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have been spared the odium of what we the Peace Corps in the Dominican Re- Turkey program and the Marshall plan. have done.
public. So I was wondering what the I have added my name to this amendIf the Senator from New York were a attitude of the present Government is ment because I feel very strongly about member of the Foreign Relations Com- toward retaining from 100 to 120 Amer- it. mittee, I am sure he would find out that icans who are there now as members of I agree with the Senator that if we the State Department has adopted the the Peace Corps.
give the State Department the opportutechnique of saying, "If you can only give Mr. LAUSCHE. I cannot answer that nity to continue something, they probus a little escape hatch, regardless of question. However, my views on the ably will do so if we give them an "out,” how small it is, we will get out."
Peace Corps, and the quality of its work, as the Senator says. I believe these are Mr. KEATING. I do not have to be a have changed rather substantially in the very desirable programs on which to give member of the committee to know that. direction of the belief that they are doing them that opportunity. So I am not doMr. LAUSCHE. That is what occurs. a good job.
ing it with my eyes shut. I am doing We have provided them with an escape
Mr. AIKEN. I have heard more praise it with my eyes open, and for this reahatch in practically every section of the of the group that went to the Dominican
son: For us, the application of the interbill.
Republic than of any group that went to est of youth is an extremely flexible and I had an amendment accepted in the another country; but perhaps that is highly desirable instrument. Almost Foreign Relations Committee, to bar aid because I had the opportunity to receive every experience we have with young to Communist countries by way of loans a more complete report.
people is favorable. There are occato establish socialized enterprise com
Mr. LAUSCHE. I should like to ask sions when there are aberrations such as peting with private enterprise within the the Senator from Vermont [Mr. AIKEN] with respect to those who went to Cuba, country. That was my original pur- a question. How can the Senator justify which was not good.
which was not good. Generally speakpose to provide an absolute bar.
lifting the Peace Corps and the scholar- ing, we have found the Peace Corps, Along came the State Department to ship program to a level above the grant- the educational exchanges, or the kids suggest an amendment, that the ab- ing of food to maintain life and the
on the streets of Moscow creating a “fersolute bar be modified so that whenever granting of other aid that would pre- ment” to be an extremely useful and flexthe President or the administration de- serve the independence and the sover- ible instrument for our side. termined that it was all right, it could be eignty of a country?
Therefore, I believe this is a necessary done.
Mr. AIKEN. I am not criticizing the and a good amendment, which we should I have received many letters from position of the Senator from Ohio on the
approve with our eyes wide open, realizpoints throughout the country com- Dominican Republic. The Senator may
ing that the State Department, will probmending me on my amendment. I have recall that in the committee I pointed
recall that in the committee I pointed ably allow it in more countries than not. written back, "You do not know that I out the inconsistency of recognizing the
That is all the more reason for doing it, had to accept a modification which pro- new Vietnamese regime, which went into
because I believe these particular provides that aid loans shall not be made in power through the strength of the mili
grams are extremely helpful, and have those cases, unless it is clearly shown tary and with considerable bloodshed, ,
none of the drawbacks which the Senator that private enterprise is not rendering compared with the nonrecognition of
and others have found in the various aid the service.” the Dominican regime, which went into
programs that will be prohibited. Mr. AIKEN. Mr. President, will the power through a strong military but
As to food aid, we have made it very Senator yield ?
without bloodshed, as I understand. So clear that though we forbid assistance we The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. Ed- I am not criticizing the position of the
do not forbid food relief. In my judgMONDSON in the chair). Does the Sena- Senator from Ohio. tor from Ohio yield to the Senator from Mr. LAUSCHE. To the credit of the ment, no matter how “naughty” any na
tion on earth has been, the American Vermont?
Senator from Vermont, let me say that Mr. LAUSCHE. I yield to the Senator the thoughts which I express tonight people would still have human feelings from Vermont.
were born as a consequence of listening toward giving its starving people direct Mr. AIKEN. The present Government to his argument in the Foreign Relations food relief, which is very different from
assistance. of the Dominican Republic was put into Committee, and I thank him for it. The
Mr. MILLER. power and we assume it is temporary Senator's argument in the Foreign Re
Mr. President, will the
Senator yield? power-by the military. What is the lations Committee was made with subattitude of the present Government of stantially the same thoughts that I ex
Mr. LAUSCHE. I am glad to yield. the Dominican Republic toward retain- press tonight.
