to communism. I derive this mite with which we are playing in Latin the Khrushchev or Castro brand of party shall follow the leader's path.” How America is Romulo Betancourt, President communism, a very valid case can be about it, little brothers? Are you of the of Venezuela. Betancourt was Bosch's made out to prove that Betancourt is
same opinion as I? No. 1 sponsor in the Dominican Republic. against it. But never in his zigzag career During the days of. their exile, Bosch has he ever repudiated the basic objec- to light, and Betancourt's life plans
These letters would never have come boasts that he was Betancourt's secre
tive of communism—a socialized society. would have remained an undisclosed tary. It is no secret that Bosch con Unlike Mao Tse-tung in China, unlike secret, had it not been for two happensulted Betancourt, after he
after he became Enver Hoxha in Albania, but deceivingly stances. One was the fact that ValPresident, in many of his major moves. like Tito in Yugoslavia, Betancourt does more Rodriguez and Raul Leoni did not There have been reports in the Domini not accept Khrushchev's_method of can Republic that Betancourt financed reaching the Marxist goal. Right now he
destroy the letters. They retained them. Bosch's electoral campaign.
is trying, with some success, to com- And the second accident was that the Today Betancourt is the beneficiary of munize Latin America, and, by’ mouthing Colombia police raided the secret comone of the most lavish and what I con- a few democratic phrases, to hoodwink munist headquarters in Barranquilla and sider one of the most undeserved build- the United States into helping him do it. found the letters. They turned them ups in the U.S. press of any Latin Ameri When did he draw his diagram? In over to President Lopez Contreras of can of our times. Just as we heroized 1932 and 1933, Betancourt was an exile Venezuela. Castro in 1958 and 1959, so the liberal in Costa Rica. By this time he had al In 1936, President Lopez Contreras American press has pulled out all the ready been a veteran of 6 years of Com- published the letters in full, together
with a rogue's gallery of photos of Betan- ticommunism; it is cold-blooded political nounced that it planned to take court court, Leoni, and Miguel Otero Silva, expediency.
action to outlaw the Communist Party now a Betancourt senator-in an official
For over a decade, Betancourt has been and the MIR. More than 1 year later Red Book. It is the most damning evi- the recipient of the most fulsome cam the action has not been taken. dence of the secret Communist plan of paign of flattery by American liberals True, he had denied them the right to Betancourt that has yet been disclosed. ever enjoyed by a Latin American ruler. participate in the rigged December 1963
The significance of these Barranquilla · The "liberals" have been his American presidential election, but it is highly letters can be read in the subsequent claque. They have shouted so loudly significant that when he came to pick Betancourt career. A study of his life that they have impressed the Betancourt his successor for the Presidency he gave will show that he has followed most virtues upon a large sector of the Ameri- the nod, not to a middle-of-the-roader, faithfully the diagram which he drew can press, and upon the principal policy- but to Raul Leoni, his old, and tested for his disciples in the early thirties. making officials of the Kennedy admin comrade of the Communist Party of the
Returning to Venezuela after Dictator istration. Today this tarnished and thirties Gomez's death in 1935, he carried out liberal mask-wearing Venezuelan crypto But it will be asked, if Betancourt is a his "communism without the Communist Communist has become the symbol to part of the world Communist conspiracy, name" plan by establishing a new party, millions of uninformed Americans of the why did he finally give the order, late the ORVE, which was declared illegal kind of leadership which the United this summer, to arrest Machado and the by President Lopez Contreras on the States intends to support in the Ameri- other top leaders of the official Commugrounds that it was actually a Com- cas. God help Latin America if such is nist Party? Is this not the sign that he munist Party. Later, after going under the future which our Government has has broken completely with commuground, Betancourt established the Par- planned for them.
nism? tido Democratico Nacional. This, in But, someone will ask, if it is true that
On the surface, it would seem so. But, turn, was illegalized, after a court action Betancourt is playing a covert false-face like so many other things that happen in in which it was shown that the principal game in Venezuela, how does it happen the government of a crypto-Communist, party leaders all were men with open that he is fighting the Castroites and the the real story is not the one which is Communist records. With the same ele- Communists in Venezuela? Why has he carefully fed out to friendly American ments, Betancourt then launched his taken recent measures to arrest their correspondents to be bold-typed in the Accion Democratica, the party through leaders?
