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Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, sev with these "loans," $870 million. That Critics argue that Israel has achieved eral years ago Congress began to grow is utterly fantastic.
a rapid rate of economic growth, that impatient over the large number of The House of Representatives and its gross national product has risen over grants being made to various countries, the Senate have shown some sense of the past several years, and that it is and requested the Foreign Aid Adminis recognition that the three-quarters of anticipated this growth will be maintration to make loans, so that the re 1 percent interest rate is not realistic. tained. This is a very good record and, cipients of our aid would have a sense of So it has tinkered with this arrange- since much of the criticism of foreign responsibility and would know that they ment, but its tinkering is not at all real- aid has been directed to the fact that it would have to repay the amounts ex istic. The House version of the bill has sometimes failed to accomplish its tended to them. That came at a time provides that in no event shall the rate objective, we should be congratulating when retrospectively we felt it had been of interest be less than 2 percent per ourselves that our aid to Israel has proa great mistake under the Marshall plan annum. The Senate committee did a duced such gratifying results. to make tremendous gifts to these na much better job; it provided that the Since our aid to Israel has been tions, and decided that we should have three-quarters of 1 percent rate would cess, as every Senator who has visited made loans, instead, so that these coun continue for the first 5 years, and there that country can testify, I would counsel tries, which do not have the large num after the rate would be 2 percent. But against any abrupt or radical change in bers of unemployed that the United actually, we would thus be doing exactly
actually, we would thus be doing exactly that program that would retard the progStates has, would repay the amounts ex what we did before: We would be mak ress that has been made and that would tended to them by the United States. So ing so-called loans which would not be cancel out past achievement. we then adopted the so-called loan loans, and we would be going into the Some critics assert they are not oppolicy. The 40-year loans were made hole to the extent of millions and mil- posed to lending money to Israel. But under the following terms: No repay lions of dollars before the loans would they contend that the economic facts of ment of either principal or, in some cases, be repaid.
life make it clear that "our loans to Israel of interest for 10 years, and interest at My amendment provides that we should be made only on a businesslike the rate of three-quarters of 1 percent should ask, as terms for our loans, ex basis, and not through the soft money per annum. But, Mr. President, I sub actly the interest rate it costs the Amer- route which has been set up for aiding mit that such terms are not at ali the ican people to borrow money. The the truly underdeveloped countries of the terms of a loan.
Treasurer of the United States can in world.” Extensive tables showing the Let us consider what actually hap- form us whether we are borrowing money interest rates on loans to Israel have been pens: I happened to be in Cairo when our
at 334 or 4 percent; and we should add included in the RECORD. Here it should be Ambassador signed a 40-year loan for to that 1 percent, as a carrying charge. noted that on many of these loans the $30 million, for the construction of a This is a just amendment, and I hope interest rates have been set at convenpowerplant in West Cairo. Of course, it will be adopted.
tional levels, and I understand that the a powerplant is a profitmaking enter Mr. President, at this time I wish to rate to be charged on loans during the prise; and from the day when it begins suggest the absence of a quorum, if I
suggest the absence of a quorum, if I current fiscal year is 31/2 percent. generate power, Mr. Nasser can may do so without losing the floor.
Now, Mr. President, I think it is overcharge the consumers whatever rate he The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there simplification to examine our aid prowishes to charge. The terms of the so any objection?
gram to Israel solely in economic terms. called loan were, as in the case of prac Mr. MUNDT. Mr. President, will the We cannot be satisfied with a fiscal view tically all our development loans, no pay Senator from Alaska withhold that sug of the problems of security and survival ment of principal for the first 10 years, gestion for a few minutes?
gestion for a few minutes? I seek the in the Middle East. All of us may be and interest at the rate of three-quarters floor, to address the Senate.
very happy that Israel has made draof 1 percent.
Mr. GRUENING. I shall be glad to matic and dynamic economic progress. No payment during the first 10 years yield to the Senator from South Dakota, But I am sure that the realities in the means that during that time the people if it is agreed that following his re Middle East cannot but dilute optimism of the United States will be borrowing marks, I shall still have the floor, and about future predictions. the money from themselves, through may then suggest the absence of a The unfortunate fact which we cannot bond sales, at a rate of approximately quorum.
overlook is that the balance of military 4 percent interest. Four percent of $30 Mr. MUNDT. That is perfectly ac strength has been gradually shifting million is $1,250,000 a year. As a result, ceptable to me.
against Israel. And we must bear in during each of the 10 years we shall be Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, will mind that our country has not granted going into the hole by making a con that be possible?
military aid to Israel, even though she cealed grant of $1,250,000, and at the end Mr. MUNDT. Mr. President
is surrounded by nations which threaten of the 10-year period we shall have paid The PRESIDING OFFICER. Does her with extermination and which acout $12,500,000 before the loan mecha the Senator from Alaska yield to the quire modern Soviet weapons to carry nism starts to function; and for the re Senator from South Dakota?