Mr. MILLER. I should like to ask ing the members of the Peace Corps in Mr. AIKEN. There are two things the Senator from Ohio, or the Senator that country at this time? I understand we should consider in our relationships from New York who has just spoken, in that about 100 are there. It has been with the governments of other countries. connection with humanitarian problems, my impression that the Government of First: Is the government
First: Is the government a stable one? if we cut off direct assistance under the the Dominican Republic is asking to have Second: Is it friendly to the United foreign aid program, whether we will them retained there. States?
not still help in those causes by contribMr. LAUSCHE. I do not know. I Mr. LAUSCHE. That is wonderful.
uting through the auxiliary organizaheard the Senator from Oregon [Mr. Mr. AIKEN. We can go on from there tions of the United Nations, such as the MORSE] state that the former Ambassa- with other considerations; but those two World Health Organization? It is my dor of the overthrown regime was in are paramount.
understanding that the World Health Washington and spoke most highly of Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, will the Organization undertakes to distribute the Peace Corps. I ask the Senator from Senator yield?
polio vaccine. So, even if we should, in Oregon if that is not correct.
Mr. LAUSCHE. I yield.
a certain situation, not extend such relief Mr. MORSE That is correct.
Mr. JAVITS. First, the Dominican under the foreign aid program, would we Mr. LAUSCHE. I concede that if the Republic is continuing the program of not, at the same time, take care of that present Government says the Peace administering polio vaccine to children need through the United Nations? Corps members should be retained, that in the Dominican Republic, sent there
Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, will the would be a powerful argument in favor through a coordination of the efforts of Senator yield so that I may answer? of so doing.
the U.S. Government, United Nations Mr. LAUSCHE. Let me answer first. Mr. AIKEN. I know that one of the agencies, and private enterprise in the There are two schools of thought with members of the present Cabinet of the United States. So they have by no means respect to the question which was just Dominican Republic was a guest of the severed their relationship with our coun- put. School No. 1 consists of those who Foreign Relations Committee 2 or 3 try when humanitarian considerations believe that the Communists intend to months ago, along with other members are at stake.
destroy our country. In spite of the of the Dominican Senate. At that time, I served for 8 years on the Foreign Af- fact that there is no firing, this school all of them, including the Cabinet mem- fairs Committee in the other body, and is of the opinion that we are in a war. ber, spoke very highly of the work of heard the discussions of the Greece and It says that whatever aid is given through the Government, as distin- extreme circumstances. It should be government. That is amply demonguished from the Red Cross, constitutes made clear, therefore, that the commit- strated by the several awards which have helping the enemy while we are engaged tee amendment to section 620(e) of this been presented to the Peace Corps in in a war.
act does not apply to the Peace Corps Peru by the Peruvian people this past The second school consists of those and the Gruening amendment.
summer. who say we are not engaged in war, that Mr. BURDICK. Mr. President, the I think the case of Peru demonstrates Red Russia has become mellowed and Secretary of State has said:
that the success of the Peace Corps has callowed, and that it wants to live with
The Peace Corps is not an instrument of in great part been due to the fact that. us. Therefore they urge that we give foreign policy because to make it so its influence works outside the ordinary help to them in various forms.
would rob it of
its contribution to channels of politics and diplomacy. If I do not belong to the latter school. I foreign policy * * *. The Peace Corps is an we extend section 620 (e) to include the am of the belief that when we give aid opportunity for the nations of the world to
Peace Corps, we may be forced to remove learn what America is all about. This is one to an enemy, whatever the source may
that influence when we need it most. I of the most important things our country cannot believe we want to do that. be, we perpetuate the wrong and make
can do in the world today. Outside of the possible, in the long run, an aggravation shadows and struggles of the cold war, out
It is my hope that the proposed legisof it.
side of the military rivalries which heighten lation will make it clear that that secFrom the standpoint of American dangers all over the world, outside of the tion does not extend to the Peace Corps. youth, by giving aid to the enemy we constant sense of national advantage which Mr. PELL. Mr. President, I undermay cause the loss of many more lives pervades diplomacy, if the Peace Corps can stand that the bill would amend the Forin the future than would take place if
let other peoples find out what this country eign Assistance Act in a way which we had brought to an end those govern
is all about, we shall be surprised to discover ments that are hostile to our concept of how many allies America has all over the might require suspension not only of aid,
as the act now requires, but of Peace what goodness is in the world.
