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amendments. Apparently many have understand how, frequently in the Sen One of my problems with the execunot read the amendments. If they will ate, debate proceeds without any refer

ate, debate proceeds without any refer- tive branch during the last administrago through the pile of amendments, they ence to the constitutional foundations tion and during this administration has will find that duplication will eliminate for proposals. As Senators, our ap been my feeling that many agency direca good many of them. However, we proach to legislation should be consti- tors seem to think that the executive shall offer a number of amendments that tutionally grounded.

tutionally grounded. All that the op branch ought to have legislative power we feel are necessary to strengthen the ponents of the bill in its present form

ponents of the bill in its present form delegated to it. They want legislation bill. We shall offer them without any are saying is, "We do not propose to au to be drafted in such a way that by their unanimous-consent agreement to limit thorize the expenditure of money for exercise of discretion, as unchecked as the debate. The Senate is perfectly some other purposes for which the they can keep it, they will be able to capable of working its will under the President is asking it in the bill; there make policy decisions that ought to be rules in any way it wishes to work its fore, we propose to amend the bill—and made by Congress. will, but it should never overlook the we have been doing it.” The amend That philosophy runs through the enparliamentary rights of those of us who ments thus far adopted are in keeping

ments thus far adopted are in keeping tire foreign aid program. It ought to be are opposed to the bill, if there is any with the constitutional authority of checked. I recently referred to what I attempt to deny us reasonable time for Congress. Nevertheless, some newspa considered to be a continuing misuse of full debate on the amendments.

pers are accepting the same line that the contingency fund by the Presidency. Returning to my comments about the the President stood for in his speech of Many millions of dollars have been taken President's speech of last Friday, if the last Friday night. The opponents of that

last Friday night. The opponents of that out of the contingency fund by Presionly concern of the executive branch is philosophy are those who, in my judg

philosophy are those who, in my judg- dents for purposes that the American that of getting the blame when things ment, are performing the best service for people would never approve of if they go wrong, let me point out that when the President. We intend to hold firm knew about it. For a long time Conthe United States has a foreign aid pro to the constitutional right of Congress gress did not know about it. The congram in which our people have confi with respect to our authority in the tingency fund should be limited to a U.S. dence, the executive branch will get passage of a foreign aid bill. .

national emergency, not some monetary some of the credit for it, even if the Whenever it is intended to spend emergency in Argentina, Brazil, Indochanges are brought about by Congress money in pursuit of an element of for- nesia, or Iran, or anywhere else in the alone, without help from our friends in eign policy, then Congress has been world. If the President wants to make the executive branch.

brought into the picture; the Executive money available to Argentina, to Brazil, POSTWAR TREND TOWARD EXECUTIVE FREEDOM

who so proposes has gone beyond that ex or to Indonesia for budget support, he TO SPEND ABROAD

clusive authority over foreign policy ought to come before Congress and ask But the ultimate truth is that foreign

which is inherently his. The basic au for it. He should not dip into his conaid is not one of the areas of foreign pol- thority and responsibility become those

thority and responsibility become those tingent fund for money to give to them. icy over which the Chief Executive and of Congress.

That is why, before the debate is over, his deputies have exclusive jurisdiction,

Suppose we had no foreign aid pro- opponents to the bill will give the Senate That was implied in the Secretary of

gram. Suppose Congress, acting well an opportunity to vote for an amendState's news conference the other day.

within its rights, terminated it alto- ment that will seek to put some limitaHe could not be more wrong. Foreign gether.

gether. No President could say that tions on the use of the contingency fund. aid requires authorization legislation by

was an intrusion into his constitutional Interfere with the President's direcCongress. An authorization bill is a bill powers. What Congress has given, Con. tion of foreign aid? That is not what in which an administration asks for au

gress can take away, or it can impose would be changed. It would be another thority to spend money for the specific those restrictions and guidelines upon

manifestation of the constitutional right purposes set forth in the bill. It is not

the administrators it chooses to impose. of Congress to tell the President the puronly the right but also the clear duty of

After all, we had 150 years of this poses for which he may spend money and Congress to review the purposes for

Republic without foreign aid, and I do for which he may not spend money. which any administration asks for asks for not recall any President complaining That is the check that our constitu

tional fathers wisely gave to the three money. When Congress says, “We do not

that its absence infringed upon his exlike this purpose, and we are not going to ecutive powers.

coequal, coordinated branches of govgive you the authority to spend for that

Certainly it is true that a large faction ernment, which we call our system of purpose," that is a congressional right. inside Government and in the press has representative government. That is no interference with any au

come to equate foreign aid with foreign In the succeeding years since the Britthority of the President over foreign policy. Members who have served in

policy. Members who have served in ish loan, we have seen the world move policy.