out those threats. If we had been supmainder of the 30-year period we shall Mr. GRUENING. Yes; with the un- plying Israel with grant military assistbe paid interest at the rate of only three
derstanding that I shall not lose the ance during this period, it might be quarters of 1 percent per annum. Cer floor.
argued that all of our loans for economic tainly that is the poorest kind of busi
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without development should be made on convenness in the world. objection, it is so ordered.
tional interest rates. My contention is that if there are in Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, will
It is a fact that our Government is the world-as undoubtedly there are
the Senator from Alaska yield briefly to now making the Hawk available to Israel peoples who are so poor that they can me? Under an agreement with the Sen
in order to enable her to defend herself not pay the rate of interest which we re
ator from South Dakota (Mr. MUNDT), from low-flying supersonic Soviet bombquire in connection with loans to the he has kindly offered to yield 3 minutes
ers. But this is not a grant. We are American people, we should return to the to me.
loaning Israel the money to buy this demaking of grants. But I submit that in
Mr. GRUENING. I am happy to do fensive weapon and she is being charged the case of the powerplant to which I
312 percent interest on a 10-year loan. SO. have referred, there was no such need.
We must be concerned about Israel's
Mr. KEATING. I thank the Senator Nevertheless, all of the so-called loans from Alaska and the Senator from
security. If we cannot persuade the we have made to these countries have
Soviet Union to stop shipping deadly South Dakota. been made on such ridiculous terms;
weapons to Egypt and if we cannot per
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without and to date we have made development
suade the former Nazi scientists who are objection, the Senator from New York building ground-to-ground rockets for loans on these “soft” terms to the extent of $1,300 million. Even if we asmay proceed.
Egypt to abandon this deadly effort, then sume that the loans will be repaid
AID TO ISRAEL
we must realize that Israel is in peril. which is extremely doubtful in many Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, there
Mr. President, there we cannot afford to dismantle an ecocases—we shall have to pay out, under has been some criticism of the continu- nomic aid program which helps to presuch concealed grants in connection ing U.S. assistance program in Israel. serve Israel's existence.
We must bear in mind also that the It is strange indeed to look at our aid a central bus terminal, and underground United States and other Western nations program in any one of these Middle East parking for 1,843 cars. have been providing generous economic countries without recognizing the po
In the year and a half since this $35 milaid to Egypt and other Arab countries. litical problems that exist there and the litical problems that exist there and the lion magnet of commercial excitement was
unveiled, Rochester has made a discovery of Of course, it is argued by some officials military circumstances which jeopardize
military circumstances which jeopardize interest to Washington and every other city that we are simply providing economic security. No one who looks at this pro
aiming at downtown renewal: Give the peoaid to these countries and that we are gram can be unaware of the fact that it ple convenient in-town transportation; a not responsible for the fact that this is essential to maintain Israel's strength place to hide their cars; exciting new things makes it possible for them, indirectly, to in order to prevent war and to preserve to look at; an open place to assemble, meet, acquire additional weapons from the So what little stability there is. Surely, it sit, and stroll about; ways to combine shopviet Union, as well as to hire former would be a disastrous blunder if there ping and pleasure-plus all the acknowl
edged advantages of downtown diversityNazi scientists, as well as to deploy troops were to be a precipitous reduction in our
and they'll come in droves, stay for hours, in Yemen and in Algeria. But I do not aid to Israel and if this were misinter
buy like mad, and go back to their suburban accept that reasoning.
preted. We cannot permit any nation homes reluctantly. We must not delude ourselves into be in the Middle East to gain the impres The most amazing fact about this humlieving that the Arab threat to Israel is sion that American interest in Israel has ming new center is that it went ahead withnot real. They may move to carry out
receded and that we are indifferent to out a penny of Federal aid. those threats when they are strong what happens there.
Key to the beginning of the eight-acre enough. For that reason it is essential
transformation smack in Rochester's coun
terpart of Washington's 14th and F Streets that the arms balance be maintained.
