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world struggle. Not only do we need to im reservoir of talent, ingenuity, and strength predecessor was appointed shall be appointed

Communist leaders have developed their at agency schools, and while university cen (2) The term “Academy" means the Freeconspiratorial version of nonmilitary con- ters have made significant progress in area dom Academy established by section 6 of flict into an advanced, operational art in studies, nowhere has the United States es this Act. which they employ and orchestrate an ex tablished a training program to develop ESTABLISHMENT OF THE FREEDOM COMMISSION traordinary variety of conflict instruments rounded strategists in the nonmilitary area

SEC. 4. There is established in the execuin the political, psychological, ideological, or even certain vital categories of professional tive branch of the Government an indeeconomic, technological, organizational and specialists, particularly in the area of politiparamilitary areas enabling them to ap-cal, ideological, psychological, and organiza- pendent agency to be known as the Free

dom Commission which shall be composed proach their immediate and long-range ob- tional operations and in certain areas of of six members and a chairman, each of jectives along many paths. This creates development work. unique and unprecedented problems for the States organized a research program which whom shall be a citizen of the United States. United States in a conflict that is being can be expected to think through the impor- ignate any other member of the Commis

The Chairman may from time to time deswaged in student organizations, peasant vil tant additional range of methods and means lages, labor unions, mass communication that could be available to us in the Govern

sion as Acting Chairman to act in the place

and stead of the Chairman during his absystems, in city and jungle, and institutions ment and private sectors.

sence. and organizations of every description, as

The Chairman (or the Acting Chair(7) In implementing this legislation the

man in the absence of the Chairman) shall well as in the world's chancelleries. Recog- following requirements for developing our nizing that nonmilitary conflict makes ex national capacity for global operations in the

preside at all meetings of the Commission, traordinary demands upon its practitioners, nonmilitary area should receive special

and a quorum for the transaction of busithe Communists, for several decades, have in

ness shall consist of at least four members attention: tensively trained their leadership groups and

present. Each member of the Commission,

I. At the upper levels of Government, the including the Chairman, shall have equal recadres in an extensive network of basic, in United States must have rounded strategists sponsibility and authority in all decisions termediate, and advanced schools. The Sino

with intensive interdepartmental training Soviet conflict capacity has been immeasur- and experience who understand the range of full access to all information relating to the

and actions of the Commission, shall have ably increased by the mobilization of re instruments potentially available to us and performance of his duties or responsibilities, search, science, industry, technology, and who can organize and program these instrueducation to serve the power-seeking ambi

and shall have one vote. Action of the Comments over long periods in an integrated, mission shall be determined by a majority tions of Communist leaders rather than the forward strategy that systematically develneeds of their people.

vote of the members present. The Chairops and utilizes our full national capacity man (or Acting Chairman in the absence of (3) Second, the problems of the United for the global struggle.

the Chairman) shall be the official spokesStates are complicated by the emergence of II. Below them, Government personnel man of the Commission in its relations with many new nations, the unstable or deteri

must be trained to understand and impleorating political, social and economic con

the Congress, Government agencies, persons, ment this integrated strategy in all of its or the public, d, on behalf of the Commisditions in many parts of the world, the rev

dimensions. Through intensive training, as olutionary forces released by the rising ex

sion, shall see to the faithful execution of well as experience, we must seek the highest the policies and decisions of the Commispectations of the world's people, and other factors, all of which increase the difficulties specialized knowledge required by our global mission from time to time or as the Com

professional competence in those areas of sion, and shall report thereon to the Comof achieving our national objectives of pre- operations. Government personnel should mission may direct. The Commission shall venting Communist penetration while seek

have an underlying level of understanding have an official seal which shall be judicially ing to build viable, free, and independent as to the nature of the global conflict, the noticed. nations.

goals of the United States, and the various (A) The nature of the Sino-Soviet power possible instruments in achieving these goals

MEMBERSHIP OF THE COMMISSION drive, the revolutionary and fluid world sit

to facilitate team operations. We should SEC. 5. (a) Members of the Commission uation, the emergence of the United States seek to instill a high degree of elan and and the Chairman shall be appointed by the as the major leader of the free world and dedication.

President, by and with the advice and conthe need to deal with the people of nations

Not more than four as well as governments, has compelled the

III. Foreign affairs personnel at all levels sent of the Senate. United States to employ many new instru- emphasis on Communist nonmilitary conmust understand communism with special members, including the Chairman, may be

members of any one political party. In ments under the headings of traditional flict technique. It is not enough to have

submitting any nomination to the Senate, diplomacy, intelligence, technical assistance, aid programs, trade development, educational experts available for consultation. This is the President shall set forth the experience basic knowledge which must be widely dis

and qualifications of the nominee. The term exchange, cultural exchange, and counter seminated, if planning and implementation of each member of the Commission, other insurgency (as well as in the area of related are to be geared to the conflict we are in.