Corps programs in countries which have I now yield to the Senator from New
I do not know how more eloquently expropriated American property. York.
could be expressed the purpose of the I understand why aid should not be Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, I shall. Peace Corps and the hopes of those of given to a country which takes American answer briefly. The United Nations does us who sponsored it.
property without compensation. But I supply such aid under its charter. This These purposes do not encompass fail to see that it is also in the U.S. in-. is similar to a proposal I have made, assistance and foreign aid as we have terest to suspend a humanitarian, peowith the aid of the American Cyanamid come to think of them and as we are ple-to-people program like the Peace Co., Pan-American Airways, and the discussing them today. They go far be- Corps. Lily-Tulip Cup Co. All of these pro- yond and above, if indeed they could be The Peace Corps has been tremengrams are in operation, but none of them called assistance at all.
dously successful in getting down to the is of the nature of the two programs re- I am happy to join my colleagues to grassroots. The volunteers are promotferred to.
make clear that the Senate does not re- ing mutual understanding and a sense of As the Senator from Ohio has men- gard the language of the pending bill, identity of purpose and spirit between tioned, there are two schools of thought which refers to “assistance under any the American people and the peoples on this question. I am of the opinion other act," as applying to the Peace of the underdeveloped world. These that it is a war, but it is a war that can Corps. To apply it to Peace Corps vol- achievements do not constitute aid or be fought not merely with blunt weap- unteers would inevitably tend to make assistance programs as we are discussing ons, but with armies of which these two the Peace Corps an instrument of for- them in regard to this amendment. programs are important in terms of be- eign policy. This, as Secretary Rusk has I know my sentiments are shared by ing able to win the war without dropping said, “would rob it of its contribution to many of my colleagues. an atom bomb. foreign policy."
I doubt that an amendment to the Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, in Mr. SMATHERS. Mr. President, I committee amendment is necessary to 212 years the Peace Corps has demon- would like to say a few words about sec- make clear that the Senate does not restrated the value of sending highly quali- tion 620(e) and the amendment offered gard assistance under any other act as fied, well-trained Americans to serve in by the Senator from Alaska [Mr. GRUE- it is used in the bill as covering the other countries as volunteers. In recent NING), amendment No. 231, which would Peace Corps. weeks these Peace Corps volunteers have apply to page 51 of the bill. I do not Mr. YARBOROUGH. Mr. President, received several distinguished awards for think we should start setting a precedent I would like to join in what my colleagues their work. These awards were made, under which the Peace Corps would be have stated with respect to the Peace Mr. President, by the people of the for- pulled out or sent into foreign countries Corps and the cutting off of foreign aid eign countries. Eleven countries in Asia, on the basis of every friendly or un- when American property has been exfor example, presented the Ramon Mag- friendly action taken by the governments propriated. saysay Award to the 1,400 volunteers of these countries. The Peace Corps is a Peace Corps volunteers are hard at serving there. This award has sometimes people-to-people program. It can oper- work in 46 countries today. They are been called Asia's Nobel Prize. The vol- ate in the effective interest of the United helping people, not governments. For unteers were the first group of non- States in a country where that govern- the Peace Corps is a humanitarian operaAsians to receive it.
ment may be doing certain things of tion. This effort has redounded greatly The point I want to make, Mr. Presi- which our Government quite properly to the benefit of the United States in dent, is that Peace Corps volunteers are disapproves.