MIDTOWN PLAZA IN ROCHESTER, was a decision by the city in 1958 to spend If we are not ready to put Israel into our
$12 million, mostly on public improvements grant military aid program, as we do in
it intended to carry out even before the the case of many countries, then we must Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, last Midtown was proposed. This money went to be ready to maintain economic aid to Sunday's Washington Star carried a finance the three-level public parking garthat country. story by Robert J. Lewis titled "A New age beneath the plaza, partially close two
narrow streets, and extend another street to Now, what has Israel been doing? Downtown." It describes the beautiful
channel in more traffic. The improvements Even though she has been threatened by new Midtown Plaza in Rochester, N.Y.
were designed to attract private investment. hostile forces and must therefore divert This shopping center, in the middle of
With this expenditure agreed to, the ownmuch of her budget for defense, she has the downtown area, was designed to
ers of two big Rochester enterprises-MCbeen able to carry on her magnificent
attract shoppers back into central Curdy's, a department store, and Forman's, open door policy. She has continued to Rochester by providing a unique and a ladies specialty shop-formed a developadmit refugees from lands where they unusual setting.
ment corporation, assembled 17 parcels of have suffered discrimination many of Without a penny of Federal aid, pri- land at a cost of about $5 million, and told them in fact have managed to escape to vate businessmen and the city govern
architect Victor Gruen to do his ingenious
best. freedom from lands behind the Iron ment cooperated to contruct a glassCurtain. enclosed air-conditioned town square
Fresh from designing changes for down
town Fort Worth that never got beyond the Immigration into Israel rose in 1962 to surrounded by attractive shops.
blueprint stage, the Viennese-born archia peak figure. In the last 2 years, Israel
Midtown Plaza now includes two large tect proposed a modern version of the trahas taken in approximately 110,000 peo
department stores, 30 retail shops, 13 ditional European town square to enliven ple, which is more than 1,000 a week.
floors of office space, a post office, a hotel, downtown Rochester. The square, naturalThis has been made possible because the
an auditorium, a sidewalk cafe, a restau- ly lighted and air-conditioned, would be the Israelis themselves have gone deeply into rant with a 10-mile view, a central bus centerpiece, with ground-level and balconydebt to finance development, to under terminal, and an underground parking level stores fronting on it. Three similariy write their immigration program, and to garage for 1,843 cars.
air-conditioned arcades radiating from the
plaza also would have stores. Ground rights insure security.
The author of the Star article con
for the parking garage were to be leased to The Israelis pay heavy taxes. Every
siders this Rochester project a model for the city for $1 a year. economist will agree that large outlays
other cities seeking to rejuvenate their The site picked for the town square was for defense and for immigration do not
downtown areas—particularly Washing- behind the two big stores. Mr. Gruen proproduce foreign exchange. Accordingly,
ton, D.C. So that all my colleagues can posed to remodel and enlarge the existing it is difficult to pay for such expendi
become familiar with what Rochester two stores, open their rear to the glassed-in tures with loans which require high inhas done, I ask unanimous consent that plaza and fill in the spaces on all four sides
with buildings for competing speciality terest rates. Most countries which acthe article to which I have referred be
shops, among them an airline ticket office, quire weapons for defense have been printed at this point in the RECORD.
a barber shop, a realty firm, a travel agency, able to get them without paying any
There being no objection, the article
and a beauty shop. A bank was also thing at all. And so while it is quite
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, planned. true, as has been said that Israel's foras follows:
Placing an 18-story hotel-and-office buildeign exchange holdings have risen dur
A NEW DOWNTOWN
ing at one end of the enclosed plaza and a ing the last few years, her reserves are
(By Robert J. Lewis)
smaller office building at another end-and
linking the whole complex with elevators, not high in relation to her trade deficit.
Rolling into Rochester from the airport, stairways, pedestrian arcades, and escalators Her foreign debt is also very high. It was the cabdriver tells you: "It brought the city
to the below-ground parking-was all part estimated at $768 million just a year ago. back to life. Yeah, it saved the downtown.
of the scheme to attract big crowds and Early this year, the Israel budget showed They got that underground parking and you
keep them there, inside, out of the weather, that the average Israeli will pay $422, or drive right into it. You'll see it in a min
and shopping to their heart's content. ute. See there, up ahead. See it stick up 5642 percent, of his GNP per capita, for
That's exactly what happened. Now, as in the air.” Jutting in the distance is a the cost of government. shining office tower, symbol of Midtown
you stroll inside Midtown Plaza, the place This year, Israel began to pay off the Plaza, the Nation's most spectacular center
is crowded, day and night. Some stores, infirst Israel bonds. It has paid off the city revival project.
cluding McCurdy's, stay open from 9:30 a.m.
On the spot a half hour later, jostled by a last installment of the $100 million Ex
to 9 p.m., but even after closing time, people port-Import Bank loan which the ad
swarm of frenzied shoppers, you begin to cluster in the plaza, sitting on benches, taikshare the cabbie's enthusiasm. This city of
ing, reading, as people have done in town ministration granted Israel in 1949.
squares for centuries. Lights stay bright, 320,000 in upstate New York has created That was the first expression of Amer something no other downtown possesses any
doors remain open, and escalators keep runican assistance and this repayment is where in the world-a “town square" under
ning to below-ground parking all night long. another demonstration of the soundness glass, a focal point leading to more than 40
“Public acceptance has been simply amazof our aid program to that country.
air-conditioned acres of floor area.