than the Chairman, shall be six years, exmilitary programs). To interrelate and pro(The present two weeks seminar offered at

cept that (1) the terms of office of the memgram these present instruments over long the Foreign Service Institute is entirely too

bers first taking office shall expire as desperiods already requires a high degree of brief for even lower ranking personnel.)

ignated by the President at the time of the professional competence in many specialties,

IV. The private sector must understand as well as great managerial skill.

appointment, two at the end of two years,

two at the end of four years, and two at the (6) However, the United States has fallen how it can participate in the global struggle end of six years; and (2) any member apshort in developing and utilizing its full capacity to achieve its objectives in the

There exists in the private sector a huge pointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to

can be developed prove the existing instruments, but a wide in helping to solve many of our global prob

for the remainder of such term. The Chairrange of additional methods and means in lems. We have hardly begun to explore the

man shall serve as such during the pleasure both the Government and private sectors

of the President, and shall receive compenmust be worked out and integrated with the range of possibilities.

sation at the rate of $20,500 per annum. existing instruments of our policy. Other

V. The public must have a deeper under

Each other member of the Commission shall wise, the United States will lack the means

standing of communism, especially Commuto defeat many forms of Communist aggres nist nonmilitary conflict technique, and the receive compensation at the rate of $20,000 sion and to extend the area of freedom, na

per annum. Any member of the Commisnature of the global struggle, including the

sion may be removed by the President for intional independence, and self-government, as goals of the United States.

efficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in well as to attain other national objectives.

(8) The hereinafter created Freedom Acad

office. However, this will require an intensive and emy must be a prestige institution and every

(b) No member of the Commission shall comprehensive research and training effort effort should be made to demonstrate this

engage in any business, vocation, or employfirst to think through these additional meth is a major effort by the United States in a

ment other than that of serving as a member ods and means, and, second, to educate and vital area.

of the Commission. train not only specialists, but also leaders (b) It is the intent and purpose of the at several levels who can visualize and or Congress that the authority and powers

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE FREEDOM ACADEMY; ganize these many instruments in an inte granted in this Act be fully utilized by the

PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMISSION grated strategy, enabling the United States to Commission established by section 4 of this

AND ACADEMY approach its national objectives along every Act to achieve the objectives set forth in

SEC. 6. The Commission shall establish unpath in accord with our ethic.

subsection (a) (7) of this section. It is the der its supervision and control an advanced (6) There has been a tendency to look further intent and purpose of the Congress research, development, and training center upon strategy as a series of discrete prob that the authority, powers, and functions of

to be known as the Freedom Academy. The lems with planning often restricted by juris the Commission and the Academy as set Academy shall be located at such place or dictional walls and parochial attitudes and forth in this Act are to be broadly construed. places within the United States as the Comtoo much piecemeal planning to handle emer

mission shall determine. The principal func

DEFINITIONS gencies at the expense of systematic, long

tions of the Commission and Academy shall range development and programing of the

SEC. 3. As used in this Act,

be: many instruments potentially available to (1) The term "Commission" means the (1) To conduct research designed to imus. While there has been marked improve Freedom Commission established by section prove the methods and means by which the ment in such things as language training 4 of this Act; and

United States seeks its national objectives CIX1353

in the nonmilitary part of the global strug- from the United States at the expiration of and loyalty of any individual under considgle. This should include improvement of the the time for which he was admitted, or who eration for training at the Academy, and if present methods and means and exploration engages in activities of a political nature the Commission shall then determine that of the full range of additional methods and detrimental to the interest of the United the training of such individual will not be means that may be available to us in both States, or in activities in conflict with the in the best interest of the United States, he the Government and private sectors. Spe- security of the United States, shall, upon shall receive no training under this Act. cial attention shall be given to problems of the warrant of the Attorney General, be (d) In the event an investigation made an interdepartmental nature and to problems taken into custody and promptly deported pursuant to subsection (c) of this section involved in organizing and programing the pursuant to section 241, 242, and 243 of the develops any data reflecting that the indifull spectrum of methods and means poten- Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. vidual who is the subject of the investigation tially available in the Government and pri- 1251, 1252, and 1253). Deportation proceed is of questionable loyalty or is a questionable vate sectors in an integrated, forward strat ings under this section shall be summary security risk, the Civil Service Commission egy that will systematically develop and and findings of the Attorney General as to shall refer the matter to the Federal Bureau utilize the full capacity of the United States matters of fact shall be conclusive. Such of Investigation for the conduct of a full field to seek its national objectives in the global persons shall not be eligible for suspension investigation, the results of which shall be struggle, including the defeat of all forms of of deportation under section 344 of such Act furnished to the Civil Service Commission Communist aggression and the building of (8 U.S.C. 1254).

for its information and appropriate action. free, independent, and viable nations.