U.S. press. which he acts today. This party, as we Here again we are dealing with a sit
Here is the real story, as given in El have seen, participated with Perez uation in which Betancourt is playing Diario and La Prensa, New York, the Jimenez in the coup d'etat which over- with mirrors.
principal Spanish language newspaper threw President Medina in 1945. After All evidence points to the fact that published in the United States. Here is 3 years of gross misrule, and communis- Betancourt never wanted and never in
the story, by Felicino Jaspe, published in tic government, Betancourt's first ad- tended actually to suppress the Commu- the October 30 issue: ministration was overthrown by a second nists. Castro himself is one of Betan
It is secretly but well known, among imcoup d'etat in 1948, the Accion Demo- court's own disciples. It has been portant people (in Venezuela) that Betancratica was illegalized, and Betancourt charged that Betancourt intervened with court went on TV to announce action against went into exile.
the Colombian authorities to save Castro, the Communists only when he was informed However, it was in the forties that from death in Bogota in 1948 when he by one of his agents within the armed forces Betancourt made his second great politi- was caught redhanded participating in that they were coming to take action. The cal discovery, a discovery which he has the bloody Communist uprising-Betan- decision of the armed forces resulted from
the assassination of two national guardsmen coined into the minted gold of fabulous court was then the head of the Vene
on an excursion train which was going to political success. That discovery was zuelan delegation to the OAS at the
Les Teques, a town near Caracas. Some that if he would make a pretense of an- Bogota meeting. It is incredible to
Venezuelans quoted the chief of the national ticommunism and loudly proclaim him- suppose that Betancourt did not know guard as saying, “If there is no one to take self as a democrat, he could obtain the that Castro was a full-fledged Commu armed action, I will do it myself." And here support of virtually the whole body of in- nist at the time. The official leader of is what all Venezuelans are saying: Betanfluential American liberals. They would the Castro party in Venezuela, the MIR, court is being forced by the military to do help him, with their press and radio con- is Domingo Albert Rangel. Rangel is an- things which he does not want to do him
self. nections and with their great influence in other of Betancourt's pupils. He grew up Washington, particularly in the State in the Accion Democratica, and broke How different is this story from the Department, to get back into power with Betancourt only in 1961. Raul laudatory news stories which appeared in Once restored to the Miraflores Palace in Ramos Gimenez, leader of another pro- the New York Times and other BetanCaracas, he could pursue Communist Castro group, was also one of Betan- court-praising papers, picturing the auaims while winning American plaudits court's henchmen in the Accion Demo- dacious Betancourt cracking down on the through his anti-Communist pose. His cratica until 1962.
party Communists. If he really wanted success in his latest period is attrib Even after Castro threw off the mask to weaken the Communists, Betancourt utable almost entirely to this astute and revealed himself as a Communist, had from February 13, 1959, when he was strategy.
Betancourt continued to recognize him. inaugurated President, until midsumThis basic Betancourt strategy was Long after the United States had broken mer, 1963, to take the logical action of disclosed in April 1955, in an article pub- off relations with Cuba, Betancourt in- imprisoning the Machados, Faria, and lished in Venezuela Democratica, Betan- sisted upon continuing diplomatic rela- the other top Communist Party officials. court's newspaper in exile, which was is- tions, breaking them off only after the For more than 4 years, he gave the sued in Mexico during his stay in that San Jose conference in August 1960, Machados and Faria sanctuary to concountry. The article was a statement of when he knew he would risk Washington tinue their communist work in Venereasons why the Accion Democratica friendship-and aid—if he persisted.
zuela, under the alibi that they were would not accept the invitation of the His suppression of the Venezuelan members of the Senate, and hence imexiled Venezuela Communist Party to go Communists has been halfhearted and
mune to arrest. But when the armed
forces laid down the law to him and told into a united front. It stated that if ineffective. Had he wished to end comthey took such a course, “We would have munism in Venezuela, there was a simple him that he must arrest the leaders,
Betancourt tremblingly found that he to renounce without any compensation, and direct way to do it. He could have
had the power to do so, and he acted. all possibility of aid from the liberal and outlawed the Communist Party, just as
Does this seem like the course which democratic sectors in the United States, half of the other Latin American counfrom whom we can expect useful aid.” tries have done. Betancourt has never Venezuela by a genuine anti-Communist?
