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is one of the factors—but only one in the mous potentialities in this exchange on both How the Communist countries feel about determination of world prices and terms of sides of the Atlantic.
permanently enlarged trade, I don't know. trade. Shifts in production and buying of As an elected public official, I realize some The Soviet Union doesn't seem to believe in other nations can have serious effect on the of the political problems. I recognize that trade for trade's sake. Certainly, some ecowell-being of our farmers and even on our there is a delicate problem of timing such nomic problems are involved. Trade prebalance of payments. In this nuclear age, forward steps. However, these are steps supposes an exchange of goods. The Comcertainly our survival-yes our fateis linked which will benefit all of us, and when taken, munist countries have been paying for grain with that of the nations represented here will increase our political stature. We have imports with gold, and that's a commodity today. Therefore, as one of the foundation it within our power to say to our respective that the United States could use to good stones of free world viability, in addition to constituents, you have benefited-mankind advantage. The Communist countries also military and political factors, there must be has benefited.
have been supplying the West with some a community of economic interest, too.
Unquestionably, our economic strength is oil, lumber, caviar, and furs. But the ComThe nations of Western Europe have rec vital to our free way of life. Defense is be munist camp does not appear to have many ognized this basic fact in their strong ef coming to a greater and greater extent an products that would support a broadly based forts to remove existing trade barriers. On effort involving whole populations—not only two-way trade policy. this side of the Atlantic Ocean nations long fighting men, but also the men and women As the world's largest food producer, the divided by bitter feuds are joining together who produce in the factories and on the United States has taken the lead in distribseeking to find strength in unity. In these farms. National strength is to be calculated uting food to needy nations. In the past efforts, the American people have looked on by gross national product as well as mis few years, the United States has made availwith hope and admiration. We regard a
siles, planes, ships, and guns. Countries able to the less developed countries almost united Europe as a partner—not a rival. with great capacities to produce are re $13 billion worth of food. About half of this We regard a united Europe as a partner to
spected and feared by would-be aggressors. total was sold to dollar-short countries for join with us and others in reducing trade The productive capacity of the Western foreign currencies, of which about half were barriers; as a partner to develop coordinated World, backed up by enormous scientific and loaned and granted back to the less develeconomic policies, and as a partner capable technological capability, is as great a deter oped countries. Other commodities were of playing an even greater role in our com- rent to aggression as our weapons.
bartered, or sold on long-term credit armon defense. We look forward to a full and Trade-commerce between nations—can rangements, or donated outright. working Atlantic partnership.
help us work for the peace that we all de But food is doing more than relieving hunWe await the day eagerly when we will
sire. Trade walls can be barriers to more ger, important as that is. Food also is prostop talking of sixes and sevens, but of one. than the flow of goods; trade walls can also moting economic development. The local This one Western European community will shut out many valuable contacts between currencies loaned or granted back to the renot be built overnight, but with the best of nations. Trade contacts, like cultural ex cipient countries are being diverted by less will and a generosity of spirit, it will be changes, can promote understanding and the developed countries to economic growth constructed. And, it will be constructive to
easing of tensions. This is true of trade not projects, such as roads, dams, irrigation caa still better future.
only with friendly nations, but also with nals, reclamation, food storage facilities, and From the standpoint of the American less friendly countries.
the like. Food also is promoting economic farmer, Western Europe can be regarded as
Western Europe, by and large, has main growth by preventing food price inflation, a great and growing market for the high
tained more trade contacts with the Com which would mean the diversion of scarce quality food, fiber and other agricultural munist countries than has the United States. funds into wages instead of into needed commodities. He sees in this part of the But the U.S. policy is changing, as I think
equipment, supplies, and materials, many of globe the fastest growing advanced economic you know. The United States has expressed which must be imported. area in the free world. Employment is high, its willingness to sell wheat and other farm But food has been only part of the total industrial production up, diets improving, products to the Soviet Union and other East aid going abroad. All countries of the Westand the entire standard of living on the up ern European countries to meet emergency ern World have made contributions of money, grade. He sees that consumer demand for needs. For a long time I have advocated equipment, technical assistance, and other food and other goods will continue to rise. broader trade with the Communist coun services. U.S. aid programs have been This improvement in overall living condi
tries as a major step in the direction of im worldwide. The Western European countries tions in Western Europe has deep economic proved international relations.
have tended to concentrate their aid in counimport to our farm families who are geared But in broadening our trade with the tries which were former colonies. All have to production and the export market as Soviet Union, we should have a unified policy contributed substantially to international never before in history.