In the ing,” Gilbert J. C. McCurdy says. He is 68, Israel's reserves are a security chest square are two big department stores, 30
a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Williams Coland they are essential because Israel is
retail shops, 13 floors of office space, the lege, and heads the department store foundin an exposed military position. War city's busiest post office branch, a 78-room
ed by his father in 1901. It was his initiahotel (perched on four floors atop the office tive that led to forming the Midtown Plaza could devastate, not only Israel's econ building), an auditorium, a sidewalk cafe, a development firm, which he serves as presiomy but her people, overnight.
floating restaurant-bar with a 10-mile view, dent.
But Mr. McCurdy's move to improve down Midtown Plaza's big lesson for cities seems enough to justify that kind of considertown Rochester came only after his depart- to be that downtown business districts need ation. ment store had taken the defensive step of enlivenment, however it is done. It demon
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the opening a suburban branch a decade ago. strates the importance of separating auto
Senator yield? “We had a number of friends in the branch mobile traffic from pedestrian traffic (special business and we thought we would build one underground ramps and surface loading
Mr. MUNDT. I am happy to yield. and see what happened," he says. "Our sub docks are provided for delivery trucks serv Mr. MORSE. I thank the Senator urban branch was very profitable. But we icing stores). It points out quick, easy from South Dakota for his remarks. But soon discovered it's impractical to build means of transportation to shopping areas I wish also to thank the Senator from branches of sufficient size to represent a store are needed (a subway station, for example,
South Dakota for the assistance he has like ours. So we determined our next move could complement onsite parking in a de
been to all of us who share that common would be to do our utmost to make down- velopment like this). town more attractive than any suburban In Rochester, an argument still simmers
point of view in our work on the Foreign shopping center could be.” over how best to meet the changing down
Relations Committee. The Senator was Mr. McCurdy carefully emphasizes the town needs of cities. Mr. McCurdy, who of great help during the hearings and Midtown Plaza project was designed with all spearheaded this notable project during the during those sessions of the markup downtown Rochester in mind. (His firm and tenure of Republican Mayor Peter Barry, says when it was possible for him to be presthe Forman company are 50–50 partners in it would have been impossible under Federal
ent. the venture.) renewal procedures. The city's new mayor,
For example, the Senator will recall Other storekeepers largely agree that what Henry E. Gillette, a Democrat, fought the
that it was the Senator from South ever helps Rochester's central core should project in its planning stages, now concedes: help them, too. But there is no question "It does make Rochester more attractive.” Dakota who made the final motion by that some downtown merchants have been But he quickly adds:
way of compromise in the committee on put at a competitive disadvantage by the "It's very unlikely any other city will attack the contingency fund, about which he shiny new midtown development, with its the problem in this same manner because of and I have been critical for many years, own captive audience arriving effortlessly the insufficiency of city funds. Cities will
including what we consider to be a misby escalator, hour after hour, from the sub have to resort to the Federal urban renewal
use of the contingency fund in some interranean three-level parking garage. concept, using Federal, State, and munici
stances. Yet Sibley's and Edwards'-Rochester's pal money." other big department stores-also benefit However, that argument is settled, the
I thank the Senator for the great asfrom large, above-ground municipal parking people of Rochester are sure of one thing: sistance he has been to those of us who garages, completed before Midtown Plaza They like Midtown Plaza. It makes the city feel that we owe to the American taxwas started. And, unquestionably, some more lively. As Mrs. Rae Ojalvo, a Rochester
payers the course of action we are folshoppers park at midtown primarily to visit housewife, says: "It's something wonderful. lowing in the Senate on the bill. other nearby shops and stores in Rochester's It's beautiful. It's a meeting place for everycompact downtown. But Vicki Newton, 22, one."
Mr. MUNDT. I am indeed grateful to a junior at the University of Rochester, is
the Senator. What he has said brings not not one of these.
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The to mind a statement he made one day on "I used to go down one side of Main Street Chair recognizes the Senator from South the floor of the Senate while I was aband up the other,” she tells you. “Now I Dakota.
sent in the hospital. He commented on shop in Midtown all the time, constantly.
what I felt was one of the most astonishAnd in the wintertime it's marvelous. I
ing statements I have read in Washingnever go outside except to Sibley's." (Sib THE FREEDOM ACADEMY AND
ton newspapers in 25 years. Some colley's, across Main Street from Midtown, is
FOREIGN AID upstate New York's largest department
umnist, whose name I have forgotten, store.)