many ways, but let us not lose sight of working with people. I do not think- I think the point has already been the humanitarian principles that underand I do not believe the Senate intends- demonstrated in the case of Peru. As lie it: Service and sacrifice. The Peace that these volunteers should be affected Senators will recall, in June 1962 a mili- Corps is not giving away goods or dolby section 620(e) of the bill we are now tary junta refused to allow the consti- lars; they are giving something far more considering. Also, the Peace Corps tutionally elected President to take office valuable: Their lives, their spirit, their should not be understood as included in and instead took over the Government humanitarianism, their great good will, the Gruening amendment No. 231. In itself. There followed a crisis in our and their high hopes for humanity. this respect the situation is quite dif- relations with Peru. But during the year They give themselves, not the taxpayers' ferent from AID, Public Law 480, the in which the junta held power, over 200 dollars. Export-Import Bank, or any other pro- Peace Corps volunteers entered into sery- In this light the Peace Corps is quite gram where we are primarily dealing ice in Peru and put into operation what different from foreign aid or assistance, with commodities. The Peace Corps is has become one of the most effective and should not be considered as covered dealing with people, not things. And Peace Corps programs in the world. by section 620(e) or any other section of people can accomplish objectives that These Americans were not identified by this act that provides for the suspension things cannot. This is why I do not be- the Peruvian people with the government of aid to a foreign country. lieve it is in the best interest of the in power nor was their presence consid- Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, when United States to remove the Peace Corps ered by the Peruvian people to reflect Congress authorized the Peace Corps it from any country except under the most U.S. support for or sympathy with that set forth three purposes for it: First, to help the peoples of developing countries meet their needs for trained manpower; second, to help promote a better understanding of the American people on the part of the peoples served; and third, to help promote a better understanding of other peoples on the part of the American people.
I point out the repeated emphasis in those purposes that is placed on the word “people.” The Peace Corps was created as a people-to-people program. Two of its three purposes relate to understanding, not assistance as we usually think of it. I believe Congress intends for the Peace Corps to adhere to the original conception of it and not be turned into a political weapon to be used for or against foreign governments. Any such use of the Peace Corps would impair if not destroy the effectiveness of the fine organization which Congress helped to create.
I consider it important, therefore, that section 620(e) of the Foreign Assistance Act be not construed to cover the Peace Corps. I am certain that the majority of the members of the Foreign Relations Committee did not intend for this amendment to embrace the Peace Corps. Certainly there was no discussion of this possibility in committee hearings or markup, and when I voted for the amendment, I did not, as I understand most of the members did not, consider that the Peace Corps was at all involved in its scope. I would like for the RECORD to show that our intention in passing this amendment did not involve the Peace Corps.
Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I hope the Senate will support the amendment. I would be prepared to take it, but the yeas and nays have been ordered on the amendment.
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The question is on agreeing to the amendment offered by the Senator from Minnesota (Mr. HUMPHREY] for himself and the Senators from New York (Mr. KEATING and Mr. JAVITS] to the committee amendment in the nature of a substitute, as amended. The yeas and nays have been ordered, and the clerk will call the roll.
The legislative clerk called the roll.
Mr. HUMPHREY. I announce that the Senator from West Virginia [Mr. BYRD), the Senator from Louisiana Mr. LONG], the Senator from Washington [Mr. MAGNUSON], the Senator from Minnesota [Mr. MCCARTHY), the Senator from Florida [Mr. SMATHERS), and the Senator from Mississippi [Mr. STENNIS] are absent on official business.
I also announce that the Senator from California [Mr. ENGLE) is absent because of illness.
I further announce that, if present and voting, the Senator from Louisiana (Mr. LONG), the Senator from Washington [Mr. MAGNUSON), the Senator from Minnesota [Mr. MCCARTHY), the Senator from Florida [Mr. SMATHERS], and the Senator from California [Mr. ENGLE] would each vote "yea."
On this vote, the Senator from West Virginia [Mr. BYRD) is paired with the Senator from Mississippi (Mr. STENNIS).
If present and voting, the Senator from
West Virginia would vote "yea" and the PROGRAM FOR REMAINDER OF
Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, I
should like to ask the distinguished maSenator from Arizona (Mr. GOLDWATER] jority leader about the schedule for the is necessarily absent.
remainder of the day and also for toThe Senator from California [Mr. KUCHEL] is detained on official business.
Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, it On this vote, the Senator from Arizona is hoped that with amendments and [Mr. GOLDWATER) is paired with the Sen- votes coming as they are, the Senate will ator from California [Mr. KUCHEL).
If present and voting, the Senator from be able to remain in session until approx-
imately 10 o'clock tonight. This is a
combined leadership hopes that amendnays 16, as follows:
votes will be taken. Unless some Sena[No. 224 Leg.)
tor desires to make an extraordinarily YEAS–75
long speech, that will be the procedure
for the remainder of the day.