(e) If the President or the Commission (2) To educate and train Government per

shall deem it to be in the national interest, sonnel and private citizens so as to meet the

SEC. 8. The Commission is authorized to

he or the Commission may from time to time requirements set forth in section 2(a) (7) of establish an information center at such

cause investigation of any individual which this Act. The Academy shall be the principal place or places within the United States as

is required or authorized by subsections (a) Government interdepartmental, educational, the Commission may determine. The princi; and (c)

of this section to be made by the and training center in the nonmilitary area pal function of the information center shall

Federal Bureau of Investigation instead of by of the United States global operations. Aube to disseminate, with or without charge, in

the Civil Service Commission. thority is also granted to educate and train formation and materials which will assist

GENERAL AUTHORITY OF THE COMMISSION foreign students, when this is in the national people and organizations to increase their interest and is approved by the Secretary of

understanding of the true nature of the in SEC. 11. (a) In addition to the authority State.

ternational Communist conspiracy and of the already granted, the Commission is author(3) To provide leadership in encouraging

dimensions and nature of the global strug. ized and empowered and assisting universities and other institu- gle between freedom and communism, and of (1) to establish such temporary or pertions to increase and improve research, edu

ways they can participate effectively toward manent boards and committees as the Comcational, and training programs attuned to winning that struggle and building free, in

mission may from time to time deem necesthe global operational needs of the United dependent, and viable nations. In carrying sary for the purposes of this Act; States.

out this function, the Commission is author (2) subject to the provisions of subsection (4) To provide leadership, guidance, and

ized to prepare, make, and publish textbooks (b) of this section, to appoint and fix the assistance to the training staffs of Govern

and other materials, including training films, compensation of such personnel as may be ment agencies handling United States global

suitable for high school, college, and com necessary to carry out the functions of the operations, including training programs con

munity level instruction, and also to publish Commission; ducted at oversea posts.

such research materials as may be in the (3) to conduct such research, studies, and (5) To provide a center where officers and public interest. The Commission is author surveys as the Commission may deem necesemployees of Government agencies, as well

ized to disseminate such information and sary to carry out the purposes of this Act; as private citizens, can meet to discuss and

materials to such persons and organizations (4) to make, promulgate, issue, rescind, explore common and special elements of their

as may be in the public interest on such and amend such rules and regulations as problems in improving United States capa

terms and conditions as the Commission may be necessary to carry out the purposes bilities in the global struggle. shall determine.

of this Act;

(5) to make such expenditures as may be STUDENT SELECTION; GRANTS; ADMISSION OF


necessary for administering and carrying out FOREIGN STUDENTS SEC. 9. Nothing in this Act shall authorize

the provisions of this Act; SEC. 7. (a) Academy students, other than the disclosure of any information or knowl

(6) to utilize, with the approval of the Government personnel, shall be selected, in

edge in any case in which such disclosure President, the services, facilities, and persofar as is practicable and in the public in(1) is prohibited by any other law of the

sonnel of other Government agencies and pay terest, from those areas, organizations, and United States, or (2) is inconsistent with the

for such services, facilities, and personnel institutions where trained leadership and insecurity of the United States.

out of funds available to the Commission formed public opinion are most needed to


under this Act, either in advance, by reimachieve the objectives set forth in section SEC. 10. (a) Except as authorized by the

bursement, or by direct transfer; 2(a) (7) IV and v. Persons in Government Commission upon a determination by the

(7) to utilize or employ on a full-time or service coming within the provisions of the Commission that such action is clearly con

part-time basis, with the consent of the orGovernment Employees Training Act may be sistent with the national interest, no indi

ganization or governmental body concerned, trained at the Academy pursuant to the pro- vidual shall be employed by the Commission,

the services of personnel of any State or visions of said Act. All agencies and de nor shall the Commission permit any indi

local government or private organization to partments of Government are authorized to vidual to have access to information which perform such functions on its behalf as may assign officer and employees to the Academy is, for reasons of national

security, specifi- appear desirable to carry out the purposes of for designated training. cally designated by a United States Govern

this Act, without requiring such personnel (b) The Commission is authorized to make ment agency for limited or restricted dis

to sever their connection with the furnishgrants to students and to pay expenses in semination or distribution until the Civil ing organization or governmental body; and cident to training and study under this Act. Service Commission shall have made an in

to utilize personnel of a foreign government This authorization shall include authority to vestigation and report to the Commission on

in the same manner and under the same cirpay actual and necessary travel expenses to the character, associations, and loyalty of

cumstances with the approval of the Secreand from the Academy or other authorized such individual, and the Commission shall

tary of State; place of training under this Act. The Com have determined that employing such indi

(8) to acquire by purchase, lease, loan, or mission is authorized to grant financial as vidual or permitting him to have access to

gift, and to hold and dispose of by sale, sistance to the dependents of students who such information will not endanger the

lease, or loan, real and personal property of hold no office or employment under the Fed common defense and security.

all kinds necessary for, or resulting from, the eral Government during the time they are

exercise of authority granted by this Act;