which will govern the actions of both Europe organizations, including the United Nations, Out of our $5 billion agricultural export
and the United States. I support the resolu the Food and Agricultural Organization, the market, commercial exports amounted to tion approved by the NATO Parliamentar Colombo plan, and others. approximately $3.5 billion, with Western ians' Conference last week in Paris calling The bread we have cast upon the waters Europe accounting for about half. I must
for the establishment of a NATO code to is being returned to us in other ways. The be quick to add that not only every Ameri
govern East-West trade. This proposal could contributions we have made are stimulating can, but actually everyone who loves free
do much to harmonize the trade policies of economic growth. For example, per capita dom, has a vital interest in these exports for
the Atlantic Community nations on such gross national product increased 5 percent dollars. They are one of the major earners
questions as credit terms, patents and copy between 1959 and 1962 in Nigeria; 7 percent of foreign exchange. As you know, our bal rights, and arbitration of disputes. In in Egypt; and 8 percent in India and Brazil. ance of trade has been what the economists creased East-West trade can be an avenue to The less developed countries are eager to call favorable, but our balance of payments greater international harmony. But disunity become commercial traders. And the indushas not been. Defense commitments and and cutthroat competition on trade matters trialized countries of the Western World are economic assistance have resulted in our in- between Europe and the United States can eager for them to realize their wish. Trade, ternational expenditures exceeding our only weaken and disrupt the Western Alli not aid, is their objective, and ours. receipts.
ance, can only aid the cause of the Soviet What I have tried to say up to now is We are in a long struggle which does not bloc.
this: the Atlantic Community is better off offer us much opportunity to reduce these
We also must bear in mind, in seeking this because it has developed a substantial trade expenditures unless we lighten our share of broader trade, that the Communist camps, volume. The less developed countries are the obligation. We feel it is much better if both Sino and Soviet, have not abandoned better off because they are on their way to we expand our export earnings and carry our their determination to impose communism economic development and commercial trade. load as before. Obviously, agricultural ex
on the entire world. They are pushing to But should we rest on our past achieveports are one means an important one ward that objective with every means they ments? Shouldn't we explore additional to do so.
feel they can safely employ. Secretary of ways of expanding the flow of goods in the I wish to make this additional fundamental State Dean Rusk said just the other day in world? point. Unlike some of the in-and-out,
Frankfurt that the limited agreements we I am indebted to Arnold Toynbee, the dissporadic import sources to which Western have reached with the Soviet Union do not tinguished British historian who will address Europe has been witness in recent years, the constitute a detente.
us, for one of the most illuminating criUnited States is a continuing high quality
We do not want to help the Communists tiques of our efforts to help our less fortuand rich source of food and fiber. You can
bury us. Many items—such as certain types nate friends. Mr. Toynbee said: "Our age draw on this to feed and clothe your popula- of scientific instruments, machine tools, and will be well remembered, not for its horrifytion better than ever.
strategic heavy equipment-should stay off ing crimes nor its astonishing inventions, As its industry expands, Western Europe food and other consumer goods-could well
the trade list. But many other products, but because it is the first generation since must be able to withstand the pressures of
the dawn of history in which mankind dared be traded. I can't believe that helping the inflationary forces which would drive up
to believe it practical to make the benefits Soviet Union meet a temporary shortage of
of civilization available to the whole human ward the price line on the industrial ex grain is going to help that country conquer
race." ports which are basic to its prosperity. the world. Looking at the matter another Mr. Toynbee is right. We have it within
The American farmer needs these ex way, I can't believe that withholding the our means to banish hunger, to conquer dispanded markets, and Europe needs our grain would have toppled Communist re ease, to educate the illiterate, and to lift the farm products. Obviously, there exist enor gimes.
standard of living for all mankind.
can accomplish these worthy objectives, how During the dark days of World War II, er-labor interests in food and agricultural ever, only if we promote economic develop- when Franklin D. Roosevelt enunciated his trade; business interests in food and agriment through capital investment, foreign four freedoms, he called for freedom from cultural trade; farm income in relation to aid, and international trade.
want and defined it as "economic under trade; national agricultural policies in relaThe philosophy of liberal trade is firmly standing which will secure to every nation tion to trade; emerging agricultural trade established in the United States and backed a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants problems and opportunities; and the place of up by 30 years of history. everywhere in the world.”
liberal trade in the policies of the West. The Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of The 22 years that have passed since those The Amsterdam symposium will be lim1934 is a monument to two great Americans words rang around the world have seen us ited to invited guests but the exhibition will Franklin D. Roosevelt and Cordell Hull. draw gradually nearer that goal, despite the be open to the general public and heavy Time has not dimmed its luster. It brought many detours and distractions of a troubled attendance from both the Netherlands and a new concept to the American people and age. Freedom from want is becoming an other Western European countries is to world trade. attainable goal.
expected. Today the United States has new and more Nearly four centuries ago, Shakespeare U.S. firms and organizations wishing inliberal trade legislation-the Trade Expan gave a name to one of mankind's oldest formation about participation should write sion Act of 1962. This legislation is even dreams. He called it the brave new world. to International Trade Fairs Division, Forbroader in its vision and in its potential for If we of the West can have the vision eign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of human good than the act it replaces.
to match our technical skills, we have it Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250. Through this legislation-which we are in our power to lead all of mankind across In Europe, inquiries may be addressed to seeking to implement-a new road has been the threshold of that world.
