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Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, more plication to our immediate national in State Department or on the President. than half of the arrearages are due from terests.
I should like to suggest that we walk bethe Soviets. Another $14 million is due Mr. MORSE. I have sympathy with fore we run, and that we give this apfrom France. They do not receive any the Senator's objective. Outside the proach a chance to work. foreign aid from the United States, so Communist bloc-and it has been point It will not be too easy for the Presithat we are not in a good position to ed out that the amendment cannot dent to make the determination that influence them to pay up. The World reach the Communist bloc because we some of these nations do not have the Court has ruled that assessments for do not give them aid-one of the notori economic wherewithal, because of special peacekeeping operations are of the same ous delinquents with regard to her or unusual circumstances, to pay the standing as dues, so that delinquency in United Nations obligations is France. I amounts of the delinquencies which apthese assessments is delinquency for am also disturbed about the kind of pear on the tables. purposes of possible loss of voting powers. military assistance France receives from I know that there are some nations The U.N. has accepted this ruling. us. Unless we can reach her in relation which are in that situation. The SenHowever, it will not be until next year to military assistance, the Senator's ator from Alaska knows that, too. That at the earliest before sufficient delin- amendment is not going to do much is why we must have some type of proquent status will have been acquired to good with respect to France. She re vision to cover such a situation; also, I place any delinquent nation in the po ceives infrastructure money from us. recognize the fact that the President sition of losing its vote; and when that She is certainly prosperous enough to might determine that such a government day comes, it is not known whether or pay for her own militar' defense costs. has given reasonable assurance of paynot the General Assembly will invoke the I am glad I asked the question, because ing all its arrearages independent of our rule. Meanwhile, bankruptcy faces the I have received the Senator's explana assistance. U.N.
tion of what he is aiming at. I wished I would suppose, if the President reWith respect to those member nations cover the bulk of the assistance ceived that reasonable assurance, and if which are delinquent and which are France gets from us, but I suppose that 1 year from now there had not been a receiving foreign aid from us, there is is one of those things and we cannot followthrough on the reasonable assursomething we can do. We can say to cover everything. At least, Mr. Presi ance, at that time we could tighten up them that unless they clean up their ob- dent, the Senate is moving down the the provision, by providing that no counligations to the U.N., they cannot expect road toward serving notice on some of try which is in arrears shall receive this the American taxpayer to furnish them the United Nations delinquents that we assistance. The point I wish to make is foreign aid.
are not going to continue to pay the that since this is a little different apMr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the great amounts of money that we pay
great amounts of money that we pay proach than we have used heretofore, Senator yield at that point?
into the United Nations and without and is designed to help the financial sitMr. MILLER. I am happy to yield. trying to do something about the delin uation of the United Nations, we should Mr. MORSE. I need some informa- quents.
try this approach and give the State Detion to clear up my understanding or
Mr. MILLER. I thank the Senator partment an opportunity to work within lack of understanding on this point. from Oregon for his question. The Sen it and to be fair with it; then, if the deDoes the Senator's amendment cover ator will recall that in committee he ex-linquents do not come through, we can merely loans, or does it cover grants pressed the same misgivings, not particu- catch them in a year from now and also ? larly about the amendment, but the fail- tighten up the provision.
The Senator from Alaska has had the Mr. MILLER. No; the amendment ure of the amendment to cover France. relates to assistance under the provisions He may recall that I responded by saying same problem with respect to some of his of this act other than supporting as
that I wished there were some way of amendments. He gave the State Desistance, assistance from the contingency gearing the amendment to cover France partment more than enough time to fund, and military assistance. So that also, but that it was not practical to do come through; finally, time ran out, and the only aid that would be affected by so, if we were to concentrate on develop- the Senator from Alaska had no choice this amendment would be development ment loans in France. If the amend- except to offer the amendment which has loans and grants.
ment is adopted, I believe we shall find been adopted. Mr. MORSE. It would cover grants. the next foreign aid bill
, the slate will be spect to this amendment that the Sena
that by the time we are talking about I have not reached the point with reMr. MILLER. Loans and grants. Reference to military assistance, sup
clean not only with reference to these tor had reached with respect to his porting assistance, and contingency fund nations, but also with respect to France, amendment. I suggest that we try it. was omitted for this reason: Those ele- side the Soviet bloc, she is the only na- provision tighter the next time around.
because once France realizes that, out- If it does not work, we can make the ments of our foreign aid program have a tion which has not played fair with the My amendment provides that no forpotential for being more directly tied to United Nations, my guess is that France eign aid shall be extended to the governour security interests than the other, will get on board with the rest of the ment of any nation which is more than certainly military assistance and supcountries.