Congress since World War II have seen from a shooting war into a prolonged Our forefathers wisely established this

that concept develop. To a great extent cold war. In the name of national system of checks. Our constitutional

it is our own fauīt, because we have security, Congress has delegated to the fathers made it perfectly clear in the acquiesced in it.

executive branch its duties and responsiConstitution that this was the authority

In 1945, I was a new Member of this bilities in connection with the expendiand the duty of Congress. Contrary to

body when the first postwar foreign aid ture of funds, until Presidents and countthe implications of the Secretary of State

measure was proposed. It was the pro- less of their deputies have come to regard last Friday, the Constitution requires posal that we lend Great Britain $334 those expenditures as their inherent that "no money shall be drawn from

billion. The proposal came through the right. the Treasury but in consequence of ap

executive branch. But it was the re There has come into public life a whole propriations made by law.”

sponsibility of Congress to make the generation of men who emerged from That means that Congress bears the

money available or not to make the World War II with the concept that anyprimary responsibility for the sound or money available.

thing done in the name of international unsound expenditure of public funds,

We studied the facts. We reviewed affairs was the exclusive property of ex

Britain's economic condition. including foreign aid.

We ecutive agencies. They have moved on I say to the Secretary of State, “Copy

looked at her needs, and we looked at through 18 years of cold war, only to be

what she was doing to help herself. It come hardened in this assumption; and that clause out of the Constitution. Put it on a plaque. Hang it on the wall in

will be recalled that a Labor government I fear that that assumption was shown had been elected. It was embarking on

It was embarking on by implication in the press conference, front of your desk, so that you can look

a series of economic belt-tightening last Friday, of the Secretary of State. at it all the time before you have your

measures that

came to be called Many of these people have believed it next news conference. Then admit to

austerity. the news conference that you have

their right to roam the world high, wide,

Congress was satisfied that it would be and handsome, spending the money of learned it; or that, if you recalled it, you

a sound expenditure, and so the loan the U.S. Government as they went, never had only overlooked it at your news was made by joint resolution. It was considering that there was any limitation conference last Friday.”

not President Truman's loan; he could whatever, or any consideration other Mr. President, that constitutional pro have vetoed it, but he could not have than their own personal judgment of vision has meaning. I am at a loss to enacted it.

what was in the best interest of the

United States. Many of these people are These days, we hear much about the military factions which has encouraged in defense and intelligence agencies. But necessity for reforms in Congress; and resistance to the objectives of the Almany more are in the State Department surely they are needed. One great need liance, and to close loopholes through and the Agency for International Devel is for the development of staffs, commit- which countries obtain funds from us opment. To them, the words "in conse tee by committee, sufficient in

sufficient in size without going through the procedures of quence of appropriations made by law” and in expertness to enable us to

to enable us to the Alliance. are but a half-remembered anachronism. follow through on the use made of The President has expressed to me The free hand has been theirs so long the funds we vote. We are very der concern that

my so-called juntas that they do not realize that it was ever elict about that matter. One of the amendment would interfere with his any other way, or that it was intended to great reforms needed is for Congress— right to extend diplomatic recognition be any other way.

in keeping with our authority, given to a given government. I explained to GREEK-TURKISH AID

us by the constitutional fathers, to him that he was quite wrong in his asI have already recalled for Senators check on the executive branch of the sumption. But it is interesting to see the British loan. I take them back also

Government to implement that check how close has become the connection to the Greek-Turkish aid program known by the adoption of committee budgets

by the adoption of committee budgets between the extending of recognition as the Truman doctrine. It was recom

and committee staff budgets sufficient and the extending of foreign aid. To a mended by President Truman in 1947 as

in size so that the executive agencies great many people downtown, the two an 18-month program, to be undertaken

will know that at all times we keep a have become synonymous. We know because Greece was threatened by in- watchdog eye over them in connection

watchdog eye over them in connection that Congress could not, even if it ternal communism and Turkey by the

with the expenditure of the funds Con wanted to, tie the hands of the PresiRussian threat aimed at the Dardenelles.