(b) In the event an investigation made undergoing training authorized under this pursuant to subsection (a) of this section

(9) to receive and use funds donated by Act. Grants and other financial assistance develops any data reflecting that the indi

others, if such funds are donated without under this Act shall be in such amounts vidual who is the subject of the investiga

restrictions other than that they be used and subject to such regulations as the Com

in furtherance of one or more of the purtion is of questionable loyalty or is a quesmission may deem appropriate to carry out tionable security risk, the Civil Service

poses of this Act; the provisions of this Act. Commission shall refer the matter to the

(10) to accept and utilize the services of (c) Foreign students selected for training Federal Bureau of Investigation for the con

voluntary and uncompensated personnel and under this Act shall be admitted as nonim

to provide transportation and subsistence duct of a full field investigation, the results migrants under section 101(a) (15) (F) of the of which shall be furnished to the Civil

as authorized by section 5 of the AdminisImmigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. Service Commission for its information and

trative Expenses Act of 1946 (5 U.S.C. 73b-2) 1101(a) (15) (F)) for such time and under

for persons serving without compensation; such conditions as may be prescribed by appropriate action.

(11) to utilize the services of persons on regulations promulgated by the Commission,

(c) If the Commission deems it to be in a temporary basis and to pay their actual the Secretary of State, and the Attorney Gen

the national interest, the Commission may and necessary travel expenses and subsisteral. A person admitted under this section request the Civil Service Commission to

ence and, in addition, compensation at : who fails to maintain the status under which make an investigation and report to the rate not to exceed $50 per day for each day he was admitted, or who fails to depart Commission on the character, associations, spent in the work of the Commission.

(b) The personnel referred to in subsec (4) transmit to the President and to the proven especially inhibited, defensive, and tion (a) (2) of this section shall be appointed Congress in January of each year a report even uninterested in the extraordinary opin accordance with the civil service laws containing (A) a comprehensive description portunities for providing Academy training and their compensation fixed in accordance of the plans, programs, and activities of the to foreign nationals, toward exploring the unwith the Classification Act of 1949, as Commission and the Academy during the limited and exciting possibilities for private amended, except that, to the extent the preceding calendar year, and (B) its recom sector participation in the global conflict, or Commission deems such action necessary mendations for the improvement of those even toward providing true professional to the discharge of its responsibilities, per- plans, programs, and activities.

training for its own people in the new forms sonnel may be employed and their compen (e) The Committee shall promulgate such of struggle. State does not even seem to sation fixed without regard to such laws. rules and regulations as it shall determine understand why the training it is providing No such personnel (except such personnel to be necessary for the performance of its at the Foreign Service Institute is grossly whose compensation is fixed by law, and duties.

inadequate. Unfortunately, the State Despecially qualified professional personnel up (f) The Commission shall furnish to the partment's attitude has permeated the adto a limit of $19,000) whose position would Committee without reimbursement such of- ministration, and as long as this attitude be subject to the Classification Act of 1949, fice space, personal services, supplies and and lack of interest prevails, it would likely as amended, if such Act were applicable equipment, information, and facilities as the be reflected in appointments to the Freedom to such position, shall be paid a salary at Committee may require for the performance Commission and Freedom Academy. The a rate in excess of the rate payable under of its functions.

Freedom Academy cannot succeed unless such Act for positions of equivalent difficulty


there is appreciation of the nature of the reor responsibility. The Commission shall

SEC. 14. There is authorized to be appro

search and training gap and a driving desire make adequate provision for administrative priated, out of any money in the Treasury

to close it. review of any determination to dismiss any not otherwise appropriated, such sums as

Third, the State Department has put out employee.

may be necessary to carry out the provisions grossly inaccurate interpretations of the GENERAL MANAGER OF THE COMMISSION of this Act.

Freedom Academy bill well calculated to mis

lead the Congress and public. Certain offiSEC. 12. The Commission is authorized to Mr. MUNDT. Mr. President, these cers at State have even suggested the Freeestablish within the Commission a general tactics of the State Department, dilatory dom Academy is the product of the far rightmanager, who shall discharge such of the in nature, doubtful in wisdom, can wear wing. This is most discouraging to the or administrative and executive functions of down some of the proponents of reform lando committee which has been carefully direct. The general manager shall be ap- who operate independently of tax sup- outstanding liberals, moderates, and conpointed by the Commission, shall serve at port.

servatives. It has made it difficult to debate the pleasure of the Commission, shall be The State Department is a permanent the bill on its merits. removable by the Commission, and shall fixture. Its array of individuals can con Fourth, although the Orlando committee receive compensation at a rate determined tinue to do nothing and get paid for it, has made available extensive briefing maby the Commission, but not in excess of whereas those who advocate doing some terial spelling out the cold war research and $18,000 per annum.