the Food and Agriculture Information Cenopened toward the goal of increased free
ter for European-American Trade, care of world prosperity and strength, through ex
EUROPEAN-AMERICAN SYMPOSIUM ON AGRICUL RAI Exhibition Building, Amsterdam, the panded international trade. In preparing
TURAL TRADE ANNOUNCED
Netherlands. to move along this road, we are preparing for A European-American symposium on agrithe biggest and most comprehensive trade cultural trade will be held November 11-15
SYMPOSIUM SPEAKERS negotiations in the world's history.
in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, under spon 1. Monday afternoon, November 11: "The The bargaining authority of the President sorship of the U.S. Department of Agricul- Place of Liberal Trade in the Policies of the of the United States is very substantial—and ture and cooperating U.S. food and agri- West”: European, Prime Minister Marijnen firmly rooted in American foreign policy. cultural industries, Secretary of Agriculture of the Netherlands; American, HUBERT H. For the Trade Expansion Act rests primarily Orville L. Freeman announced today (Sep- HUMPHREY, U.S. Senator. on two basic elements of U.S. policy-first, tember 3).
2. Tuesday morning, November 12: "The that trade liberalization is an essential step Recognized professional leaders from west
Technological Revolution in World Agricultoward the closer integration of the free ern Europe and the United States, repre ture": European, Rev. H. De Farcy, Instiworld economy. Second, that liberalization senting such areas of interest as industry, tute of Social Studies Uanves (Seine) of trade restrictions on all sides will bring a labor, consumers, science, education, gov- France; American, Dr. Brooks James, dean, better allocation of world resources, and will ernment, and agriculture, will be invited to
School of Agriculture, North Carolina State stimulate economic efficiency, innovation, participate, the Secretary said. The sympo College. and enterprise. These are the two legs on sium will be held in the Glass Hall of the 3. Tuesday afternoon, November 12: which U.S. foreign trade policy stands RAI Exhibition Building, Amsterdam. Ap- "Emerging Agricultural Trade Problems and a commitment to an economic philosophy proximately 500 participants are expected. Opportunities": European, Dr. George Allen, of freedom and to a political philosophy The symposium will be held concurrently (United Kingdom) professor, agricultural of interdependence, In addition, this with the U.S. Food and Agriculture Exhibi economics, Oxford University; American, Dr. legislation is based upon the belief that, tion for Western Europe, November 7-24, L. W. Witt, professor, agricultural economics, through export expansion, the United also in the RAI Exhibition Building. This Michigan State University. States can achieve equilibrium in its exhibition will be the largest such oversea 4. Wednesday morning, November 13: "Scibalance of payments without resorting to event presented by the Department during ence and the Development of Food Standrestrictive policies affecting the movement of its 8 years of international trade fair ac ards and Regulations for International goods, services, and capital and without tivity.
Trade”: European, Dr. Jean-Pierre Latteur weakening its commitment for defense and "The symposium, in contrast to interna (Belgium), Chairman, EEC Committee on economic aid to less developed countries. tional negotiating sessions where trade rela- Food Standards; American, Dr. Emil Mrak,
Moreover, we have every reason to believe tions are discussed formally at high govern chancellor, University of California, Davis. that our trading partners share these views. ment levels, will be an informal conference 5. Wednesday afternoon, November 13: This is what we discovered through many primarily for business, professional, consum "Consumer-Labor Interests in Food and meetings during the early months of this er, and agricultural leaders," Secretary Free Agricultural Trade”: European, Mr. Juul year. Yet this does not mean that the man said. “It will give European and Amer Poulsen (Denmark), Secretary General, Inprocess of trade liberalization will be a quick ican citizens an opportunity to exchange ternational Union of Food and Allied Workand easy one. On the contrary, we all recog ideas constructively on the various means ers; American, Mr. Bert Seidman, European nize that the road ahead is long and ex
that could be employed to strengthen agri economic representative, AFL-CIO. tremely difficult. It requires careful prepara cultural trade.”
6. Thursday morning, November 14: "Busition at home and internationally. What we The keynote of the Amsterdam symposium, ness Interests in Food and Agricultural have to contend with is a very wide gamut of Secretary Freeman said, will be the promise Trade”: European, Dr. Fritz Berg, German trade matters going far beyond tariffs alone. and the problems of the 20th century food industrialist (Cologne); American, Mr. Jesse We recognize the difficult political problems and agricultural revolution which most nota Tapp, Bank of America. which agricultural policy raises for each of bly is taking place in Europe and North 7. Thursday afternoon, November the participating countries. We have our America.
“Problems of Farm Income in Relation to own political problems as well. But, as proof “We are all affected by this food and agri. Trade”: European, Dr. J. Horring (Netherof the seriousness of our own intention to cultural revolution, Europeans and North lands), professor of agricultural economics, tackle these problems on a worldwide scale, Americans alike," Secretary Freeman said. Wageningen; American, Dr. George Brandow, we have declared our willingness to discuss “Yet, on neither side of the Atlantic do professor, agricultural economics, Pennsylour own agricultural system at the bargain we sufficiently recognize what is happening vania State University. ing table.
nor do we fully comprehend the implications 8. Friday, final session, November 15: I feel that fundamentally there exists in and opportunities, both in our individual “Gearing National Agricultural Policies to the Atlantic Community a will to truly lib
countries and in our relations with one an Expanding Trade": European, Sicco L. eralize trade on a mutually beneficial basis. other.