ORDER FOR RECESS UNTIL NOON
Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I
ask unanimous consent that when the
business for today has been concluded, Carlson
the Senate take a recess until 12 o'clock
The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without
objection, it is so ordered.
Mr. MANSFIELD. A similar pro-
McClellan Symington cedure will be followed tomorrow.
McGovern Williams, N.J.
McNamara Yarborough CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS AS IM-
Young, N. Dak.
PORTANT AS CHOICE OF PRESI-
Mr. DIRKSEN. Mr. President, the
State Labor News, published at 85 East
Gay Street, Columbus, Ohio, contains a Edmondson Robertson
paragraph in its issue of October 19, Hill Russell
1963, under the heading “Congressional NOT VOTING–9
Elections as Important as Choice of
President." The issue is well and suc
cinctly put. I ask unanimous consent So Mr. HUMPHREY'S amendment to the that it be printed in the RECORD. committee amendment in the nature of
There being no objection, the article a substitute was agreed to.
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, I move
as follows: to reconsider the vote by which the CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS AS IMPORTANT AS amendment was agreed to.
CHOICE OF PRESIDENT Mr. HUMPHREY. I move to lay that Under our system of government, the elecmotion on the table.
tion of a President always receives vastly The motion to lay on the table was
more publicity than the election of a Conagreed to.
This shouldn't be. Actually the choice of Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, I again Congressmen is in many ways more imcall up my amendment No. 247.
portant than the selection of a Chief ExecuPRESIDING OFFICER. The tive. amendment will be stated for the infor- It is true that the President of the United mation of the Senate.
States has great powers, more than the head The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. At the end of dictatorship.
of any other government except an outright the bill it is proposed to add the fol- But in the final analysis, it is Congress, lowing:
especially the House of Representatives which PART V-MISCELLANEOUS
has the last word on national governmental SEC. 501. It is the sense of the Congress policies. that any agreement hereafter entered into If enough Congressmen feel the same way between the Government of the United about any given issue, they can override a States and the Government of Czechoslovakia Presidential veto of their actions by the relating to the settlement of claims, deter- votes of two-thirds of their membership. mined by the Foreign Claims Settlement Ordinarily if a President and a Congress Commission, by nationals of the United are of the same political faith, the President States against the Government of Czecho- can have his program and his policies enslovakia for losses resulting from national
acted into law. But this is not always true ization or other taking of property of such
and the present Congress with its over-
In this country, neither major political
of the Chief Executive. Both parties are speak for 2 minutes on the amendment. made up of individuals of widely divergent First I yield to the Senator from Illinois. views, particularly the Democrats with their
northern liberals and their southern cón- public education. As Woodrow Wilson against external and internal foes. A spirit servatives. put it so well, “Without popular educa
of freedom coupled with an understanding of The Republicans although basically more tion, no government which rests upon
the nature of our governmental machinery conservative nevertheless have a strong lib
and an interest in improving this machinery eral faction, made up principally of con- popular action can long endure.” Cer
is essential for the continuation of a govgressmen and Senators from the eastern sea- tainly a comprehensive system of edu
ernment based on the consent of the govboard.
cation is essential to our democratic erned. Members of Congress, especially those in system if we are to provide equality of
We must also be aware of the practical the House of Representatives who must run opportunity, preserve our cultural herifor reelection every 2 years, are understand- tage, and meet the challenges of inter
reasons for a comprehensive system of ably closer to the people than is the Pres- national competition.
public education. Among teenagers who ident.
Because I am convinced of the im
are no longer in school the unemployAnd they rise and fall on the basis of how well they reflect the view of their constitu- portance of a sound educational system ment rate is 27 percent. We should reents when they get to Washington. to national survival and progress, I am
member the warning of Dr. Conant that
the young, uneducated, untrained, and Therefore, it isn't wise for voters to over- particularly proud of the leading role look their choice of a Congressman in the which the Commonwealth of Massachu
culturally deprived adult is "social dynaexcitement and ballyhoo of a presidential setts has held in the development of mite.” In addition, between now and campaign.
1975 the number of young people seekpublic education in this country. It was Selection of a national leader to speak for in 1642 that the General Court of the
ing higher education will double. We all the people is, of course, a matter of great Massachusetts Bay Colony made it man
want our educational system to be preimportance, but so is the choice of the individual who has a vote in the most powerful datory that all children in the colony pared for them.