would have been pursued in violence-torn This excerpt appears in the book, "Com- resorted to this obvious measure. All Of course, there is only one answer to munism in Latin America," by Prof. R. J. along there has been something unmis- such a question. Alexander, himself a Socialist and a takably two-handed about his highly It is admittedly difficult to detect mostanch supporter of Betancourt. It is a publicized reprisals against communism tives when one deals with men like frank revealment of the motivation of and his failure, in every instance, to fol Betancourt. But taking a page from the the Accion Democratica in opposing low through. As long ago as October 15, late Al Smith, let us look at the record. communism. This motivation is not an- 1962, Betancourt's government an Sometimes what men do speaks so loud
ly it drowns out what they say. If we States, which let great China go down We are backing a movement in Latin would carefully examine the record as a the Communist drain, because, as we America which claims to be opposed to whole, it becomes convincingly clear that
then argued, we could not intervene to individual Communists but not to Betancourt does not actually want to save Chiang Kai-shek without United communism. Betancourt has publicly wipe out communism in Venezuela. Nations agreement, is now ready to vio
Nations agreement, is now ready to vio- spoken against Castro but his policies are Venezuelans who have known Betancourt late its signed agreements, for what?- strangely in keeping with Castroism. through all his twists and turns believe to keep crypto-Communist Betancourt in Let us beware lest we support those whose that the game he is now playing is to enpower.
only mission is to take control of the force the ascendancy of his Accion
Truly the Kennedy administration, if sprouting movement in the South of this Democratica brand of communism over
it attempts such a thing, will have come hemisphere, who condemn all, friend and the other Communist splinter groups
full circle in its championship of the enemy, whom they oppose not because of the Castroites of Rangel and Villalba,
left in Latin America. If we are willing what they believe and represent but for and the orthodox Moscow-affiliated Com
to repudiate all our commitments under the position of power they hold which munists of the Machado brothers. If
the Rio Pact and the Caracas Declara- they want for themselves. possible, he will keep the rival Communist sects alive for future purposes, but
tion for the sole purpose of perpetuating It is becoming increasingly evident
the rule of Romulo Betancourt in Vene- that our present policy in Latin America right now he is trying to render them powerless to weaken the Betancourt
zuela, then statesmanship has become a is a dismal failure. The time to change
plaything in the hands of political im- this policy in order to rectify our errors hegemony. Betancourt fools American liberals be- maturity. .
in judgment and action is now, not when cause they cannot understand the laby
When the President of Venezuela came the situation has so completely deteriorinthine intricacies of the trained Com
to the United States last February, I was rated that violent action on our part munist mind. They fail to see the play one of a precious few who were willing would be required. within the play. And so, the American to speak openly words of warning against However, this Venezuelan proposal is a public which trusts the advice of the lib- all-out support of one who had not crisis for the future. The curtain raiser erals permits itself to be betrayed by its
proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that for such a course in Venezuela is the own enthusiasm for the Titos, the Cas- he was not a part of the insidious attempt present effort of a small group of Senatros, and the Betancourts. The day of
to infiltrate this hemisphere with the tors to stage a dress rehearsal intervenrevelation, in the case of Betancourt, has
Marxist doctrines, so deadly to the health tion in the Dominican Republic. If we not yet come. of our civilization.
execute such an intervention, and get One of the incongruities of the Wash
I felt then we had been sold a bill of away with it, a similar step is almost ington atmosphere today is the agonized goods without having had the opportu- certain in Venezuela. The irony of the pain with which our liberal brethren nity to examine it carefully to see in it
nity to examine it carefully to see in it present debate is that the very “liberal" greet each setback to the crypto-Comthe true character of the pattern.
voices, which are now shouting most munist forces in Latin America. Every
It is understandable that those in clamorously for unilateral intervention, reverse to the Betancourts and the policy-making positions in our Govern
the policy-making positions in our Govern- include some of the men who protested Bosches is greeted as an intolerable blow
ment were intent on finding someone, most passionately against unilateral into the United States. If there is a plan- somewhere, upon whom they could pin tervention in Cuba. Until Betancourt ning brain in international communism,
their hopes as the Messiah of Latin and Bosch came into danger, the whole it could not have planned with more America. The people of the United kit and caboodle of
kit and caboodle of this group were lethal shrewdness. With the false pic
the States do have the interests of the people violent anti-interventionists. To ture of Latin America which the Com
of all the Americas at heart. We want liberal mind, consistency is a jewel munists and Socialists have implanted in
governments to be stabilized. We would only when it protects its own ideological their minds, nonradical Americans are like to stamp out dictatorships and il- friends. actually hailing the gravediggers of literacy and poverty and corruption. We
literacy and poverty and corruption. WeAs the issues darken in the Caribbean, Americanism as their champions in the
want others to enjoy the stability we it is Juan Bosch himself who has sudLatin American conflict. They are
have gained in our own great land. Adenly made the whole liberal effort to lamenting the fall of the Bosches and the
symbol of strength and leadership to the save him meaningless and dangerous to Villeda Moraleses as if it were our loss.