Mansholt (Netherlands), Vice President, EEC, I am confident that this symposium will
"By getting together for a free and frank Christopher Soame (United Kingdom), Minwrite an important and honorable chapter exchange of facts, we will contribute to one ister of Agriculture; American, Secretary in the history of the free world's progress
another's knowledge and understanding, and Freeman. toward even more fruitful and deeper in I am sure we will help to clarify a number terdependence. of issues of mutual concern."
USDA ANNOUNCES PROGRAM FOR EUROPEANIt may seem like a long way from Amster The symposium will consist of eight half
AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL TRADE SYMPOSIUM dam to Minnesota-out in the central heart day sessions, each of which will be devoted Several hundred outstanding opinion leadland of the United States. Yet the people
to discussion of a major topic. As a general ers of Western Europe and the United States of my State are vitally concerned about the pattern, one European and one American will exchange ideas on food, agriculture and things you will be saying and doing here. will speak on each major topic, each speaker agricultural trade at the European-AmeriThe people of Western Europe also will be to be a recognized leader in his field. Dis can symposium on agricultural trade in concerned. We have a tremendous oppor
cussions will follow the speeches, with Euro Amsterdam, the Netherlands, November 11tunity in this informal forum to create the peans and Americans participating.
15, the U.S. Department of Agriculture said kind of climate which will carry over to the Major topics will include: The technologi today in announcing the program for the actual negotiations which begin next May cal revolution in world agriculture; science event. under auspices of the General Agreement on and the development of food standards and The symposium will run concurrently with Tariffs and Trade.
regulations for international trade; consum the 18-day U.S. food and agriculture exhibi
tion, to be opened by Vice President LYNDON tural Trade." Chairman: Charles McCarthy, This is the background which has promptB. JOHNSON, November 7, in Amsterdam's president, Irish Congress of Trade Unions, ed the U.S. Department of Agriculture and RAI exhibition building.
Dublin. Speakers: Juul E. Poulsen, Den- cooperating U.S. food and agricultural inKeynote for the symposium will be mark, secretary general, International dustries to sponsor a European-American sounded at the opening session Monday Union of Food and Allied Workers; Bert Seid- symposium on food and agricultural trade afternoon, November 11, when V. G. M. Mar- man, European economic representative, devoted to a public exploration of the promijnen, Prime Minister of the Netherlands, AFL-CIO European office, Paris.
ise and problems of Atlantic trade relationand U.S. Senator HUBERT H. HUMPHREY pre Discussants: H. G. Buiter, Luxembourg, ships. Recognized European and American sent European and American views on "The secretary, Trade Union Coordinating Com leaders representing industry, labor, conPlace of Liberal Trade in the Policies of mittee for the Six Common Market Coun sumers, science, economics, government, and the West.” At the opening banquet that tries; and Miss Edna Poyner, American agriculture are being invited to participate. evening, the principal speaker will be Arnold Home Economics Association, Washington, The symposium will be held in Amsterdam J. Toynbee, the British historian. D.C.
concurrently with the U.S. Food and AgriculAt the final session, Friday morning, No Thursday morning, November 14: "Busi ture exhibition for Western Europe, the vember 15, representatives of three of the ness Interest in Food and Agricultural largest U.S. exhibition to be staged overseas major international trading entities in the Trade." Chairman: W. E. Zesiger, food im in 1963. Included in the exhibition will be West will exchange views on "Relating Na- porter and distributor, Berne, Switzerland. a display of representative European industional Agricultural Policies to Expanding Speakers: Fritz Berg, president, National trial and agricultural products that are exTrade.” In this discussion, Secretary of Association of German Industires, Cologne; ported to the United States. Agriculture Orville L. Freeman will represent and Jesse Tapp, Bank of America, Los It is my privilege to invite you to deliver the United States; Sicco L. Mansholt of the Angeles, Calif.
one of the opening addresses at the symNetherlands will represent the European Discussants: Don Alvaro Ortiz de Zarate, posium. Your address would be scheduled Economic Community (Common Market), in director, SPAR, Madrid, Spain; and J. B. for 2 p.m. on Monday, November 11. This which he is Vice President of the Com- Hutson, president, Tobacco Associates, Inc., session will be devoted to a discussion of the mission; and Minister of Agriculture Chris- Washington, D.C.
importance of international trade to the futopher Soames will represent the United Thursday afternoon, November 14: "Prob ture of the Atlantic Community and will Kingdom.