gress votes. If we had done that a long dent in the matter of recognition of a This was just a year after the Soviet

time ago, there would have been some foreign government, and I would not Union had virtually occupied a part of changes in the Turkish aid program. . think of attempting to do so. Even if Iran and was evicted only by the firm

People report to me the common view that were in my amendment, it would stance of both the United States and the

of the Turkish people that the Menderes have no effect upon the Chief ExecuUnited Nations. But it appeared that

government of Turkey was overthrown tive. I will fight as hard to protect the Soviet expansionism might move next

in 1960 because of the American aid pro- rights of the Presidency under the toward a centuries old objective of Rus- gram, which was so loosely administered

gram, which was so loosely administered separation-of-powers doctrine as I will sia--a gateway from the Black Sea to the by the Americans and forced so much to preserve the congressional rights and Mediterranean.

money upon Turkish officials that cor to insist that they be respected by the So President Truman made the pro

ruption could not help but flourish. Is Secretary of State and others in the posal. I was perhaps the first in Con

anyone going to hold President Eisen- executive agency and be preserved. The gress to declare my support. At least,

hower responsible for that, and blame amendments we are offering to the forthe record will show that I was the first

him for the coup that occurred in 1960 ? eign aid bill seek to carry out the checkMember of the Senate to do so. And I

Of course not; and no one should do so. ing authority of Congress in connection do not doubt that Harry Truman will be To the extent that the U.S. aid program with its authorizations of the expendiremembered by history for the program

involved, it

it was the fault of ture of funds for specific purposes rethat we believe saved Turkey and Greece Congress.

quested by the administration. from aggression. No doubt Harry Tru


Therefore, my amendment dealing man will have the credit, for the pro I refer Senators to the Alliance for tional right of the President to recognize

with juntas would not cover the constitugram bore his name; and I think he Progress. In 1961, an expert in Latin should have the credit.

American affairs wrote in the Foreign governments; it only seeks to restrict his But what of the intervening years? Service Journal that the Alliance for power to spend money on military What of the Turkish aid program, about Progress is one of the few international which I have said much this year, that programs that has been originated by jurisdiction of Congress and what we Progress is one of the few international juntas. It would be meaningless verbi

is has no relationship to the Truman doc Congress. The writer mentioned the retrine? Who is responsible for an aid ports made by Senator AIKEN, of Ver

may say about it, even in legislation,

cannot carry the force of law. program to Turkey that has endured, not mont, and by me after our respective trips for 18 months, but for 16 years, that has to South America and Central America

Congress might pass all the legislation seen us pour into that one country $300 in 1959. It was out of those reports, we desired about recognizing a governmillion every year for the last 10 years? which were supplements to the special ment. However, the President has the Much has been said on this floor against studies by the Latin American Affairs

studies by the Latin American Affairs constitutional right to recognize a govsupporting Socialist economies with U.S. Subcommittee, that the Alliance for

ernment if he thinks it should be recogdollars. But we have done that very

nized. Progress was born. The then Senator thing in Turkey year in and year out. from Massachusetts, now the President

from Massachusetts, now the President ULTIMATE RESPONSIBILITY RESTS WITH CONGRESS The wastefulness and inefficiency of so of the United States, was a member of But when it comes to the spending of cialized enterprises were never more evi that subcommittee. It was given its money, that can only be done in purdent than in Turkey, and we have to a name by administrators, but it was suance of law. It becomes the responsilarge extent made it possible with our originated by Congress. Yet there are bility of Congress. I remind Members, aid funds.

men downtown, now working in the and the administrators in the agencies Whose responsibility is it that our $3 Alliance program, who regard it as their downtown that are engaged in internabillion has been so wastefully spent that own private property, and consider any tional affairs, that the Alliance for Proglast spring a European-American eco change in their estimates of cost or any ress is a long-term program. It will still nomic development committee reported guidelines added by Congress as unwar be going on after this adminstration has that Turkey is no better off now than it ranted interference in their domain. come and gone, and after countless AID was 10 years ago.