South was needed. Castro's lustre had American security. The familiar chant Not since the days when half of our State dimmed and in the exposure of the light of the liberals to justify aid to Bosch and Department was hailing Mao Tse-tung in he was seen as he is.
Betancourt is that we need them to lock China as a great "agrarian democrat” "But," I ask, "just why did our State the gate in their nations against Castrohave we been so cruelly mistaken.
Department hitch its wagon to a star ism. Both Bosch and Betancourt have But the latest development between the
which if not the red of the Soviet, Union played to the American gallery by deKennedy administration and the Betan
is certainly not the blue symbolic of claring their last-ditch opposition to court leftist regime is the information loyalty of leadership in the cause of Castro. which has recently reached the press freedom?"
But when Bosch was taken from Santo that President Kennedy has decided, in Within the past few months I have had Domingo to the island of Guadelupe on the event of a military uprising in Betan contact with a teacher of science in the first leg of his trip into exile, some court's Venezuela, to intervene in Betan Venezuela; conversations with a mem- strange reversal to type caused him to court's defense with American troops. ber of an honored profession; a news forget the lines which he was supposed The Allen-Scott report says:
paperman who spent nearly 15 years in President Kennedy has definitely decided that area and who knows Betancourt clared, as reported by UPI:
to speak. Reaching Guadelupe, he deon that, and has so informed the State and
personally; a man who works for an Defense Departments and members of the American concern but who is neither not calling for a struggle to achieve com
This movement (the Castro movement) is Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Presi Venezuelan or American; and several munism, but to achieve liberty. dent Romulo Betancourt also has been told other Venezuelans who have confided to of this momentous decision. * * * In prepa me that we are making a serious error
Later, Bosch tried to shrug this off ration for possible recourse to American troops, the administration has already set the
in our support of the present Govern- but his disclaimer is contradicted by the wheels in motion to get Senate backing for
ment of Venezuela which we trust will fact that Gonzalo Facio, President of the such explosive action.
take the leadership throughout Latin Council of the OAS sharply rebuked Think of what this means. The America.
Bosch for his declaration Facio is himUnited States, which timorously held Following my remarks last February on self considered to be a member of the back from intervention in Castro's Cuba the eve of Betancourt's state visit, a news left-liberal group in Latin America. and which argued, even before the Rus reporter who had spent many years in
There is only one conclusion which we sians fortified the island, that we could Latin America and who knows the Vene can draw from this Bosch lapse into not intervene because we were pledged, zuelan President personally, contacted
truth-telling. Bosch, as his Dominican under the Rio Pact, to take no inter me by letter. He wrote:
opponents have always maintained, has vention action without the agreement of
I never actually been against Castro.
You may not have all the facts but what two-thirds of the members of the OAS, you have are correct. * * * Romulo never
am convinced that neither is Betannow contemplates unilateral interven indicated to me he had turned his back on court, Castro's old mentor. I predict the tion to save a Betancourt. The United communism.
day will come, to the consternation of
the advisers who have been led to as- magnitude of which will dwarf even the ASPINALL. What they had to say about sume such unrealistic policies in Latin catastrophe in Cuba. Can the United wilderness legislation was of keen interAmerica, when Betancourt will similarly States afford to take that risk? Can we est to me at the time and has since inunmask and tell us what he really wants. unquestioningly accept the word of Mr. fluenced me to reconsider some aspects But until that moment comes, he will Schlesinger, who influences the admin- of this important subject in the light of continue, like Tito, like Sukarno, to istration on many things including Latin their remarks. fatten on our aid and our gullibility. American affairs, that the bad man of
REMARKS BY COMMITTEE AND SUBCOMMITTEE While the men around Kennedy and Venezuela's yesterday is now noble and
CHAIRMEN Munoz Marin in Puerto Rico are working admirable? Just when and where did
Our chairman, the gentleman from frantically to bring Bosch back and to the switch take place?