lems of Farm Income in Relation to Trade." serve as an introduction to all symposium Between the opening and closing pro- Chairman: Hans Borgen, chairman of Feder sessions. The topic to be discussed will be grams, there will be 6 half-day sessions, ation of Agricultural Cooperatives, Oslo, “The Place of Liberal Trade in the Policies of each devoted to the discussion of a major Norway. Speakers: J. Horring, professor of the West.” We will be pleased to give whattopic. Generally, two speeches will be made agricultural economics, Agricultural Univer ever assistance you may desire in drafting on each topic, one by a leading European sity, Wageningen, the Netherlands; appropriate remarks. and the other by an American. These major George Brandow, professor of agricultural You will note from the enclosed summary speeches will then be the subjects of short economics, Pennsylvania State University. of information that the symposium is structalks by three or four discussants-some Discussants: A. U. Juhl, chairman, Federa tured so that each major topic is discussed American but predominantly European-af tion of Agricultural Employees, Ronders, by a leading European representative and a ter which there will be general discussion. Denmark; and Kenneth Naden, executive yice leading American representative, each pre
The program for these sessions is as fol- president, National Council of Farmer Co senting the viewpoint of his respective trade lows: operatives, Washington, D.C.
area. As cospeaker with you, we have invited Tuesday morning, November 12: “The The honorary chairman of the sympo Prime Minister Marijnen, of the Netherlands Technological Revolution in World Agricul- sium will be B. W. Biesheuvel, Minister of
who has tentatively accepted. ture." Chairman: George Philippopoulos, Agriculture of the Netherlands. The secre Invited to attend this session and also to Deputy Director General, Ministry of Agri- tary general will be John S. Rice, U.S. participate in floor discussion will be opinculture, Greece. Speakers: The Reverend Ambassador to the Netherlands.
ion leaders from the United States and 17 H. De Farcy, director, College of Agriculture, Sessions will be in the Glass Hall of the countries of Europe: The Netherlands, BelAngers, France; and Brooks James, dean, R. A. I. Building. Simultaneous interpreta
gium, Great Britain, Ireland, France, Spain, School of Agriculture, North Carolina State tion will be provided in French, German, Portugal, Greece, Italy, Switzerland, LuxemCollege. Dutch, and English. All symposium papers
bourg, Germany, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Discussants: Hans-August Luecker, Ger- will be made available for public dissemina
Norway, and Finland. man representative to Agriculture Commit
I know that your presentation at the symtee, Council of Europe; Mario Bondini, presi
posium would be a valuable contribution. dent, National Institute of Agrarian Econ
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
I am sure also that you would find your omy, Rome; Dale Hathaway, professor of
Washington, D.C., October 17, 1963. participation highly rewarding, and I am agricultural economics, Michigan State Hon. HUBERT H. HUMPHREY,
looking forward to hearing from you. University. U.S. Senate.
Sincerely yours, Tuesday afternoon, November 12: "Emerg DEAR HUBERT: I have the honor to invite
ORVILLE L. FREEMAN, ing Agricultural Trade Problems and Op- you to participate, as a distinguished Amer
Secretary. portunities." Chairman: J. Buchler, Sec ican representative, in an international The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. retary General, Ministry of Agriculture, Lux symposium on the subject of European: WALTERS in the chair). Is there further embourg. Speakers: George Allen, profes- American trade relations. This event will sor of agricultural economics, Oxford Uni take place in Amsterdam from November 11
morning business? If not, morning busiversity, England; and L. W. Witt, professor to 15, 1963.
ness is closed. of agricultural economics, Michigan State During the past year or so, many leaders University.
on both sides of the Atlantic have been Discussants: Jorgen Pedersen, Danish striving to bring about a better understand
AMENDMENT OF FOREIGN ASSISTeconomist and lecturer; Sven Holmstrom, ing between European and American peo
ANCE ACT OF 1961 president of the Institute for Agricultural ple on agricultural issues affecting internaResearch, Stockholm, Sweden; Andre Deheer tional trade. While continuous trade nego
The Senate resumed the consideration fer-Ozanne, chief, Agricultural Markets Divi tiations at the Government level are carried of the bill (H.R. 7885) to amend further sion, O.E.C.D., Paris, France; and Elmer on between the United States and European Learn, head, department of agricultural eco nations, leaders in Europe and America have
the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as nomics, Institute of Agriculture, University increasingly recognized the need for support- amended, and for other purposes. of Minnesota.
ing these governmental discussions with in Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, a parWednesday morning, November 13: "Sci- formal, constructive, nonofficial discussions liamentary inqury. ence and the Development of Food Stand- which will help to clarify the issues for the The PRESIDING OFFICER. The ards and Regulations for International public.