I have pending three amendments that officials have gone on to other pursuits. If the President thinks AID is working vitally affect the Alliance. All are in If, after 10 years, and the expenditure such economic wonders, let him answer tended to make it a more effective means of what will probably amount to more the report made last spring, in regard of thwarting Communist inroads in Latin

of thwarting Communist inroads in Latin than $10 billion, the Alliance is a failure, to Turkey, by the European-American America. All impose guidelines upon ad

America. All impose guidelines upon ad- that is going to be the responsibility of Development Committee. Is anyone ministrators in the expenditure of money. Congress. To the degree that it is a sucgoing to say it is the fault of Harry Without a doubt, all will be opposed cess or a failure, it will be so because Truman, or Dwight Eisenhower, or of in position papers from the State De

in position papers from the State De- Congress either succeeded or failed in the half dozen Secretaries of State, or of partment as instrusions upon executive laying down the proper conditions for its the numberless aid administrators who prerogatives and as alleged interferences management. have come and gone in those years? with the renowned flexibility which every If the Secretary of State is so worNo. To be frank, it is the fault of employee of a Federal agency insists he

employee of a Federal agency insists he ried that the President receive the blame Congress. Congress started the pro- must have.

if things go wrong, I remind him that gram, but failed to exercise sufficient Their purpose is to make the Alliance the current President will no longer be in control over it.

more effective by curtailing aid to the office when the results come in on the

Alliance for Progress. More than likely, The obvious question raised by his because I wish to dissociate myself from his successor will also have left office. speech is: Why is it that if all the prog- it.

Foreign aid is no longer a policy tool ress cited has been made, this adminis Latin America is still another example. used by a given executive for a given ob- tration still came in with an original When I went down to the inauguration jective in a given country. It has be- foreign aid request of nearly $5 billion, of a new President of Peru last spring, a come a vast machinery of the executive the largest since the peak of the Marshall primary issue was whether American aid branch, which one President inherits plan? The answer is that the reasons

The answer is that the reasons would begin to flow. Much of the defrom his predecessor and which he seems advanced for it by the President account velopment plans of the new Peruvian addetermined to pass on to his successor in for only a very small fraction of the ministration hinged on the availability of a bigger form than when he took over. foreign aid program.

American aid. Those of us representing It almost takes on the characteristics Every advocate of foreign aid likes to the United States were too polite to ask of passing on the baton in a relay race. talk about malaria eradication. Malaria what Peru had done with the $500 milIt has come to serve as a source of jobs, and other diseases are emphasized in lion we had already extended. perhaps more than any other agency of foreign aid debates until one would think My point is simply that American capiGovernment.

that we are spending $3 to $4 billion every tal cannot bridge the gulf between rich After the 5 years of the Truman ad year for it. Education is another fa- and poor. There is not enough wealth ministration, 8 years of the Eisenhower vorite talking point. But foreign aid ex in the United States to bridge the great administration, and 2 years of the Ken- penditures for health and education are gulf between the rich and the poor. It nedy administration, foreign aid has be- only a drop in the bucket of this foreign makes fine rhetoric for the President to come “locked in" the executive branch, aid bill.

talk about bridging the gulf between the almost as though it were part of the

The President's speech deals, too, with rich and the poor, but it must be pointed Armed Forces. Through those three ad- the well-known gulf between the rich out that those countries, where the poor ministrations, there has been less use nations and the poor nations, a gulf that exist by the millions, must help themof aid as a tool of foreign policy, and was strikingly brought home to Amer selves. We can only be of assistance, but more use of it as one more program icans at the close of World War II. But we can be of some assistance. We can which the executive branch has the right what has foreign aid done to bridge the help them with technology, with trainto run as it pleases as it does the foreign gulf, and indeed—and that is even more ing, and with loans for some projects; but policy and defense agencies.

important—what can foreign aid do to the President of the United States knows If there is to be a consistent purpose bridge the gulf? Those are the questions

we do not have the wealth with which to and specific objective to foreign aid, it that every foreign aid advocate ignores bridge the great chasms that now exist is going to have to be supplied by Con- and which must be answered by Con- between the rich and the poor in the ungress. The people know that. The peogress.

derdeveloped areas of the world. ple of Oregon know that it is WAYNE We know that our huge outpouring of

Hence we must continue to insist that MORSE and MAURINE NEUBERGER and four money into Turkey over the longest pe

they help themselves. We will join with Oregon men and women in the other riod of any foreign aid program has had them as partners in that program. body, who have been responsible for virtually no appreciable economic re

After we read the newspapers this the continuation of an endless and al- sults. The gulf in Turkey has not been morning, it is somewhat hard to reconmost shapeless foreign aid program. bridged by the more than $3 billion we

cile the position of Brazil in São Paulo They know that the Constitution gives have poured in.