Colorado [Mr. ASPINALL], introduced reimpose him upon the Dominican
Ladies and gentlemen, I insist that the full texts of these addresses into the people, Bosch himself has drawn a pic- we cannot afford to take that gamble.
CONGRESSIONAL RECORD for October 3, ture of the future which he and his kind The administration is wrong in Vene- 1963, where they can be found on pages are planning for Latin America. zuela, just as it was wrong in Peru, in 18606 and 18607. Writing in the October 14 issue of the the Dominican Republic, and before that
Mr. ASPINALL himself made the comNew Leader, a pro-Betancourt weekly, in Cuba. Let us reverse ourselves before
ment that "we are continually making he said:
we become mired in something which can additional Members of the House of The peoples of Latin America find them- only lead to further national humiliaselves on the brink of a revolution. It is a tion and a weakening of the cause of Representatives aware of the basic con
stitutional question requiring affirmarevolution that will once and for all do away freedom in the Western Hemisphere.
tive action by Congress in the designawith the power of the minority of large land In summary, the reasons for my re
tion of wilderness areas." owners, businessmen and the upper-middle marks today, and the sole motive beclass of our hemisphere, and that will dispose hind them, are to promote the good of
Mr. BARING assured that—and I quote of the military cliques which serve them.
him: the United States and at the same time * * * But I fear that it will be almost im
If there is going to be a wilderness bill, possible to prevent the coming revolution in to aid the cause of the peoples of all
there will be provisions for affirmative action Latin America from being bloody, destruc- Latin American countries—the cause of tive and prolonged. individual freedoms, human dignity, and by Congress after the Chief Executive or his
Cabinet officers have made their review and a better way of life through democratic I wonder if President Kennedy with self-governments of their own choosing.
submitted their recommendations to Con
gress. his propensity for the Latin American
I recognize this is a complex and monleft, proposes to underwrite that "bloody, umental challenge in any one country, to
Mr. BARING indicated that further acdestructive and prolonged revolution." say nothing of all those among the Latin
tion regarding the wilderness bill would I wonder if that is the kind of leader- American countries where genuine re
be dependent on its proponents being, ship we would like to see throughout all form is still a crying need and where
as Mr. BARING put it, "willing to move Latin America. I wonder if this is the progress
has not yet had even its begin- fered by the House committee last year."
in the direction of the compromise of future our people are paying taxes for nings. I labor under no delusions that through support of the Alliance for my lone voice will carry very far or that
NEW BILLS PROPOSED TO MEET SUGGESTIONS Progress.
it is powerful enough to be even a little During the past weeks I have been I have in this speech raised the queso effective. But what I have had to say pursuing these and other suggestions by tion of our official all-out acceptance of needed to be said. It needed to be said the chairman of our committee. With
because I feel that the American people other proponents of the wilderness bill because the issue has a gravity which far for the most part have been getting only I have been working toward the developtrust the judgment of our national pol- one side of the picture. It has been my ment of a proposal that might meet the trust the judgment of our national pol- objective here to at least let the public requirements of all concerned and thus icymakers.
know there is another side; to state what merit prompt enactment. We are fighting a cold war for the in my judgment that other side in I am today introducing the results of security of this hemisphere. Only a few
cludes-both from the standpoint of
standpoint of these efforts as a new bill, and am asking years ago, because we refused to face the known fact and fair and reasonable con- unanimous consent that its full text apdeadly seriousness of this struggle, we clusion; toward the end that both the pear at the conclusion of my remarks. indulged ourselves in the luxury of giv, people at home and those elected and ing the benefit of the doubt to Fidel otherwise chosen to represent and serve
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION BY CONGRESS Castro. When three former U.S. Am- them in government may better weigh
I am happy to assure my colleagues bassadors to Cuba-Mr. Braden, Mr. all factors and have the benefit of all provide for what our chairman described
that this revised bill does propose and Smith, and Mr. Gardner--warned the State Department that Castro's liberal- evidence in charting and following the ism was only a masquerade and that he best possible course of action throughout as "affirmative action by Congress in the
designation of wilderness areas.” the Americas. was actually an agent of the Communist
On June 27, 1963, in a statement to the international, the warnings were con
House-a reprint of which I later sent temptuously dismissed as rightist clap
to each of my colleagues—I sought to
THE WILDERNESS BILL trap. Then, as now, we were told to join
indicate a willingness to meet this rethe hallelujah chorus and give Castro all The SPEAKER. Under previous order quirement. On that occasion I saidour support.