Thus, as we observe American Educagovernmental unit in the world, the U.S. receive some education. Five years later Congress. the "Old Deluder Satan Act" established
tion Week, let us remember that a comthe principle of publicly supported ele
prehensive system of education is essenmentary and secondary schools by re
tial to our democracy. Through educaPERSONAL STATEMENT BY quiring every town of 50 households to
tion we must provide opportunity for SENATOR SMITH hire a teacher and every town of 100
individual development, we must assure to establish a grammar
the preservation of the foundations of Mrs. SMITH. Mr. President, that households to establish
our Government, and we must make very distinguished political analyst of school. Again, in 1827, Massachusetts
maximum use of the abilities of our citithe Washington Post, Chalmers Roberts, State law encouraging the spread of the led the Nation when it passed the first
zens. As the future of our education is in his column today made a serious erpublic high school. In the 7 years that
dependent upon us, so our future is deror in his statement: followed, the public school movement was
pendent upon education. Some of her colleagues report that she is given further impetus by the enactment
In calling attention in education week no friend personally or ideologically of GOLDWATER though there has been talk of her run
of laws which made support of public to the importance of our educational sysning on a Goldwater ticket. schools by taxation compulsory, abol
tem we should not fail to mention the ished fees as a requisite for attendance dedicated work of the schoolteachers of Mr. Roberts is in serious error. I con- at school, and declared them open with- America to whom we entrust our chilsider BARRY GOLDWATER to be a good per- out charge. In 1837 Massachusetts es
dren. Because of their activities our sonal friend of mine—and I certainly tablished the first State school board children will become more independent consider myself to be a friend of his. with Horace Mann, the father of the
and self-reliant and better citizens in the What constitutes friendship on an ide- American public school, as its secretary days to come. ological basis is a real puzzler. I am and in 1852 the Commonwealth enacted
To meet its responsibility to society sure that people can have ideological dif- the first compulsory school attendance today, education must trigger the curiferences and still be friends—just as I law. Indeed, in the field of education osity of students and awaken in them a am sure that sharing the same ideologies Massachusetts has an impressive record desire to understand their Government does not necessarily make persons of firsts. All citizens of the Bay State and the world about them. It must help friends.
are proud that it has done so much to them to gain that understanding and it But I am not one to begrudge Mr. Rob- promote the establishment of free and must stimulate and prepare them to aserts his literary license if it will create universal education in the United States sume an active role in community and a little more appeal in his writing—any because we recognize the connection be- Government activities. If it is doing its more than his column of September 23, tween educational opportunity and the job, it will alert them to the drama, the 1963, in which he indicted me in advance social, political, and economic advance- excitement, and the satisfactions of that with the speculation that should I vote ment of a free society.
experience. This is an important reagainst the test ban treaty it would be
We do not have a democratic system sponsibility, and one which I am confian attempt to curry political favor with unless our people have the opportunity dent the Nation's teachers are attemptSenator GOLDWATER. Strangely enough, to develop fully their talents and intelli- ing to meet. he has never commented on my vote gence. We live in difficult times and it against the Goldwater reservation to the is important to our progress and our test ban treaty. future that every person be encouraged
OTEPKA TESTIMONY Mr. Roberts could have avoided the to develop maximum use of his abilities. serious errors of his columns of Septem- This development is a fundamental pur
Mr. WILLIAMS of Delaware. Mr. ber 23, 1963, and November 12, 1963, had pose of education. Education also faces
President, in yesterday's Washington he taken the time to check with me rath- the critical challenge of preparing the
Evening Star there was published an er than speculate or attribute to anony- next generation for its responsibilities.
editorial entitled "Otepka Testimony." mous sources.