with the President's speech. Brazil, acto us the responsibility for Federal ex

South Korea is another example.

cording to press reports this morning, penditures. They know that the Consti- That nation has cost the United States does not know whether it should apply tution did not set up the Senate just so $512 billion, in addition to the tens of

for aid at all. 100 men and women could go down to thousands of troops of our own we have

One thing is perfectly obvious. Brazil the White House and have their pictures kept there. Yet in 1963 we are told that does not want to submit to any effective taken with the President.

the economy of North Korea is doing checks that would protect the American In the years that I have served in better than South Korea. If the infu- taxpayer in respect to aid. Brazil has Congress, I have helped initiate the Brit- sion of American capital on that scale

done fairly well in getting money out of ish loan, the Marshall plan, Greek-Turk- has so little result in a small country,

the President's contingency fund, to the ish aid, and the Alliance for Progress, what can be said for the chances of tune of a good many millions of dollars, in addition to foreign aid as such. But bridging the worldwide gulf between to shore up her monetary policy. But I cannot now turn over the responsi- rich and poor with American money? Brazil has promised and promised that bility for all those programs to men To those who say that South Korea is an

if we will only pour in a few more mildowntown, many of who were graduat- exception because she exists under the lion dollars to stabilize her economy, ing from college, or even high school, gun of Communist China, I point out Brazil will do something for herself. when the programs were begun.

that we have provided our own military She has not kept her promise. Brazil's I am worried about how some of these forces for her defense.

promises on the record have not been programs are going. Some of them are

The argument that it is cheaper to worth the paper they were written on. not accomplishing what they were sup- keep a South Korean, a Pakistani, a

It is about time we provided some checks posed to accomplish. Most important, Turk, or a soldier from some other coun on the expenditure of the American taxit appears that the general foreign aid try in uniform and pay for his mainte- payers' money in Brazil. program has become self-perpetuating. nance than it is to keep an American

That is why I shall continue to fight The people who hold the thousands of boy in uniform is one of the greatest for some amendments dealing with aid jobs administering it intend that it be "sleeper" arguments being used for years

to Latin America. self-perpetuating. That is why I say by the advocates of foreign aid. It Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, will the that unless Congress takes a firm hand, seems to be plausible, it is catching, but Senator yield? there will never be any genuine revision it is unsound.

Mr. MORSE. I am glad to yield. of the foreign aid program.

I will tell Senators what protects Mr. LAUSCHE. The Senator from
South Korea.

Oregon has mentioned our relationship President Kennedy's speech of Friday It is not the large numbers of South with Brazil. Five years ago their Presinight demonstrates how self-perpetu- Korean soldiers whose upkeep we pay, dent came to our country. A luncheon ating foreign aid has become. It was but the more than 50,000 American boys was given in his honor by the Foreign couched in the generalities and homilies in uniform whom we keep in South Relations Committee. There was discusthat have been used to justify foreign aid Korea; the 7th Fleet in Pacific waters; sion concerning the constantly disinteever since 1945. His speech could have the American air armada. These forces grating status of their cruzeiro. been made by any of the last three Presi- protect South Korea.

I said to the President of Brazil, “You dents, and if things continue without The President's argument Friday night are suffering from a very marked deprechange, Members of Congress will be with regard to aid, is in my judgment, ciation of your cruzeiro.” hearing the same speech from the next thoroughly unsound. That is why I am The President replied, “No; it is not so three Presidents.

taking the time to reply to his speech, bad."

I said, "It fell 50 percent last year.” the borrowing nation or in dollars, the States in return for our cooperation for

He sort of shook, and asked his eco- specific type to be determined by the such aid as the Alliance for Progress nomic adviser about my statement. The borrower.

offers.” economic adviser said, “It was only 25 So we loaned money to one nation That is the arrangement. To me, it is percent."