1 year in arrears in its obligations to porting assistance, and, if the contingency fund is appropriately managed, the Senator yield?
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, will the United Nations. If the amendment
were in effect now, it would require paythat too.
Mr. MILLER. I yield.
ment of all outstanding delinquencies for Mr. MORSE. But there can be much waste in so-called supporting assistance, toward the purposes of the Senator's 1962 are not yet 1 year old; and assess
Mr. GRUENING. I am sympathetic 1961 and prior years. Assessments for because we are giving supporting assist- amendment. I believe it is most regret- ments for 1963 are not in arrears until ance to countries that are able to sup- table and shocking that so many nations after the close of 1963. port themselves.
have welshed on their commitments. My amendment leaves some discretion Mr. MILLER. I recognize that there However, I feel that the Senator's to the President of the United States in may be abuses in certain areas of our
amendment would be much more effec- this matter. If he determines that such foreign aid program. However, the Sen- tive if the loopholes, the wide openings a government is unable to place its payator from Iowa does not desire to be too in it, through which foreign aid can come ments on a current basis because of exact with respect to this amendment. were eliminated, leaving only the qualify- unusual or exceptional circumstances, If the Senator from Oregon will be ing clause "unless the President deter- then our foreign aid may continue. Or patient, it is felt, from the information mined.” Why not cut out supporting if he determines that such a government I shall present from the tables that are assistance and military assistance, and has given reasonable assurance of paying on each Senator's desk, that the lever
leave the contingency fund, which is its arrearages independently of any of which will be effective in getting the what the President would use in these our foreign aid-and placing its paynations to pay up will be quite ample if cases? Otherwise the Senator will not ments on a current basis, then our forwe concentrate only on development get the result he hopes for.
eign aid may continue. loans and grants.
Mr. MILLER. I appreciate the com Moreover, my amendment would not I repeat, the reason why the language ments of the Senator from Alaska. Let apply to military assistance, supporting was so drawn was that there is a greater me say again that the purpose of the assistance, or the President's contingency potential for its having more direct ap- amendment is not to be restrictive on the fund, because these are matters which
could directly and immediately affect paid their 1961 dues. Incidentally, this grants and loans, but still could not see our security interests. The amendment is one area in which the Soviet Union has their way clear to pay $529,000 in back would affect primarily development loans actually been paying promptly the an assessments for 1961 and prior years. I and development grants. It could also nual, regular dues. But there are nine point out that in addition to the affect Public Law 480 distributions of nations which have not yet paid the 1961 $38,600,000 in loans and grants of the agricultural commodities.
dues; yet all of them have received eco- United States, the United Arab Republic Now I ask: Is it unreasonable for a na nomic assistance from the United States, received $140 million in Public Law 480 tion which wants our foreign aid to give and are still receiving such assistance. distributions of surplus commodities. the President of our country assurance In the case of the Emergency Force, Argentina received $109 million as aid that it will pay its back assessments and which is to protect the Gaza strip in the in the form of grants and loans. At the put them on a current basis? Or, if that Middle East, it will be observed that 44 same time, Argentina has not been able cannot be done, is it unreasonable to countries have not yet paid their 1961 to pay $1,432,000 in back assessments to require such a nation to show that there assessments. Thirty-six have not paid the United Nations. are unusual or exceptional circumstances their 1960 assessments. Thirty have not And so on down the list. preventing it from doing so? I think it paid their 1959 assessments. In fact, 25
I call attention to the fact that Poland, is unreasonable to not have such require- countries have not paid their assessments the third country from the bottom of the ments. It is unreasonable to ask our from 1957 on.
list, received $2,800,000 from us in grants taxpayers to pay for foreign aid to such of the 44 countries which have not and loans during fiscal 1963, and $8 a government. It is unreasonable to ex- paid their assessments for 1961 or prior million in Public Law 480 shipments; tend our foreign aid in the same manner years, 37 are still receiving economic as- still Poland is delinquent to the extent of and on the same basis to all nations- sistance from the United States, and have $2,677,000 to the United Nations. regardless of whether they are playing received it since 1946.