Senator from Oregon will state it. Trade." Chairman: Sven Dalgaard-Mikkel I know you agree that the continued prog Mr. MORSE. Which amendment is sen, professor, the Royal Veterinary and Agri- ress of healthy trading relationships through cultural College, Denmark. Speakers: Jean- out the world depends upon the develop
now pending? Pierre Latteur, Chairman of Common Mar- ment of forward-looking agricultural trade
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The ket Committee on Food Standards, Brussels, policies which are in keeping with the gen- amendment now pending is No. 306, ofBelgium; and Emil Mrak, Chancellor, School
eral objective of liberalized international fered by the Senator from Oregon [Mr. of Agriculture, University of California. trade. This is a problem with ramifications MORSE),
MORSE), to the committee substitute Discussants: A. Kekwiek, Department of which extend beyond the particular agri
which extend beyond the particular agri- amendment, as a substitute for section Medicine, Middlesex Hospital, London, Eng- cultural commodities involved, ultimately
(i) on page 47, to prohibit assistance to land; Leopold Schmid, University of Vienna, affecting living costs, wage scales, industrial certain economically developed nations. Austira; and M. R. Clarkson, Agricultural production costs and the international balResearch Service, U.S. Department of Agri- ance of payments for nations as a whole. In
Mr. MORSE. I propose to make a culture.
short, it is a problem that affects all sectors speech in support of the amendment, but Wednesday afternoon, November 13: “Con- of national economies as well as the relation- I desire to follow the leadership's wishes sumer-Labor Interests in Food and Agricul- ships between nations.
in regard to speeches they may wish to
make upon it. I do not know whether eign aid. They are fed up with doling out I am glad the editor of the Washingthe chairman of the committee wishes to billions in American tax dollars to people ton Star stated the case thusly when speak on the amendment first. who couldn't care less about what we in
he said the people are sick and tired of Mr. FULBRIGHT. I am oppossed to this country like to speak of as the American
foreign aid-sick and tired of foreign aid it. I thought the Senator from Oregon the threadbare argument that the Commuway of life. They are bored to tears with
as it exists, as it is being administered, perhaps would wish to speak first. I have nists will take over the world unless we pay
and in respect to the millions that go to some remarks I wish to make about it. the bills for countries which don't know or a good many recipient countries that Does the Senator from Oregon wish to care which team they are playing on, assum should not be getting a dollar. The edisuggest the absence of a quorum?
ing that they are willing to play on any tor of the Washington Star went on to Mr. MORSE. Yes, that is my inten- team. Mr. Khrushchev can't even feed his
write: tion. own people. Why not let him try this for
They are fed up with doling out billions Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, when eign aid load for size?
To sum up, we think the American people,
in American tax dollars to people who the Senate concluded its business on Fri
couldn't care less about what we in this counday I rather broadly hinted that I might just about had it.
as far as foreign aid is concerned, have
try like to speak of as the American way of offer a motion to table certain amend- slightest doubt that it is this more than any
life. They are bored to tears with the ments, if offered. Of course, that is in thing else which underlies the attitude of
threadbare argument that the Communists the procedural domain, and I am not Congressman attitude which the President
will take over the world unless we pay the either can't or won't understand.
bills for countries which don't know or care unaware of the fact that it is a sumptu
This Congress, of course, will pass a for
which team they are playing on, assuming ary motion which would cut off all de
that they are willing to play on any team. bate. If I were to pursue a consistent eign aid bill. But the appropriation will be
Mr. Khrushchev can't even feed his own peocourse, I would have to do the same thing sharply cut back. And it should be. The 88th Congress will go down in history (with
ple. Why not let him try this foreign aid in the case of all amendments, which I applause) if it begins the quick phasing out
load for size? am always reluctant to do.
of foreign aid. And we do not believe that I started uttering these warnings 5 I had hoped that perhaps action on the rest of the world, without the Yankee
years ago on the floor of the Senate. I the bill could be expedited. I have had dollar, will go either to pot or to the Com
supported foreign aid during those 5 a discussion with the distinguished Sen munists.
years, up to last year, on the theory ator from Oregon. He shows a similar
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I wish to that if certain amendments could be disposition not to take too long on the
read a part of the editorial to the Senate adopted if I could successfully urge amendments. Perhaps a substantial
and comment on it. The editorial amendments to the bill —and some of number of them will not be offered. So, states:
them were adopted, but they were not under the circumstances, I do not pro
President Kennedy, in accepting a distin too important I would go along with the pose to make a motion to table.
guished service award from a Protestant program. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
group, got in the following plug for his foramendment is debatable.
Last year when I was a candidate for eign aid program: Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I suggest
reelection, I thought the people were en
"I think the American people are willing the absence of a quorum. to shoulder this burden. Some say they are
titled to know my stand on last year's The PRESIDING OFFICER.
bill unequivocally. I opposed it in comThe tiring of this task, or tired of world problems, or tired of hearing those who receive our
mittee. I opposed it on the floor of the clerk will call the roll.
aid disagree with our diplomacy. But what Senate. And I opposed it in connection The legislative clerk proceeded to call
kind of spirit is that? Are we tired of living the roll.
with the conference report. The people in a free world? Do we expect to make it of my State should have a choice, if it Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask over in our own image? Are we going to quit unanimous consent that the order for
was thought this was such a key issue, now because there are problems not yet
as many would have us believe, and the quorum call may be rescinded. solved?"
wanted to defeat me because I was The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without
The Star editorial penetratingly and opposed to the foreign aid program objection, it is so ordered.
cogently proceeded with these com as it has been operating, and that they Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I rise to ments:
were entitled to know that and vote acdiscuss amendment No. 306; but before I do so, there are some other matters I people (who have been lugging the foreign
The implication here is that the American cordingly. They voted, and I increased wish to discuss briefly.
my percentage vote over what it was in aid load for 17 years) are ready, willing, and 1956. It is not the only issue that I was delightfully surprised and great- happy to keep on lugging it. Some other elected me. I cannot say that issue ly pleased to read in the Washington President, 17 years in the future, may be elected me in part, but my business is Sunday Star the lead editorial, “Tired saying pretty much the same thing. But we
to take political soundings. There is no of It All."