American dollars which at that time, 8 an offer of an international contract. I then asked the President, “Do you years ago, had an exchange value of 350 One Latin American country after anhave any bonded indebtedness to your to 1. For $1 we would receive 350 pieces other has not lived up to the contractual own citizens, as distinguished from your of paper of the other government. The offerings made when it put its signature indebtedness to the United States and depreciated value is 800 to 1. Yet they to the Act of Bogotá. Only eight Latin other nations of the world?”

are paying off the debt which they owe American countries have come forward The President replied, “We have none." us not on the basis of 350 to 1, but on to date with a plan to implement the

I asked “How do you finance Brasilia the basis of 800 to 1. It is unbelievable Alliance for Progress program. But do and the other things?”

that such loose practices could have been not jump to the conclusion that those His answer was that they print money. followed.

eight plans are necessarily good, for most Yet at the same time they were seek Mr. MORSE. I do not think I vio- of them need great improvement if they ing aid from the International Monetary late any confidence when I say the Sen- are to keep their commitments. Fund to stabilize their currency, and aid ator from Ohio discussed our policies to Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, will was given to them. The International ward Italy.

the Senator yield? Monetary Fund has a rule that, as a Mr. LAUSCHE. And toward Brazil. Mr. MORSE. I yield. prerequisite to the right to obtain aid, Mr. MORSE. And toward Brazil, too. Mr. GRUENING. I wonder whether a country must put into effect and com- The Senator cross-examined the spokes- the distinguished senior Senator from mit itself to execute programs that will man for the administration with respect Oregon noticed the front page story in stabilize its currency.

to Italy, and I think the cross-examina- the New York Times this morning I fully concur with what the Senator tion was devastating.

headed, “Brazil Questions Alliance's from Oregon has said. I note that on I wish to make it very clear that my Value to Latin Economy.” two occasions they made promises, and point on this phase of the issue is that Mr. MORSE. I have already comnever kept them. Today, Brazil has an American capital cannot bridge the gulf mented on it, but I should be delighted indebtedness to its own people—I believe between the rich and the poor in the un- to have one of the most knowledgeable it is 20 million—but the indebtedness derdeveloped areas.

men on Latin American affairs, the Senby way of cruzeiros to the nations of the Commenting on what the Senator ator from Alaska (Mr. GRUENING], comworld runs into trillions. It is unbe- from Ohio just said, one of the reasons ment on it. lievable.

we do not have a self-help program, and Mr. GRUENING. The statement of I thank the Senator from Oregon for one of the reasons why there are not out- President Goulart seems to me to show yielding to me.

standing bonds of some governments a great lack of appreciation of the effort Mr. MORSE. If the Senator from owned by the people, which constitute a the United States has made to help Ohio will “lend me his ears,” I should relationship of faith between the gov- Brazil. Here is a country into which like to take a moment, in view of his ernment and the people, is that the we have poured a great amount of money, intervention, to let the RECORD show the wealthy of those countries export their which has repeatedly failed to live up to position that the Senator from Ohio has money and put it in New York and its promises of fiscal reform. We have taken time and time again on this eco- Swiss banks.

poured money into it in the form of nomic issue, as a member of the Foreign I say most respectfully to my Presi- budget support, to bail it out of its finanRelations Committee. The voice of the dent, "You cannot justify sending mil- cial difficulties—unknown to most of the Senator from Ohio has been raised in lions of dollars into Latin America un American people. Now the President of our deliberations and raised in the pub- til the oligarchs of Latin America are that country makes a speech attacking lic hearings, too, but I am speaking about willing to invest their money in Latin the Alliance for Progress and never even executive meetings. The public hear- America, and not put it in New York mentions the United States. It is not ings of the Foreign Relations Committee and Swiss banks.”

wholly surprising—we have provided the are made public but not its executive Unless they have a self-help program, kind of situation in which that would meetings.

unless they have faith in their own coun- follow. We have gone into many counThe voice of the Senator from Ohio try, why should we vote to pour millions tries almost insisting that they take our has often been raised as he has pleaded of dollars into underdeveloped countries money. We have seldom if ever taken with the committee to adopt some checks because the gulf between the rich and the proper and sound position, which is to protect the American dollar against the poor is so great, as pointed out by the to say, "We would like to help you. We the inflationary policies of countries like President of the United States in New do not ask you to take our money, but Brazil. We have the same problem with York City last Friday night? What if you do we expect you to adopt a few Argentina, as well.

makes him think that pouring millions reforms which will make that aid effecMr. LAUSCHE. Yes.

of American dollars into Latin America tive. We expect you to adopt an austerMr. MORSE. Those are not the only would bridge the gulf? The sad eco- ity program, and stop inflation, waste, two countries, but they are probably the nomic reality is that too frequently pour- and corruption.” We have never taken two most notorious.

ing American aid money into such un- that position or if we have stated it, we The Senator has made eloquent pleas. derdeveloped countries makes the oli- have never insisted upon its fulfillment. I believe they are unanswerable. The garchs richer and the poor poorer, and we have taken the position that we must sad thing is, we have not prevailed. We the oligarchs export the profits that they thrust the money on them, regardless of did not prevail in the committee. I hope make out of American foreign aid invest- whether they agree to the quid pro quo. we can prevail in the Senate. The ments.