Mr. MUNDT. Mr. President, while I chided the entire Senate because it was Older shoppers, too, are entranced. “My am a member of the Senate Committee even debating the foreign aid bill, and grandmother loves it,” one youngster said. on Foreign Relations, due to unavoidable
on Foreign Relations, due to unavoidable suggested that such debate was a pure “She likes to sit and watch the people, and circumstances I was not able to attend waste of time. I thought the Senator says to me: 'You run and do something and the closing series of meetings at which
from Oregon, in his typical able manner, I'll sit here and look at the flowers?”. Alfred the aid bill was finally marked up, nor
put that particular reporter in the spot (Alfie) Valentine, 76, a retired music teacher, likes to visit Midtown once a week to meet have I participated up to the present time
have I participated up to the present time in which he definitely deserved to be up with friends. “This place was a Godsend in the debate on the floor of the Senate. placed. I got a "kick” out of reading to old people," he says. "Now they come However, I have availed myself of some the remarks. here and see everything. It's an entirely new unexpected leisure time to read each Up to now most of our discussion has world.” Gus Karner, 70, retired proprietor day's issue of the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD
dealt with the funding of the Foreign of Rochester's Nurenberger Hof restaurant,
so as to follow the debate in the Senate Assistance Act and with the way in adjusts his straw hat, stomps his cane, and
which the program has operated in spesays: “I come in every single day—I live just very carefully. First, I congratulate the
cific areas. down the way, across from the Knights of Senate for the fact that, for the first Columbus."
time in my experience, the Senate has I wish to devote the body of my reFar from worrying over the center's non- really measured up to its responsibilities
really measured up to its responsibilities marks today to a discussion of one of shopping attractions for older persons, Angelo on foreign aid legislation and gone into the basic reasons why I think the foreign Chiarella, a youthful architect who is Mid- the issues item by item and paragraph
the issues item by item and paragraph aid program has fallen into such bad town's general manager, likes it that way. by paragraph to try to register its col- repute around the country. I think it "Some do sit on the benches a long time,” lective judgment in the improvement of
lective judgment in the improvement of is not primarily the size of the job which he says. “But we figure if they like what's
a program which everyone knows has going on here we must have struck just the
we have undertaken or the cost, but the human note that cities need."
fast been going to pot during the past fact that the failures at the end of the
few years. One of the town square's attractions is its
line and in the field are now so apparclean-lined architecture. Another is the sun
I especially congratulate my distin ent that Americans generally are rightlight flooding in from 12-foot-high clerestory guished colleague on the Senate Com fully insisting that Congress dedicate windows surrounding the 60-foot-high ceil- mittee on Foreign Relations, the Senator itself to correcting such conditions. ing. third is the ever-changing throng of from Oregon (Mr. MORSE), for assuming I recall that a week ago today the dressed-to-kill Rochesterians so obviously leadership in opposition to accepting the Senator from Missouri [Mr. SYMINGTON] enjoying themselves. ("Ogling pretty girls results of the findings of the Senate took occasion in the course of the Senate is also a pastime," suggests an official of the Rochester Planning Commission.) But by
Committee on Foreign Relations with debate to point out the need for more far the most fascinating of the plaza's allure- out scrutiny, and without amendment.
out scrutiny, and without amendment. adequate training for the American ofments is the Clock of the Nations—an artful The Senator from Oregon insisted that
The Senator from Oregon insisted that ficials who are responsible for the ad$35,000 creation in the center of the square. the Senate spend sufficient time on the
the Senate spend sufficient time on the ministration of the American programs It stops all traffic every hour and half hour subject so that all Senators might be abroad, and for carrying out the Ameras it puts on a puppet show to the tempo of fully conversant with the facts involved, ican foreign policies. I support comfolk dancing tunes of a dozen foreign nations. So when they cast their votes they would
so when they cast their votes they would pletely the point of view which he ex“That clock gave the best value per dollar spent on anything,” says General Manager and the wishes of their constituents inbe voting their independent judgment pressed.
pressed. One reason why so much of Chiarella. The Gruen architects had it spe
and the wishes of their constituents in the $100 billion we have spent in this cially made in Beverly Hills after unsuccess
stead of merely following the recommen area has been nonproductive, or perfully searching through Europe for someone dations of the committee report. I think haps, to use a favorite State Department to do the job.
the proposed legislation is important phrase, even counterproductive, is that
we have not had the trained personnel the giddy-eyed amateurs they are so
the giddy-eyed amateurs they are so committee on Appropriations. If the who clearly understood the scope of their demonstrably today?”