It is our belief that the American people, Mr. President, I ask unanimous con
doubt, from what time I was allowed to or most of them, are sick and tired of foreign sent that the entire editorial may be
campaign-which was not very longaid. printed in the RECORD.
that in my State the overwhelming maThere being no objection, the editorial
jority of the people agreed with me. Those of us who have been urging a
And there is no doubt about it now, bewas ordered to be printed in the RECORD, drastic revision of the foreign aid proas follows:
cause I go home on an average of once gram have been saying that for months. TIRED OF IT ALL
a month. I have talked foreign aid for I started saying it months ago when I
months in the past in my State, because President Kennedy, in accepting a distin- started almost daily speeches in the Senguished service award from a Protestant ate urging the administration to give
questions have been raised in regard to group, got in the following plug for his
my position. some revisionary consideration to its forforeign aid program:
I agree with the editor of the Washeign aid program. I have said in this "I think the American people are willing eign aid program.
ington Star, that public opinion is to shoulder his burden. Some say they debate, as have many other Senators,
against the Kennedy administration in are tiring of this task, or tired of world that if this program went to a referenproblems, or tired of hearing those who re dum vote of the American people it
respect to its position on foreign aid; and
the President is going to find it out if ceive our aid disagree with our diplomacy. would take a walloping and shellacking. But what kind of spirit is that? Are we
The people are entitled to have their
he does not already know it. I am surtired of living in a free world? Do we exwill carried out. That is one of the
prised, with all the pollsters he is using, pect to make it over in our own image? Are we going to quit now because there are strange things about the administra
that they have not done a better job of problems not yet solved?”
tion's position on the foreign aid bill. briefing him on foreign aid. The implication here is that the American Apparently, it is the administration's Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, will the people (who have been lugging the foreign position that, irrespective of what public Senator yield? aid load for 17 years) are ready, willing, opinion may be, it, nevertheless, should Mr. MORSE. I yield. and happy to keep on lugging it. Some
urge passage of the foreign aid bill. I Mr. MILLER. I should like to ask the other President, 17 years in the future, may
dissociate myself from that attitude. distinguished Senator from Oregon if be saying pretty much the same thing. But we dissent.
It is not right. It is not in keeping with he has a list of the countries now receivIt is our belief that the American people,
our system of representative govern ing foreign aid which would be affected or most of them, are sick and tired of for: ment.
by the Morse amendment.
Mr. MORSE. Yes. When I come to we had a natural self-interest duty to It is my judgment that when we come discuss my amendment, I shall list them, help rehabilitate Europe. Those coun- to vote on the final appropriation for but I have not started my discussion of tries were allies in a war against a com- foreign aid this year, the amount will not the amendment.
mon enemy. We lived up to that obli- reach $3 billion. The record shows that Mr. MILLER. Will the Senator put gation. As a result, many of them are thus far the bill has been reduced by that list in the RECORD?
more prosperous today, as the record will $460 million from the amount in the bill Mr. MORSE. Yes. I am going to dis- show, than we are.
as it came to us from the Foreign Relacuss some of them, also.
Yet it is proposed to continue to pour tions Committee. Returning to the Washington Star edi- millions of dollars into them. We can I said to the administration spokestorial, the editor further stated:
not justify it. I wish to give the Senate man this morning: "I am going to do the To sum up, we think the American people, an opportunity to stop it. That is the best I can to save at least another $40 as far as foreign aid is concerned, have just purpose of the amendment.
million. I may not succeed, but I will about had it. And we haven't the slightest Because I supported the Marshall plan try. Here is a suggestion. You ought to doubt that it is this more than anything and the Truman doctrine, at a time when look at all the pending amendments and else which underlies the attitude of Congress--an attitude which the President either ask for a cutback, I am supposed to be gestions as to where you think you can
the aid was needed, and because I now give consideration to making some sugcan't or won't understand. This Congress, of course, will pass a for
some kind of demogog, or an incon- best cut $40 million. I will be glad to eign aid bill. But the appropriation will be sistent political maneuverer, to use the hear about it. If you do not want to cut sharply cut back. And it should be. The language of the article.
it by $40 million, then we shall have to 88th Congress will go down in history (with I am accustomed to that kind of name- try to do it the hard way, by offering applause) if it begins the quick phasing out calling. I say to the administration: amendment after amendment.” of foreign aid. And we do not believe that “Meet me on the basis of the facts. Meet the rest of the world, without the Yankee the American people on the facts."
If we do that, we may succeed in cutdollar, will go either to pot or to the Com
ting more than $40 million. I am uncermunists.