of the House, the gentleman from Penn- and I now quote: What was our reward for accepting sylvania [Mr. SAYLOR] is recognized for
Let me emphasize that it is the purpose this ill-advised counsel? We have lived 45 minutes.
of advocates of the wilderness bill to see to see Cuba, under our horrified eyes, Mr. SAYLOR. Mr. Speaker, recently, positive action by Congress in establishing a converted into an armed and bristling on September 17, 1963, it was my privi- sound national wilderness preservation policy Russian base, frowning at us just 90 lege to be on a panel at the Los Angeles and a program to make this policy effective miles away. meeting of the American Mining Con
on the land. Are we going to make that same mis- gress conducted by the esteemed chair And I said further: take again? man of our Committee on Interior and
Any proposals that provide for more posiThe same kind of “gee whiz” minds Insular Affairs, the Honorable WAYNE tive congressional action will have our supwhich accepted and lionized Castro in ASPINALL of Colorado, and to have as a port if they likewise insure the protection 1959 are now whooping up a demand for fellow member of the panel the chair as wilderness of the areas provided for in unlimited support for Betancourt in his man of the Interior Committee's Sub the act until Congress does take further staged contest with the Castroites. In committee on Public Lands, the Honor
positive action. the face of his 30-year Communist and able WALTER BARING, of Nevada.
Accordingly, when I found that some revolutionary record, we are being asked The wilderness bill, with which I have redrafting of the wilderness bill had been to accept him as America's Latin Amer- so long been concerned, was not among attempted in the direction, as Mr. BARican standardbearer against Moscow. my own assigned subjects for that day, ING put it, of the House committee bill
If we fall into this trap, we will be in- but it was the full subject of Mr. BAR- last year, I undertook to cooperate by viting a disaster in Latin America the ING's remarks and was introduced by Mr. adapting and adopting this myself.
It is this measure that I am today in The measure requires no expenditures preservation as wilderness practicable. troducing.
beyond those that would be called for in The third sentence says that for the purSATISFACTION IN PROSPECTS FOR AGREEMENT any case in administering the park, ref- poses of this act wilderness shall include Before describing this bill in detail
uge, or forest lands for their presently the areas provided for in its section 3. and analyzing its contents, I should like established purposes.
3 to emphasize briefly the satisfaction
The bill's provisions are more fully
Section 3 sets out the areas of Federal with which I anticipate the prospect of
yet briefly described as follows:
First. A national policy “to secure the system, and in wildlife refuges and game agreement on a wilderness bill.
lands in national forests, in the park If wilderness is to be preserved in our
benefits of an enduring resource of wil-
ranges which-subject to existing pricountry, it must be by the firm determination of all who are concerned.
is set forth in section 2, which likewise
ness areas or are to be considered for The urgency for the preservation of
Second. The areas designated or to be tablished that will assure review of every some of our remaining areas of wilder
A procedure is esness has come from all parts of the Naconsidered for designation as wilderness
area by the executive agency in charge areas are specified, and procedures for of it prior to its designation by the Contion. It has been nonpartisan. In
determining the areas to be considered enacting a measure to establish wilderare set up. Any lands not provided for in the act is limited to those established
gress. Addition of areas not specified ness preservation as a national policy,
in this act are to be added only by a by later action by Congress. we must accordingly be nonpartisan and nationwide in our view. subsequent act of Congress.
NATIONAL FOREST LANDS It is especially important that those
Third. Guidelines for the use and administration of the wilderness areas are
Section 3(a) designates as wilderness whose enterprises might destroy the wilderness be among the supporters of
set forth in section 4, which says that areas the presently existing wilderness, its preservation. They can see that the
nothing in the act shall interfere with wild, and canoe areas of the national needs for which wilderness might be sac
the purposes the areas serve as park, forests, and sets forth requirements that rificed are met outside the wilderness.
refuge, or forest land but that these pur- maps and descriptions of the areas and They can provide the consensus on
poses shall be served in such a way as to regulations regarding them be available which the preservation of wilderness in
preserve the wilderness character of the to the public.
lands designated as wilderness. Section our culture must be based if it is to en
Subsections 3 (a ) and (b) both deal dure.