Senate did not reject it unanimously, I jobs and the nature of the Communist Mr. President, I continue to read from suspect that the people at home would menace which we are attempting to re page 6 of the committee report, made in reject the Senators who voted for that sist by the foreign aid program. 1960:
kind of unconscionable squandering of I share the skepticism of the Senator 1. No concentrated, systematic effort is be- the people's resources. from Missouri [Mr. SYMINGTON] about ing made to develop an integrated opera Yet that is precisely the situation in our merely making multimillion-dollar tional science from our side which will meet which we find ourselves as Senators toappropriations for foreign aid while we the entire Soviet attack and work toward our
day. The Committee on Foreign Relain the Congress continue to fail to es
long-range national objectives in a coorditablish the training facilities for our
nated manner utilizing every area of poten- tions is asking the Congress to approve
tial strength in the public and the private more than $3 billion of additional money officials which is necessary to enable
sectors. We have not thought through all to fight a cold war, and says, “Give us the them to implement the foreign aid pro of the short- and the long-range methods and money. We will see that it is spent. We grams effectively and produce the results means which freemen can properly use when will get some fine, patriotic, idealistic unwhich the country expects from them. faced with a Soviet-type challenge, and we skilled people to go overseas, and they I have voted for far more foreign aid
have not integrated these methods and means will spend the money, even though they
into a broad strategic plan. This is espethan I have opposed. I speak as one cially true in political and economic warfare.
are complete amateurs in the entire cold who has introduced several bills to proBits and pieces of the problem are being
war concept, even though they have vide for adequate training for those who
worked on within the Government and at never spent a single month in a training represent America overseas. I speak as some universities, and a part of this develop- facility learning what the Communist the coauthor of the legislation which ment work is of a high order, but the total apparatus is all about, how it operates, the Senate enacted in 1960, moving to effort falls far short of seeking an integrated, how it functions, and the devious tactics ward that goal, but which unfortunately operational science and it does not begin to
operational science and it does not begin to it employs. We will send these amateurs has not even yet been voted upon by the develop our true potential.
out with 'star dust in their eyes, with
2. Nowhere today can Government per- billions of dollars of American taxpayers' House of Representatives.
sonnel or private citizens receive broad specThe best way to express the need for
trum training in cold war, especially in the money in their pockets, to do battle this type of legislation, and the potential large and highly complex field of political and against expert Communist professional for strength which is embodied in the economic warfare. Not only do we lack top- operatives functioning in the same field, Freedom Academy proposal, of which I level schools, we do not even have inter- who have been trained for years in one am a cosponsor, is to repeat the greatly mediate or lower level schools. There is no
or more of the six Soviet institutions set impressive statement in the report of the place where the bits and pieces are pulled to
up specifically to train the cold war operSenate Committee on the Judiciary, Regether and taught in concentrated form.
atives functioning for communism." port No. 1689, of the 86th Congress. I understand that the Senator from Do Senators wish to know why there
I read from page 5 of that report, as Connecticut [Mr. DodD], a great and has been so much trouble with this forfollows:
courageous Senator, was the author of eign assistance bill? As I sat in the The Communists have conquered a billion the subcommittee report on which the hospital and in my office reading the depeople during a period when their sphere Judiciary Committee report was based. bate of days that I was absent it did not was markedly inferior in industry, technol- The Senator from Connecticut is a co- conjure up any mysteries in my mind. ogy, science, and military capabilities—in author of the current Freedom Academy It did not cause me to seek out obtuse fact, inferior in almost everything except bill, s. 414, which a number of us have reasons why the debate continues day power-seeking know-how. The Soviets have been energetically trying to have ap- after day and week after week, as indeed been able to expand their empire during this proved by the Committee on Foreign it should. The reason is obvious. period of inferiority, because they have developed a science of protracted conflict in Relations, approved by the Senate, and
The people of America have finally which they are able to gradually increase sent to the House of Representatives in caught up with Congress, and have their relative power position, using a well- time so that the House may approve it pointed the finger of responsibility at integrated combination of political, econom- this year.
each of us. They say, "What gives? ic, and military methods while avoiding a I wonder how far the Appropriations After spending $100 billion, you want $3 sufficient provocation to invite massive re- Committee of the Senate, of which I am billion more for the same kind of entracted conflict is their skill in political and a member, would get if it came to the thusiastic inadequately prepared ama
Senate to recommend an appropriation teurs to squander overseas, trying to reeconomic warfare.
Soviet capabilities in political and econom- of $500 million, or $1 billion, for some sist, to defeat, to turn back trained, ic warfare are not inborn. They are the aspect of nuclear science-perhaps de skilled, professional Communist operaresult of a massive development and train- velopment of an improved Polaris, or de- tives who defeat us in the areas in which ing program extending over several decades. velopment of an improved delivery sys- we come in contact with them.” This formidable program has given them a tem for utilizing
for utilizing nuclear warheads
I should like to talk about that fact. huge fund of political warfare knowledge, an abroad-in similar circumstances. How Now is the time to resolve to do someeffective operational science, and large num- successful would we be if it came to the thing about it. bers of highly trained cold-war profes- Senate, as the Committee on Foreign since 1960, when the Senate passed the
Nothing has occurred sionals.