This editorial calls our attention to a As James Bryant Conant, the former It is a very serious matter to charge president of Harvard University has
situation in which high ranking State enmity between two persons when that written:
Department employees first gave false enmity does not exist. Lest this misrep
testimony to a congressional committee;
The primary concern of American educaresentation give further erroneous im- tion today is to cultivate in the largest num
then, when caught, they reversed this pressions, let me state very clearly that I ber of our citizens an appreciation both of
testimony and admitted the truth. consider myself to be a personal friend the responsibilities and the benefits which
But the truth is even more shocking. of BARRY GOLDWATER.
come to them because they are American Officials of the Government admit that and free.
they illegally tapped Mr. Otepka's teleAMERICAN EDUCATION WEEK In a speech Dr. Conant made another phone. Tapping a telephone under such
circumstances is a violation of the law, important point: Mr. SALTONSTALL. Mr. President,
and smacks of police state tactics. as we observe American Education Week, have all too clearly demonstrated, the great
As events in Europe within our lifetime
I suggest that the State Department it is appropriate to call attention to
est single need of a free society is a wide promptly fire those responsible, and that the fundamental relationship between a spread determination among the citizens to the Attorney General of the United democratic form of government and defend the basic principles of that society States bring prompt action against this illegal invasion of a man's privacy for no plying the subcommittee with information Furthermore, a settlement of the reason other than political reprisal. from confidential employee loyalty files.
Czech claims for roughly 10 percent In this instance all that Mr. Otepka connecticut, the subcommittee's vice chair
Senator THOMAS J. DODD, Democrat, of would constitute a very dangerous precwas guilty of was cooperating with a con
man, in a Senate speech Tuesday protested edent. The United States has, since gressional committee.
Otepka's dismissal as an affront to the Sen- World War II, negotiated claims convenI ask unanimous consent that the edi- ate. He said then that
the State Department tions with six nations. The first, with torial entitled "Otepka Testimony,” pub- had installed a tap on the security officer's
had installed a tap on the security officer's Italy, in 1947, was for 100 percent of the lished in the Washington Evening Star, telephone.
value of U.S. claims. The second, with and an article entitled "Aids Admit Wire- “Although a State Department official has Yugoslavia in 1948, was for 91 percent tap Use on Otepka,” may be printed in denied under oath that this was done, the of the value of U.S. claims. The third,
Subcommittee on Internal Security has proof in 1950 with Panama, was for 90 percent. the RECORD.
that the tap was installed," DODD added. There being no objection, the editorial
Statements acknowledging the rigging of The fourth, in 1960 with Rumania, was and article were ordered to be printed in Otepka's telephone were sent to EASTLAND for 24 percent. The fifth with Poland the RECORD, as follows:
by John F. Reilly, Deputy Assistant Secretary was for claims not yet completely proc[From the Washington (D.C.) Evening Star, of State for Security; David I. Belisle, special essed. And the most recent, with BulNov. 11, 1963]
assistant to Reilly, and Elmer Dewey Hill, garia, was for 40 percent. It is ironic OTEPKA TESTIMONY Chief of the Division of Technical Services in
that the two free world countries paid the Department's Omce of Security. It is perfectly clear that State Department
100 and 90 percent of claims against employees, including one with the rank of
them, while the Communist nations are Deputy Assistant Secretary for Security, did
succeeding in paying a far smaller share. not tell the whole truth in sworn testimony AMENDMENT OF FOREIGN ASSIST- It is particularly disturbing that the given a Senate subcommittee in the Otepka
ANCE ACT OF 1961
number of awards on the Czech claims, case.
This should be a matter of grave concern The Senate resumed the consideration 2,630, is larger than that of any other to the Secretary of State. Two of the three of the bill (H.R. 7885) to amend further country. The two other nations with
claims administered by the Foreign men involved have been put on an indefinite the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as leave status, with pay. It is disturbing, how- amended, and for other purposes.
Claims Settlement Commission that have ever, that there has been no forthright offi
Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, I shall not yet been agreed upon through concial condemnation of their testimony before the subcommittee.
speak briefly on the pending amendment. ventions, are also very large: Hungary Otto F. Otepka has been dismissed by the Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, will with 1,153 adjudicated claims and the State Department for giving certain informa- the Senator from New York yield, so that Soviet Union with 1,925 adjudicated
claims. tion, allegedly improperly, to J. G. Sourwine, I may ask for the yeas and nays on the
In other words, if an agreement of counsel to the Senate's Internal Security pending amendment? Subcommittee. The case against Mr. Otepka Mr. KEATING. I yield for that pur- Czechoslovakia, we can expect no better
roughly 10 percent is concluded with was based on material found by searching his
pose. "burn bag"-a receptacle for discarded
Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, on the a total value of close to $300 million of
terms from Hungary or the U.S.S.R. and papers which are supposed to be burned. At that time instructions were given by De
pending amendment I ask for the yeas validated U.S. claims may be simply partment officials which were construed as and nays.
junked. forbidding other State employees to give any The yeas and nays were ordered.