4 also prohibits certain uses inconsistent with national forest areas now adminisI would indeed be happy to see differ
with wilderness preservation and makes tratively classified for wilderness pro
special provisions or exceptions regard- tection. ences regarding the wilderness bill re
tection. There are 86 of these areas, solved and to see a prospect for its en
ing certain nonconforming uses. The totaling some 14,731,471 acres (out of actment with a broad basis of nonparti
President is authorized to allow certain the national forest total of 186 million san national support.
otherwise prohibited uses in specific acres).
areas of wilderness if he finds these uses The 17 wilderness and 32 wild areas NEW BILL ONE ON WHICH WE CAN AGREE
“will better serve the interests of the and the 1 canoe area have already been The bill I now introduce, I am con United States and the people thereof." carefully reviewed by the Forest Service vinced, is one on which we can all agree.
Fourth. Certain other provisions re
for classification as such and were clasThe committee may find ways to improve
garding State and private lands within sified after having been subjected to it, and I shall be glad to cooperate in its further consideration, but essentiallyland, records and reports, and contribu
wilderness areas, gifts or bequests of public-notice and public-hearing pro
land, records and reports, and contribu- cedures. Section 3(a) accordingly desI am satisfied, it meets the criticisms tions are in sections 5, 6, and 7.
ignates these as wilderness areas withmade against its predecessors and meets
out further review and sets forth rethese in a way to merit its support.
EXPLANATION, SECTION BY SECTION It is described as follows:
An explanation of the measure, section quirements for maps and descriptions
of them and for having maps, descripby section, is as follows: DESCRIPTION OF THE BILL
tions, and copies of notices and reports
1 The revised wilderness bill (H.R. 9070)
available to the public. These areas proposes to exercise congressional pre Section 1 states the title as the “Wil- immediately designated total 8,609,659 rogatives with regard to Federal landsderness Act."
acres—wilderness areas 6,409,284, wild
2 pursuant to the Constitution's article IV,
1,165,523, and canoe 1,034,852. section 3, 2d paragraph-by taking posi
Section 2 is a statement of policy, in Section 3(b) deals with the 3 dozen tive action to first establish a national cluding a definition.
now existing primitive areas in the nacongressional policy for the preserva Section 2(a) is a statement of Con- tional forests, the 36 areas comprising in tion of some Federal areas as wilderness; gress's belief that increasing population all 6,121,812 acres. These areas are second, provide a program for carrying and human developments will occupy or made subject to further review, half to out this policy through the administra- modify all areas of the Nation except be completed in 3 years and all within 5 tion of existing wilderness within the those set aside for preservation in their years. After the reviews by the Forest national park system, within wildlife natural condition. It is accordingly de
natural condition. It is accordingly de- Service, the Secretary of Agriculture is refuges and ranges, and within certain clared to be the policy of Congress to as to report the findings to the President designated portions of the national for sure the Nation an enduring resource of and the President is to make recomests, by the presently established agen wilderness, and for this purpose a Na- mendations regarding each area to the cies; and do this in such a way as to tional Wilderness Preservation System Senate and the House. These recompreserve the wilderness character of the is established to be composed of appro mendations may include a proposed lands without interfering with their pres priate federally owned areas.
elimination and declassification of porent purposes and without transferring Section 2(b) defines wilderness in tions not found to be predominantly of any lands from one jurisdiction to an three sentences. The first states the wilderness value or proposed addition of other; and, third, make provisions to nature of wilderness in an ideal concept contiguous areas of national forest lands prevent the wilderness preservation pro of areas where the natural community of predominantly of wilderness value. gram from interfering with other pro life is untrammeled by man, who visits Each such recommendation will begrams and to provide for emergency and but does not remain. The second sen- come effective only if so provided by an other exceptions.
tence describes an area of wilderness as act of Congress. The primitive areas These objectives the wilderness bill it is to be considered for the purposes of are to continue in their status quo until would achieve through, first, the declara the act-areas where man's works are Congress has acted on a presidential tion of a national policy; second, the substantially unnoticeable, where there recommendation or has determined designation by Congress of wilderness is outstanding opportunity for solitude or otherwise. areas; third, the provision of guidelines a primitive or unconfined type of recrea There are other national forest areas for the use and administration of the tion, and where there may also be ecolog- that are in fact wilderness but have areas involved; and, fourth, certain other ical, geological, or other features of scien- never been so classified for protection as provisions related to gifts, bequests, con tific, educational, scenic, or historical such. Nothing in this bill would prevent tributions, inholdings, records, and re values—areas including at least 5,000 the Secretary of Agriculture from considports.
acres and of sufficient size to make their ering such areas for preservation. Each