thing in the field of thoroughly training training gap and explaining the bill, few ADVISORY COMMITTEE

our oversea personnel must

do it at

their have studied this. Until more people do their SEC. 13. (a) To assure effective coopera- own expense. The State Department re

homework, there can be no adequate debate tion between the Freedom Academy and ceives its appropriation annually. Op- country cannot be alerted to the research

on the merits, and the Congress and the various Government agencies concerned with erating income is no problem. A delay and training gap which is undermining our its objectives, there is established an ad- of several years works against the con- entire effort in the global struggle. visory committee to the Freedom Academy (referred to hereinafter as the "Committee”). tinuing ability of persons working for Finally, the 13-year effort to establish the The Committee shall be composed of one reforms from the outside. Their assets Freedom Academy has exhausted the perrepresentative of each of the following agen are limited, and they can last only so sonal finances of key members of the orcies designated by the head of each such long. The utter frustration of trying to they return full time to their professions and

lando committee, and it is now mandatory agency from officers and employees thereof: move the immovable must surely seem businesses. The Department of State; the Department completely futile.

The committee believes the need for the of Defense; the Department of Health, Edu

Symbolic of this frustration is the re- Freedom Academy is more urgent than ever. cation, and Welfare; the Central Intelligence cent announcement of the dissolution of we do not believe the United States can Agency; the Federal Bureau of Investigation; the Agency for International Development; the Orlando committee, at Orlando, Fla. either contain or defeat the Communist drive and the United States Information Agency. After working hard for 13 years, the for world dominion, much less achieve other a member to serve as Chairman of the Com- that all Americans should read the state- new forms of struggle along the lines sug(b) Members of the Committee shall elect committee has been dissolved. I believe objectives, unless we systematically develop

our full national capacity to compete in the mittee. The Chairman shall serve for such ment issued by the committee on its dis- gested in the "Green Book." a term of one year. The chairmanship shall solution. I ask unanimous consent to Our committee believes it has done about rotate among the representatives of the insert at this point in the CONGRESSIONAL all it can. The bill is now pending before agencies who comprise the membership of RECORD, in its entirety, that statement. the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the Committee.

There being no objection, the state

the House Committee on Un-American Ac(c) No member of the Committee shall receive compensation for his services as such ment was ordered to be printed in the tivities. It is now up to these committees

and the House Foreign Affairs Committee to other than that received by him as an officer RECORD, as follows:

determine what type of bill, if any, is reor employee of the agency represented by The Orlando Committee for the Freedom ported out. him. Each member of the Committee shall Academy is disbanding today and will no What is really needed, however, is a mabe reimbursed for expenses actually and nec- longer actively seek passage of the Freedom jor policy change by this administration. essarily incurred by him in the performance Academy bill, S. 414, H.R. 5638.

As long as our leadership is satisfied to of duties of the Committee. Such reim Several reasons lay behind the decision leave the Communists uncontested on much bursements shall be made from funds ap- unanimously approved by the committee of the political, ideological, and organizapropriated to the Freedom Commission upon Thursday night (October 11, 1963).

tional battlegrounds, as long as they are convouchers approved by the Chairman of the First, the administration, and in particu- tent to pursue our global objectives, using Committee.

lar the Department of State, is now actively only a small percentage of the instruments (d) The Committee shall

opposing the bill. This means there is little potentially available to us, as long as they (1) serve as a medium for liaison between chance of passing the legislation in a form persist in responding to the Soviet challenge the Freedom Commission and the Govern- acceptable to the committee.

on a piecemeal, ad hoc basis, as long as they ment agencies represented in the Committee; Second, we have reluctantly concluded that are satisfied to oppose professional conflict

(2) review from time to time the plans, even if the bill is passed, it is unlikely this managers with untrained and often unmotiprograms, and activities of the Freedom Com- administration, as presently oriented, will vated amateurs, as long as they persist in unimission and the Freedom Academy, and establish the type of Academy envisioned by lateral disengagement in the nonmilitary transmit to the Commission such recom

the Orlando committee and described in its conflict to mollify our enemies, then there mendations as it may determine to be neces

"Green Book” and the supplement thereto. can be no Freedom Academy. sary or desirable for the improvement of

The State Department has developed a nar Someday this Nation will recognize that those plans, programs, and activities; row, inhibited, and essentially defensive global nonmilitary conflict must be pursued

with the same intensity and preparation as (3) meet with the Freedom Commission strategy in the global conflict. It has shown

little interest in exploring the whole new periodically, but not less often than semi- range of methods and means by which we

global military conflict. With that realiza

tion, the Freedom Academy may come into annually, to consult with it with regard to

could seek our global objectives and has been being. We can only hope it is not too late. the plans, programs, and activities of the satisfied to leave the Communists uncon The committee wishes to emphasize that Freedom Commission and the Federal Acad tested on much of the political, ideological, the administration's bill to establish a Naemy; and

and organizational battlegrounds. State has tional Academy of Foreign Affairs is most

inadequate and in no way should be con The pushover Senate is not to be Above all, we need the type of trained sidered a substitute for the Freedom Acad pushed over any more. We, too, are ac American personnel operating abroad emy. The committee has outlined its ob- countable to the public. We, too, have that the operation of an American Freejections to this bill at the Senate hearings and in supplement No. 1 to the green book.