Now the chickens are coming home to American people are crying out for the It is an ugly fact. I know just how roost. checks for which the Senator from Ohio ugly that fact is.

ugly that fact is. But it is true. It is Last year I urged that we stop giving has been battling in the Foreign Rela- about time that the President of the aid to both Brazil and Argentina. There tions Committee. The American people United States faced it. The American is no stability in either. Much has been know it is right.

people are coming to know it is true, and made recently of the fact that there has Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, will the American people want some checks been an election in the Argentina. It the Senator yield?

written into the foreign aid bill whereby was an election dictated by the military Mr. MORSE. I am glad to yield. we say to the oligarchs of Brazil, the who deposed the previous President and

Mr. LAUSCHE. Last Friday night I Argentine, and other Latin American permitted the new one to be elected. I made mention of the fact that until 2 countries, "Do not forget that the Act thought we should at least wait a year years ago, when lending American dol- of Bogotá and the Act of Punta del Este to see whether the new Argentina was lars, in the agreement to repay we contain a pledge by your governments democratically inclined, responsible, allowed the stipulation that repayment that you would participate in a coopera- stable, and whether it was going to carry could be made either in the currency of tive self-help program with the United out the declared objectives of the Alianza

para Progreso as subscribed to at the sion is

is referred to as crippling is aggression and it is difficult to see Punta del Este conference and repeatedly amendment. The amendment should how he can fail to find it. ' In the cases enunciated by President Kennedy. never have been made necessary. The of the rulers of Indonesia and Egypt

I wonder if the Senator from Oregon State Department and the AID admin- there have been both the declarations of also saw the column by Mr. Arthur istration should long since have acted. aggressive purpose and the acts of agKrock in this morning's New York Times. I notice that in the President's address gression. It was expected that Nasser

Mr. MORSE. No; I did not see it. on foreign aid before the Protestant would pull his troops out of Yemen as

Mr. GRUENING. It is very pertinent. Council in New York last Friday night, soon as Saudi Arabia ceased helping the I should like to read from it, because it he quite properly deplored wars that Imam with money. Nasser had promdisplays a real understanding of the fact were going on in various parts of the ised to do so, but did not keep his promthat those of us who are critical of the world, and he listed them as “disputes ise. Helping with money, moreover, is bill before us are trying to improve the between Africans and Europeans in not comparable to helping with troops foreign aid program. We are not trying Angola, between North African neigh- and planes. Sending money does not to wreck foreign aid; on the contrary bors in the Maghreb, between two Arab make a war. Sending in troops and we are trying to save foreign aid by mak- States over Yemen, between India and planes which kill is making war.

In the case of Brazil, we have another ing it efficient, by making it a program Pakistan, between Indonesia and Mawhich carries out the purposes enun- laysia, Cambodia and Vietnam, Ethiopia type of failure to carry out promises. ciated by President Kennedy at various and Somalia,” and he added that there And we hear President Goulart, who has times. was “a long list of others."

been taking our generous assistance, This is what Mr. Krock says:

Now, I submit that while there are questioning the value of the Alliance for

these wars, they are dissimilar in their Progress. The Secretary of State, who is a man mild origins and this presentation by the I hope we shall have the wisdom and of manner and speech butas they say in

the sense of propriety to reply, "We have his native State of Georgia—"soť in his President does not emphasize what seems ways,” last week supplied one of the two to me so pertinent-and that is that sey tried to help you. We have given your reasons for Congresso sharp reduction in eral of these were not so much wars be- country $21/2 billion. What is there to the foreign aid budget when he said he tween the countries mentioned but acts show for it? Why have you done nothdoesn't "understand it.”

of aggression by one of them against ing to stop inflation? What other steps The article continues:

the other. For instance, I do not share have you taken to justify our continuing

the President's view that there is a war aid?” Unfortunately, there have been Merely by reading the Senate speeches of between two Arab States over Yemen none. the self-named liberals