Relations has come to the Senate, to ask Freedom Academy bill overwhelmingly, I continue to read, from page 6 of the for $3 billion, if, in connection with the to change the minds of the supporters report of the Committee on the Judici- appropriation we asked the Senate to of the bill or to change the minds of ary:
provide, we told Senators candidly and members of the committee. Our need for There are grave deficiencies in this coun- honestly, as the Foreign Relations Com- specifically trained personnel to win the try's preparation to defend itself and the free mittee virtually tells the Senate today, cold war overeas is precisely today what world in this unitary, total, unending war “If you give us the money, we will spend the committee said it was in 1960. to the finish. At the top of the list, and it, but you should be forewarned as to the underlying our other failures, is our failure fact that we do not have any experts in
S. 414, which was introduced on Janto institute an adequate cold-war develop
uary 22 of this year, and which is basiment and training program.
the field to utilize the money. Give us cally the same as our Freedom Academy
the money for nuclear warheads. Give bill of 1960 has, as its cosponsors, in addiMr. President, since the Senate is con
us the $500 million for an experiment in sidering the present multibillion-dollar connection with nuclear
warfare, and we tion to the Senator from South Dakota foreign aid proposal, it is a good time for will pick up some fine, idealistic, patriotic, who is now addressing the Senate, the Senators again to ask themselves the unskilled amateurs who do not know a
Senator from Illinois [Mr. DOUGLAS), the question, "Why is it that for 15 years, warhead from a mountain, and who do Senator from New Jersey (Mr. CASE), during which there has been an expendi
not understand anything about the basic the Senator from Connecticut [Mr. ture of over $100 billion, we have so mis- science of nuclear physics. We will pro- DoDD], the Senator from Florida [Mr. erably failed to provide the essential ceed, with those amateurs, to spend the SMATHERS), the Senator from Arizona training devices so that our cold war people's money in our national defense.” [Mr. GOLDWATER), the Senator from Wisoperatives abroad can function as pro I believe the Senate would unanimous- consin (Mr. PROXMIRE), the Senator from fessionals and experts instead of asly reject such a request, if made by our Hawaii [Mr. Fong), the Senators from
Iowa [Mr. HICKENLOOPER and Mr. MIL- courses, by which newcomers to Govern Certainly, a training program of $35 LER], the Senator from New York. [Mr. ment oversea service were indoctri to $50 million a year to equip and to train KEATING], the Senator from Ohio [Mr. nated and briefed.
properly the people who are going to LAUSCHE), and the Senator from Penn However, after the country rejected spend these astronomical amounts is a sylvania [Mr. SCOTT).
that sanctimonious position, the State very modest safeguard in making sure Nobody can type that group of Sena- Department was compelled to change its that the money is well spent. tors, Mr. President. I defy anybody to tactics.
tactics. After a commission had been The State Department's shifting from label them as “a conservative bloc," "a appointed by the President to obtain the one type of position to another in order liberal bloc," "a nationalistic bloc,” or facts and verify the position of the State to fit into the climate of public opinion "an internationalistic bloc."
Department that it was doing the job, deserves to be remarked upon a little They are Senators who represent the and that no changes and additional further. whole spectrum of ideological, economic, training facilities were needed, and after First it was said that no training was political, and philosophic differences in the Commission brought back evidence needed. Then the Department, under the Senate.
that the State Department was failing pressure, under the severe criticism of But they agree on one thing, namely, to do the job, that something new was its own commission, which it had hoped that we cannot win a war against profes- needed, and that the proponents of the would pat it on the back, but which, insionals if we are relying on amateurs. Freedom Academy were correct in label stead, kicked it in the pants, when it got This does not mean that the amateurs are ing them as inadequately equipped ama the evidence, reluctantly admitted that evil. This does not mean that the ama
teurs who were being sent out to fight the training program was not adequate. teurs are bad. It merely means that against professionals-after that adverse Then the Department moved to congolf tournaments are not won, either report came back and surprised the ad fuse and befuddle the issue by advancing
the when amateurs are playing against pro- ministration, State Department a proposal to substitute for the Freedom fessionals. It means that football games changed its tactics. It countered the Academy bill a substitute which, in are not won when amateurs are playing great and growing support for the Free- reality, proposes only to expand, to a against professionals. It means that dom Academy by proposing a very very modest degree, what the Departbaseball world championships are not modest expansion of the present mis- ment is already doing at its Foreign won by amateurs playing against pro- sion of the Foreign Service Institute. It Service Institute. fessionals. And wars are not won that proposed to change its name to some For the information of the Senate and way. They are not won by arraying thing more grandiloquent. It proposed the country at this time, I ask unanimous amateurs against professionals when the to construct a fine new physical estab- consent to have printed in the RECORD wars are hot. They are not won that lishment to carry on the Foreign Service the full text of S. 414, the Freedom way either when the wars are cold. Institute program.