seen the evidence. We, too, know that dom Academy can provide. The committee wishes to thank the House

we will not win unless we try, and that As we evolve a new program which can and Senate sponsors and in particular Sena

the first step in trying is to have our per work, we shall be training the workers tors Mundt, Dodd, and Douglas who carried sonnel carefully, completely, and specif who can make it succeed, we shall be the load in the 86th, 87th, and 88th Con- ically trained to bring about victory. substituting manpower for money, we gresses, and Syd Herlong and Walter Judd,

It seems to me that it is increasingly shall be substituting professionals for who introduced the original bill in the House

observed that there are, very possibly, amateurs, and we shall be looking to the in February 1959. We also wish to thank

evil consequences to be suffered by this development of victory, instead of the the many newspapers and organizations who endorsed the bill and the editors of Life, country and its interests by reason of perpetuation of defeat. the Reader's Digest, and Saturday Evening

our continuing to add more money to be We should reduce appropriations Post, who gave editorial support, and Roscoe spent for some undesirable things to be

spent for some undesirable things to be sharply, so that the voice of Congress Drummond, for a series of fine columns. done in the same ineffective way, and by can finally be heard at the other end of Our thanks also to the Senate Judiciary the same people with the same lack of the avenue. We should write in a terCommittee for its report of June 1960, call- background training, from which they minal date, which will make the admining the Freedom Academy bill "one of the have already suffered for too long.

istration come forth with something most important bills ever introduced in the

It is highly desirable in the Senate ac better-not a terminal date to try to Congress." Locally, we wish to thank the many in

tion on the pending bill that the foreign shoulder off our responsibility of world dividuals and organizations who contributed

aid authorization be sharply curtailed, leadership, but one which will put us time, money, and moral support.

to show the State Department that the into the cold war contest with trained THE ORLANDO COMMITTEE FOR

Senate recognizes the fact that the un personnel and with a program which


planned programs of economic aid and makes sense, which concentrates on the

the cold war contest being conducted by target, which ceases to waste the public Mr. MUNDT. Mr. President, at this

untrained personnel have already been funds, and which will begin to win vicdiscussion of the future of the foreign demonstrated to be futile.

tories around the world. aid program, the administration and the

Even the report from the Senate Com One reason why I voted for the reState Department are forced to meet the mittee on Foreign Relations, which committal of the bill a week ago today, moment of truth. Finally they have

rather unenthusiastically urges the Sen and why I shall continue both in the aufound out that while they have been able

ate to approve its recommendations, thorization bill and in the appropriation to dissuade those of us who through the points out that the committee also be

points out that the committee also be- bill, where, as a member of the Commityears have been trying to establish an

lieves that the program should be cur tee on Appropriations, I anticipate even efficient and sufficient training academy,

tailed and changed, and perhaps elim more gratifying results, to press for while they have been able to resist efforts

inated by the end of the next fiscal year, reductions in the excessive expenditures of fine, independent groups, like the Or

and that something should be evolved in provided by the foreign aid bill, is to lando committee, various posts of the

its place. Therefore Congress should re help to improve our program, which is American Legion, and many other orduce the appropriations.

deteriorating before our eyes, for reaganizations and groups who have been

I join those who say that we need to sons that are so apparent that we could urging Congress to do something toward write into the bill a terminal date for discover them at midnight, in the basethe establishment of the Freedom Acad- foreign aid in order to open the entire ment of a house, with the lights turned emy, and while they have been able to question, so that next year there will be out. We know the evidence; we know stop anything from developing, they now before Congress the product of studies the reasons; and so does the country confront the ugly fact that Americans which should begin now, to determine generally. are losing confidence in the whole foreign how best to exercise our leadership and

We are only continuing, as we have aid concept. meet our responsibilities in world affairs.

done in the past, a program which conTheir bill has hit a roadblock for the We all recognize that we cannot pull stitutes a complete violation of our refirst time in the Senate, Senators who out of the world. The neutrals and our

sponsibility in the Senate and a confesunthinkingly went along year after year, friends need our support and assistance

friends need our support and assistance sion of our failure to meet the needs of Senators who complainingly went along, overseas. Many need our guidance.

our time. Our constituents have a right feeling that they owed it to the State We must continue our efforts to curtail to expect from us something more conDepartment, and that they should do it the aggressive acts of international com

sistent, something more constructive, as a matter of party loyalty, are now munism and restore freedom to the areas

than the perpetuation of a failure and in open rebellion against the kind of pro- which it has already enslaved.