Having made a careful study of this The same thing is approximately true I do not think they are self-named situation when I was in the Middle East, with respect to Argentina. I am not who are leading the fight for the budget I learned that Nasser was ready almost prepared to pass on the merits of the oil cuts the Secretary could readily discover the simultaneously with the revolt of one re- pact, but it seems that when we are first reason. It is, that the Executive pro- gime against the other in Yemen to send trying to encourage private investment, poses to give President Nasser of Egypt the

an army there of 28,000 men, sent them which would certainly be helpful to the aid which pays for the military force he is

in Russian planes, and has kept them government down there, and when we using to back his refusal to withdraw his

there ever since. It is true that for a find that nation trying to confiscate that troops from Yemen; and to continue to provide aid to President Sukarno of Indonesia, time the Saudi Arabians helped the re- investment, we ought to go slow about who has sworn to destroy the new state of gime that Nasser was fighting with pouring any more money into that counMalaysia, and to Brazil, where President money, but that is scarcely comparable try without some certainty as to what its Goulart is dissipating the aid by failing to as an act of aggression. The revolt in policies will be. The news reports indicontrol inflation. The second reason is that Yemen would never have succeeded cate that Secretary Harriman's pleas the only effective means Congress has to without the Nasser invasion and would on the subject were rebuffed. show disapproval of Executive policies, it collapse the minute his troops were There was a good deal of indignation disapproves is through the appropriating withdrawn.

when the Kuchel-Engle amendment was powers that the Constitution reserves exclusively to Congress, foreign policy not

Similarly, I would not consider that adopted. The Kuchel-Engle amendment excluded.

saying there was a war between Indo provided that if the Governments of

nesia and Malaysia would tell the whole Ecuador and Peru insist on grabbing our That is the very point the Senator story, since Malaysia was a peaceably vessels in international waters, arrestfrom Oregon has made on the floor of newborn nation with no designs on any ing their crews, taking them to the mainthe Senate again and again, and which other nation and was threatened both land, putting them in jail, and fining I have also made—that since the begin- before its birth and immediately after them heavily, we would withhold foreign ning of our foreign aid some 18 years ago, with invasion by Sukarno.

aid from these countries. with the Marshall plan, an entirely new

It is these acts of aggression, not acted The opposition said that this should aspect has entered the conduct of foreign upon effectively by the State Depart- be done by negotiation. In the RECORD policy. Up to that time use of large sums ment, that led inevitably to action by the was included a letter from the Under of money as an instrument of foreign Senate, and I am confident that our ac Secretary of the Department of the Inpolicy was unknown. The function of tion in this matter is completely justifi- terior, Mr. James Carr, who reported the Senate up to that time was merely able.

that negotiations had been continuing, to advise and consent to treaties and to

The way for these rulers to reestablish without any result and suggested some confirm Presidential appointments in the themselves is to cease their aggression, other course of action might be desirForeign Service. That was all.

for Nasser, for instance, to pull all his able. How long must we be supine, and When the United States started pour troops out of Yemen, to stop the military be a doormat for those governments ing in tens of millions and then hundreds buildup which is clearly designed to that refuse to settle by negotiation? of millions, and then billions of dollars commit aggression against his neighbors, The fact that the amendment was into foreign aid, it became the duty of Israel and Jordan, to pull his troops out adopted-although I know that in conthe Senate—and indeed of the House—to of Algeria, where he is fighting with the ference every effort will be made to take be vigilant with respect to how these Algerians against Morocco, and to cease it out of the bill_will I am convinced moneys were spent. Why is great sur his inflammatory broadcasts

which hasten negotiations and bring a better prise now expressed and criticism voiced preach assassination of officials of neigh- result. When a nation engages in acts when Senators wish to stop an inexcusa- boring countries. Nasser has kept his of violence against our citizens, and at ble subsidizing of aggression, which we troops in Yemen for 15 months at a cost the same time is the recipient of our aid have done in the case of Sukarno, who of about $185 million. While he has to the extent of millions of dollars started with threats and mobilization in been spending $185 million on war, we through our foreign assistance programs, regard to New Guinea-when we yielded, have been pouring in $185 million and it is unthinkable that we should conI thought unjustifiably—and now threat

more through Public Law 480 and other tinue to tolerate such a condition. ens to overthrow the new Republic of aid designed to raise the economy of Mr. President, I ask unanimous conMalaysia? In a column printed this the Egyptian people.

sent that the article by Arthur Krock, morning, written by Warren Unna, ac In short, the Senate has finally moved appearing in this morning's New York tion to stop the subsidization of aggres- to stop the aid if the President finds there Times, and the article referring to Bra

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