Academy proposal. This continued squandering of the
The State Department proposal com There being no objection, the bill was people's resources, now representing an pletely fails, however, to grapple with ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as
follows: expenditure of well over $100 billion, has the basic problem which would be met
S. 414 miserably failed to achieve its optimum in the Freedom Academy bill. One need results, because contests are not won look only at the budgetary proposals for (In the Senate of the United States, Janu
ary 22 (legislative day, January 15), 1963, Mr. with that kind of matching of unskilled the two_institutions to see this. The and inadequately trained amateurs present Foreign Service Institute budget MUNDT (for himself, Mr. DOUGLAS, Mr. CASE, totals around $6 to $7 million, including
Mr. DODD, Mr. SMATHERS, Mr. GOLDWATER, Mr. against highly trained professionals.
PROXMIRE, Mr. FONG, Mr. HICKENLOOPER, Mr. So, of course, the debate on foreign aid extent that it is able to train people in payments from other agencies, to the
MILLER, Mr. KEATING, Mr. LAUSCHE, and Mr. drags on. Of course, amendment after
SCOTT) introduced the following bill; which amendment is added to what the com- foreign language proficiency, to teach
was read twice and referred to the Committhem the routine method by which cables mittee on Foreign Relations brought be
tee on Foreign Relations:) are sent back and forth between State fore the Senate. And, of course, when it
A bill to create the Freedom Commission and
the Freedom Academy, to conduct research comes up for the second round, when Department functionaries and those
are overseas, to teach them to maintain to develop an integrated body of operaappropriations must be made-remem
what I hope are adequate security ar tional knowledge in the political, psychober, we are talking about an authoriza
rangements—although what we read in logical, economic, technological, and ortion bill only now-it is a foregone con- the newspapers recently leads me to some
ganizational areas to increase the nonmiliclusion that additional sharp reductions
tary capabilities of the United States in the can, and should, be made in those pro- that job very well—to train people how skepticism as to whether they are doing
global struggle between freedom and composed expenditures. Such reductions
munism, to educate and train Government to act at cocktail parties overseas, and will be sizable and substantial.
personnel and private citizens to underhow to greet foreign visitors at embassies
stand and implement this body of knowlCertainly, these reductions will take with a broad smile and a good hand edge, and also to provide education and place unless by that time the Senate has clasp; in these highly limited areas of
training for foreign students in these areas before it some type of Freedom Academy training, the Foreign Service Institute
of knowledge under appropriate conditions bill, assuring the American people, at renders a useful service.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House long last, that we are going to train
The new Academy proposed by the
of Representatives of the United States of specialized people who will be able to do State Department would have a budget
America in Congress assembled, the job, just as we do in military matters, of something like $8 or $9 million anjust as we do in the atomic energy field, nually. Let us contrast that with what SECTION 1. This Act may be cited as the just as anyone does in any area of ac
we propose in the Freedom Academy "Freedom Commission Act”. tivity whenever one is out to win. And, bill
, wherein we seek to do the job of CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS AND STATEMENT OF unless we have the desire to win the cold fully meeting the problems we face, and
POLICY war, we are stupid indeed to sacrifice so of training personnel in the hard-nosed SEC. 2. (a) The Congress of the United much of our national resources on a techniques required in order to beat off
States makes the following findings and formula of failure. the seductions and subversions and pro
statement of policy: The original position of the adminis- grams of the Communists, with a mini
(1) The United States in preparing to detration and of the State Department mum budget of from $35 to $50 million
fend its national interests in coming years with respect to our Freedom Academy annually to train the people to do the
faces grave and complex problems in the
nonmilitary as well as military areas. proposal was indeed a rather curious job.
(2) First and foremost are the problems one. It was said that the kind of train
That is a pretty modest proposal raised by the unremitting drives by the Soing proposed by the Freedom Academy when we stop to think that these are viet Union and Communist China seeking was unnecessary, and that this kind of the people who, along with their prede world domination and the destruction of all legislation was not needed. In their en- cessors, have spent $100 billion. These
non-Communist societies. The Communist thusiasm, members of the administra are the people who are now calling upon have systematically prepared themselves to
bloc and the various Communist parties tion even said that that kind of train- us to give them another $372 billion so
wage a thousand-pronged aggression in the ing was already being provided by a few they can spend it during the remaining nonmilitary area. Drawing on their elabolectures and very short-time, cursory of this fiscal year.
rate studies and extensive pragmatic tests,