Therefore, Mr. President, not only in information to the subcommittee. These in
Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, the the interest of the Czechoslovakia structions have been lifted.
purpose of this amendment is to insure claimants, but of others for the future, The question now is not whether Mr. Otepka was properly dismissed. He has taken that the Senate be given the opportunity I believe it is time for the Senate to look an appeal from his dismissal and the merits to review any agreement reached between into this area and request the opportuwill be determined in that proceeding. Nor the U.S. Government and the Govern- nity to offer its advice and consent to the is the real question concerned with the right ment of Czechoslovakia with regard to Czechoslovakian and perhaps any sucto search burn bags or-even-to tap tele- U.S. claims before such an agreement ceeding claims convention that is less phones. The question is simply whether wit- comes into effect. The claims involved than 50 percent of the value of adjudinesses from the State Department must tell the whole truth when they testify before a ests therein owned by U.S. citizens taken settlements have been called executive
are claims for property, rights or inter- cated claims. Although recent claims committee of Congress. In this case it is clear that an attempt was
or nationalized on or prior to January 1, agreements and therefore not submitted made to tap Mr. Otepka's telephone. It is 1945, by the Government of Czecho- to the Senate, there is a precedent for equally clear that an attempt was made to slovakia.
this action in the Panamanian settlement deceive or mislead the subcommittee on this These claims, let me make clear, are which was ratified by the Senate August point. Secretary Dean Rusk ought to move not for war damages or injury of that 9, 1950. As that settlement amounted to in fast to lower the boom on this sort of type; they are compensation for de- 90 percent, it strikes me as a good precthing.
liberate seizure by the Communist Gov- edent to follow.
ernment of Czechoslovakia for which no Even more important, however, in my AIDS ADMIT WIRETAP ON OTEPKA
recompense has yet been offered. They judgment, a settlement of less than 10 WASHINGTON.-Three State Department
are claims that have been adjudicated percent of the awarded claims is not by officials now have acknowledged to Senate
and awarded by the Foreign Claims any stretch of the imagination mere exinvestigators telephone wiring in Otto F. Settlement Commission. There are alto- ecution of a policy laid down by the ConOtepka's office was rigged to permit eaves
gether a total of 2,630 cases, amounting gress. Rather, it is a deliberate and caldropping on conversations in his office. to $113,645,205.41 in principal and inter- culating act of policy. The cases of the
However, they said no actual interception est. Some 1,346 claims were rejected by Communist claims appear to reflect a of conversations took place, none was au- the Commission. Those it awarded rep- considered effort to smooth U.S. diplothorized, and the wiring was disconnected resent definite, adjudicated instances in matic relations with Communist bloc nawithin 48 hours after a test of its feasibility which property of U.S. nationals was tions at the expense of individual U.S. proved unsuccessful.
seized. The officials said their statements were
claimants. Perhaps such a move is in intended to amplify and clarify earlier sworn
Yet it is my understanding that the the national interest; perhaps it is justitestimony to the Senate Internal Security
Department of State is presently con- fied; perhaps the Senate would give its Subcommittee in which they denied knowl- sidering an agreement to settle with the
sidering an agreement to settle with the advice and consent to such an agreement edge of the installation of any listening de- Czechoslovak Governinent for approxi- if the pros and cons were carefully vices in Otepka's office.
mately $11 million or less than 10 cents weighed. The subcommittee, headed by Senator on each dollar. JAMES O. EASTLAND, Democrat, of Mississippi,
But in any case, U.S. agreement on made public the statements and the earlier
Mr. President, for the more than 2,600 only 10 percent compensation is surely testimony without comment.
persons and firms involved, such an not what the Congress intended in setting Otepka, a veteran State Department secu
agreement would be meaningless and up the Foreign Claims Settlement Comrity officer, was notified Tuesday of his dis
would in fact amount to U.S. acceptance mission to determine the "fair or proved missal on charges of unbecoming conduct. of nationalization without anything ap- value of the said property, right or inAmong other things, he was accused of sup- proaching fair compensation.
terest,” often after years of hearings.