the provision of additional funds for gram that they have been asked to sup The world and the American taxpayer those who have demonstrated their inport and espouse in recent years.

both deserve a program which is effec- ability to spend the previous hundred Finally, the country as a whole, and tive, which is implemented by personnel billion dollars wisely-not with bad Members of Congress realize the futility who are trained and competent. They intentions, but because they have of adding additional billions to what we need a program which is planned and not been sufficiently and specifically have already spent. Everyone knows implemented by professionals, and not

trained for the job because our Goythat we cannot win a war with amateurs merely proposed and promoted by en

ernment has completely failed to proagainst professionals. Still, the State thusiastic, well-intentioned but inade

vide something like a Freedom Academy Department lamely continues its opposi- quately trained amateurs.

to train them. The report of the Comtion and refuses to do anything substan The only course to follow in com

mittee on Foreign Relations itself rectial in the direction of equipping and municating with this see-no-evil, hear- ognizes the failure of the foreign aid adequately training Americans who serve no-evil, feel-no-evil State Department

program. the Government overseas, at least with group charged with the implementation

Mr. President, I ask unanimous cona modicum of the kind of training that of our foreign policy, whose only solution

sent to have printed at this point in is given extensively to the Communist is always, "Give us money, give us bil

the RECORD excerpts from pages 4 and 5 opponents whom they must confront and lions, and our amateurs will do the job,”

of the committee report. whom it is their job to try effectively to is to bring the present program to a halt,

There being no objection, the excerpts resist. to stop it; and, having stopped it, to write

from the report (Rept. No. 588) were First it was the country that rose up a new type of program, which will en

ordered to be printed in the RECORD, as in arms against trying to win a decision courage countries to help themselves by

follows: with dollars alone, when we did not have utilizing the techniques and talents made the trained personnel to spend the money available to them, to learn to do for

In the past the committee has been dis

appointed by certain aspects of a foreign wisely. Then it was the House of Rep- themselves by doing, instead of contin

aid program. There have been instances of resentatives, where, surprisingly, and uing a program under which we try to do

failure and inefficiency in the field, admingratifyingly, some substantial cuts were things for them, the doing of which in

istrative and organizational shortcomings, made in the foreign aid authorization many cases is not prudent or proper, and imbalance in the kinds and amounts of aid bill. Now the bill is before the Senate. frequently not even necessary.

expended to certain countries, overgenerosity

to some recipients and the neglect of other, It seems to me that we should take of revolution. In their view this is exactly more deserving recipients, the proliferation steps on the Senate floor, even at this

what the Communists want the United of aid programs especially military aid pro

States to believe. late date, to make certain that the programs to an ever-growing number of coun

"But let a Communist Party gain power, tries, and inexplicable delays in terminating gram is turned in the right direction and

or even share power in a coalition,” said one assistance to countries which no longer need that it is hereafter designed to reach the

member of a parliament, “and you Ameriit or which have failed to make productive targets expected of it.

cans will be quickly reminded of the true use of it.

I ask unanimous consent to have print- aims of communism. All the divisions or The committee is less impressed with the ed at this point in the RECORD an article Polaris submarines in Europe won't prevent case made by the executive branch for the entitled “The Real Red Threat,” written the Communists from taking that country maintenance of U.S. aid programs, even on a by Drew Middleton, and published in the

out of NATO.small scale, in virtually every underdeveloped New York Times of November 8, 1963.

CONTRIBUTIONS CITED country in the free world and in a few de

Some may suggest that putting forward veloped or relatively developed countries. The article emphasizes the fact that if The committee sees little merit in aid pro

we are to win the cold war-which we this emphasis on communism's political grams whose sole or major justification is must win if we are not to fight a hot potential is a way of avoiding fulfillment of the maintenance of a U.S. "presence” or the one—we will win it because of the politi- military

commitments to the

North Atlantic

Treaty Organization. demonstration of U.S. "interest." It is cal successes which we have overseas,

But Italy is participating in talks on equally unenthusiastic about aid programs, the economic successes, and our victories formation of a mixed-manned force. both military and economic, whose major in the cold war, rather than by merely Greece, which is sitting in on these talks, purpose is to provide an alternative to Soviet bloc aid.

providing a constantly increasing num makes a contribution to the treaty organiza

ber of armaments to rival countries so tion's conventional forces is straining her Mr. MUNDT. Mr. President, the com that they can shoot it out with one an

resources. mittee report concludes that our best other in little, localized wars, which ulti

Those who criticize American policy are step from here is to continue to proceed mately we will be called upon to settle

not seeking relaxation of the defense effort

in Europe. What they want is recognition to finance existing failures while trying either with our manpower and military by Washington that discussions with Moscow to continue to improve the program. I might or by our counsel and our guid

on easing military tension are likely to disagree with the language of the report ance.

strengthen the Communist parties where and the opinion of members of the Com There being no objection, the article those parties are a conceivable alternative to mittee on Foreign Relations who approve was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, present governments. it. I believe we serve America poorly as follows:

Mr. DOMINICK. Mr. President, will and jeopardize our leadership around

THE REAL RED THREAT—SOME IN EUROPE SEE the Senator from South Dakota yield? the world by following the counsel of IT AS POLITICAL AND SAY THE UNITED STATES Mr. MUNDT. I am happy to yield to those who say, "Although the program OVEREMPHASIZES ARMS

the Senator from Colorado. is failing, let us give it additional bil

(By Drew Middleton)

Mr. DOMINICK. I join the Senator lions of dollars so that the failures can

PARIS, November 7.-Which face of com from South Dakota in the views he has be more widely heralded and the pro munism is the bigger threat to the West? expressed concerning the Freedom Acadgram can fail more emphatically." The Soviet general with his finger near the

emy, particularly. The State Department ought to be "go” button or the party agitator with a

Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I am working with Congress to evolve a train

pocketful of plans for economic revolution? ing system and to develop training fa

A dispute over whether the military or the glad to yield to the Senator from Colopolitical danger is the graver has arisen at

rado. I have the floor. cilities so that there will be at least the the meeting of members of parliaments of

Mr. DOMINICK. I beg the Senator's possibility of success.

countries in the North Atlantic Alliance. pardon; I appreciate his courtesy. No other measure is awaiting immedi The difference of opinion seems to be more This phase of our foreign policy has ate consideration on the Senate floor. I than a squabble over East-West trade, or been neglected for so long that it seems serve on the Committee on Appropriawhether there should be an Atlantic As

to me to be imperative that we give it tions. The Senate has thus far passed sembly. The latter, an American proposal,

would organize the present group of parliafive appropriation bills. All the appro

serious consideration if we are to get ment members into a representative body

back on the right track in our overall priation bills should have been approved for the North American Alliance.

war on communism and do something by July 1, which is the beginning of the

Much of the criticism of U.S. willingness

toward establishing a Freedom Acadfiscal year. Eight appropriation bills re to discuss outstanding military issues with emy. main to be passed. No one has put pres the Soviet Union, and even of the nuclear In the 3 years that I have been a Memsure upon me as a member of the Com test ban treaty arises from this difference ber of Congress, I have been a supporter mittee on Appropriations to hurry and over which aspect of communism is the true

of a foreign service academy designed mark up bills or to attend conferences and immediate danger to Europe.

to enable the State Department and all between members of the two Houses. terested in the military side of the Commu

Washington is criticized for being too in

other branches of the Government which Time rolls along. nist problem. Such criticism includes the

have oversea operations to obtain qualAs a Member of the Senate who feels administration's readiness to discuss with

ified personnel, capable of handling the that already too much money is being Moscow such issues as the prevention of sur

work to which they are assigned, whethspent, and spent too rapidly, I am per- prise attack and a nonaggression agreement er it happens to be in the Federal Aviafectly content to let the appropriation between the Atlantic Alliance and the War- tion Agency, the Department of Combills wait until next March. saw Pact Powers of the Soviet bloc.

merce, or any other branch of the GovI am the author of language in our

One legislator said the United States was

ernment. The theory is that people so Appropriations Committee report which

obsessed with the question of troop strength trained, particularly when they are on a

in Europe. provides that some economy is being in

borderline, close to the Communist convoluntarily effectuated every day we


spiracy, are just as much subject to Comwait, because the increases cannot be

The critics come mainly from countries munist problems as they would be in the spent except on the basis of the time resuch as Italy, which has a Communist politi

State Department, in the foreign aid maining in the fiscal year. So if no one

cal problem, or France, where there is danger
of a re-creation of a popular front represent-

program, or any other field, in the administration is in a hurry to ing the Communist and Socialist movements.

I testified before the subcommittee on have appropriation bills passed—and no

Acute apprehension is shown by Mediter- behalf of the bill which was considered one appears to be—it is not necessary to ranean members of the alliance over the and revised, the so-called Kennedy exworry about spending a little extra time trend in Greece. The feeling is that commu- pansion of the Foreign Service Institute. debating what to do about foreign aid. nism may have spent its political force in At that time, the chairman of the comSurely, our legislative calendar is far the United States, Britain, Canada, West mittee, the distinguished Senator from from crowded.

Germany, Norway and Denmark, but that Missouri, indicated that he also felt that

it is alive and kicking-and dangerous—in the Freedom Academy and the Foreign Peace is our most cherished goal. The

the Mediterranean. hazards of failure in the cold war are

The United States, it is said, takes the

Service Academy were institutions which our most significant problem. I am glad political health of Europe for granted.

ought to be considered by the Senate, but we are working at this task on the Sen

Washington tends to think, the critics that because of opposition from the Deate floor and are taking sufficient time say, that in prosperous Europe the Commu- partment of State and the administrato do it.

nists represent parties of protest rather than tion, he was required by party loyalty

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