In my judgment, the President of the tain that we should not try that anyway,
United States did not do that last Friday because I am satisfied that it could be cut Congratulations are in order for the night in New York.
down to the House figure, resulting in a writer of that editorial, because in a few paragraphs he wrote a devastating an
Therefore, I turn now to a discussion stronger foreign aid bill.
Even if we cut the bill by another $40 swer to the President's speech of last of my amendment, by first making some Friday night, although I propose to dis- comments upon the issues raised by the million, I shall not vote for it, even if it cuss that speech shortly from the stand- Secretary of State last week and by the is cut to $3,500 million. There is no
chance of bringing about the policy point of certain other angles. Mr. Presi- President of the United States. dent, there is the answer to foreign aid.
As might have been expected, the re- changes made in the foreign aid that are This administration, in my judgment, assertion by Congress of its authority needed. Money is important, but policy has a salvage job to do. It ought to get over the foreign aid program has brought changes are even more important. The on with the work of doing it. I com- charges from the administration, and American people are entitled to a rewritmunicated with the administration, from many parts of the press, that con- ing of policy now. The Foreign Relations through proper channels, in response to gress has no business in this field, or that Committee report suggests to the adminthe inquiry from the administration as
foreign aid of any kind is good in itself, istration that it ought to do it on its own to what I am thinking about today. I or a combination of these two conten- next year. It will not do it. It never has. will tell the administration what I am tions. I feel it is time for a little his Policy changes will not be made down
town. If we are to have policy changes thinking about, if it wants to use that torical analysis that will restore the town. language.
proper prospective to both allegations. in American foreign aid, we must initiate Mr. JOHNSTON. Mr. President, will Last Friday, I responded in some detail the changes on the two floors of Conthe Senator yield for a question?
to the statements made by the Secretary gress. That is the only place where it Mr. MORSE. I yield.
of State in his press conference. I shall will be done. In the terrific bureaucracy Mr. JOHNSTON. Does not the Sen- not reiterate what was said Friday, ex- which has developed in the administraator think the general public has a false cept to comment on one point made by tion of foreign aid, there will always be impression of what foreign aid is? Is it the Secretary. He said that whatever one escape hatch after another to avoid not true that foreign aid goes to various Congress does in this area, it is the policy changes that the public interest governments, and they distribute that President who gets the blame when call for. money? things go wrong in foreign policy.
Therefore I am not going to vote for Mr. MORSE. That is true in many in I am sorry that so perceptive a man as the bill even if it is cut to $3.5 billion, stances; it is not entirely true.
our Secretary of State should have put because of the policies it will perpetuate. Mr. JOHNSTON. It is true as to most the issue in those terms. Who gets the That does not prevent us from doing of it.
blame or praise for a given action should what we can to reduce it to at least $3,700 Mr. MORSE. As to most of it.
be the least of our concerns. Of far million. That leaves us an area for negoMr. JOHNSTON. Many people think greater importance are the facts that tiation with the House between $3.5 bilit goes directly to the aid of people that Congress, not the executive branch, has lion and $3.7 billion. However, before we are in need. Is that true? the authority to spend money and, sec
are through with the debate, my amendMr. MORSE. That is true.
ond, the record of the foreign aid pro- ment, which is printed and which I inMr. JOHNSTON. It is not true that gram, since it began some 16 years ago,
tend to offer, proposes to take the House the money is given to the people who demonstrates that it is in vital need of figure. I say to the administration, “If are absolutely in need.
reform. If the only concern of the exec you can take the House figure, you ought Mr. MORSE. No; not at all. The utive branch is one of getting the blame to take it and run, because I do not beamendment I shall discuss today seeks when things go wrong, then let me point lieve a conference will be very helpful to to bring to an end the aid to self- out that when the United States has a you.” sufficient countries.
foreign aid program in which our peo The conference will keep the wounds Mr. JOHNSTON. Is it not true that ple have confidence, then it will get some bleeding, and that blood flow will be very our aid money has been used to build up credit for that, even if the changes were noticeable. Therefore I am going to give industries that are in competition with brought by Congress alone, without help the Senate an opportunity to vote on the industries in America ? from our friends downtown.
House figure before the debate is closed. Mr. MORSE. Yes; and there is a time I tried to make that clear in the con- It is only fair that I say this to the Senelement involved that many persons are versation I had with the administration ate at this time, especially to Senators overlooking. I read a blistering account spokesman this morning when he wanted who want to know my position today of the Senator from Oregon over the to know what I was up to today.
and tomorrow and the next day. I have weekend, as to how consistent a fellow I said to him, "When are you people been asked, "Do you intend to offer all I am supposed to be, because I supported downtown going to face the prospect that the amendments that are printed?” Of the Truman doctrine and the Marshall when Congress gets through this year course not. Many of them are duplicate plan. Of course I did; and I would with appropriations for foreign aid, you amendments. Apparently many have again. We had a clear moral duty and will be lucky if you get $3 billion?” lap. However, we shall offer many