Somalia, which last year received fair with the United Nations. By treat In the case of the Congo ad hoc ac- $7,800,000 in loans and grants from us, ing them all alike, we discourage those count, we note that 51 countries still owe
has not been able to pick up the tab nations which are playing fair with the for the period January 1 to October 31, for $2,713 for 1961 and prior years. U.N. “Why pay up?" they can ask. 1961. Of those 51 countries, 42 have
I invite attention to an article pub“Uncle Sam will give us foreign aid any payments due extending back for all pe- lished in the Washington Post of today, how."
riods involved. Of those 42 countries, 39 November 12, entitled “Somalia Spurns If it be said that my amendment are still receiving assistance from the Arms From West for Russia's.” The would, in effect, make a collector of dues United States.
article states: out of the United States, there are two Referring to the next table, there are
Somalia has informed the United States answers: First, this is not quite accurate. 46 countries to which we have furnished The United States will collect nothing. more than $22 billion in economic as
it will accept a Soviet arms offer and has
no use for military hardware from the West. It will be the United Nations which does sistance from the fiscal year
1946 the collecting, because it is the United through fiscal year 1963, and which are
Perhaps there is some reason for this, Nations to whom the obligations are delinquent in one or more of their assess
but it indicates to me that Somalia is owed. Second, we are already requiring ments to the United Nations. These not so friendly to the United States as that certain standards be met before a arrearages amount to more than $42 mil- it might be. Even more important, at nation receives our development loans lion. They include the regular budget, this point, Somalia has not been able and our development grants. These in $4.4 million; Emergency Force, $9 mil- to clean up the $2,713 in back dues to the clude land reform, tax reform, internal lion; and Congo ad hoc account, $29.2 United Nations. Yet we saw fit last year governmental reform. Should not pay million.
to extend $7,800,000 in grants and loans ment of delinquent obligations have the But note that the grand total comes to to her. same standing-especially when these $42 million, against a total of $22 billion Mr. President, I offered a similar obligations are owed an organization in economic assistance which we have amendment 2 years ago. I suggest that which we support as an avenue to inter extended to those countries through the if the amendment had been adopted, the national peace and security? There are years.
slate would be clean; that the dismal some who have suggested that we are Of these 46 countries, 44 received some figures that have been presented here coercing other governments in the mat type of economic assistance during fiscal would not appear; and that the last colter of land reform, tax reform, and in year 1963 from the United States. Of umn on the table, “arrearages for calternal governmental reform. We are those 44, 35 would have been affected by endar 1961 and prior," would be gone. not coercing anyone—any more than a my amendment, had it been adopted last It is high time that the nations that banker coerces a would-be borrower by year, inasmuch as these countries have are recipients of the taxpayers' economic asking him to fill out a net worth state received grants and development loans loans and development grants be asment. If the recipient does not wish to covered by my amendment.
sured that so long as support of the comply, he can
elsewhere for I invite the attention of Senators to United Nations is a part of our policy, assistance,
the list of 35 countries. Consider, for we will do our utmost to see to it that If it be suggested that because of the example, Afghanistan. During the fiscal the United Nations does not go bankrupt economic situation in a country it can year 1963, that country received as the result of the failure of nations not afford to pay the assessments, it $17,700,000 in grants and loans.
$17,700,000 in grants and loans. Yet receiving our assistance to pay their back should be made very clear that the allo arrearages for the calendar year 1961 dues. cation of assessments among the nations and prior thereto amounted to only Mr. President, I invite attention to the takes into account the economic situa- $66,000. One wonders why Afghanistan escape hatch that I discussed earlier tions in the various member nations. could not see fit to take care of the with the Senator from Alaska [Mr. Moreover, when you compare the large assessments for 1961 and prior years, GRUENING). This is not a harsh amendamount of our foreign aid with the rela when she was receiving $17,700,000 in aid ment at all; it is a reasonable amendtively small sums owed the United Na from us.
ment. I hope it will be adopted. tions, this suggestion would seem to have Iran is in about the same position. Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, I no merit.
She received $21,200,000 in grants and shall take a little time to discuss the Mr. President, I call attention to the loans during the fiscal year 1963.
loans during the fiscal year 1963. Yet Senator's amendment; then the chairtable that I have placed on the desk of Iran owes $75,413 to the United Nations.
Iran owes $75,413 to the United Nations. man of the committee, I am sure, will every Senator. Let us consider, first, the Jordan is in a similar situation. We want to express his point of view concolumn headed “Total United Nations provided Jordan $7 million in loans and
provided Jordan $7 million in loans and cerning this rather far reaching proArrearages as of September 30, 1963.” grants during fiscal 1963. Jordan owes posal. Senators should understand that the only $62,267 to the United Nations for The amendment needs to be clearly total arrearage of $103,830,000 is made up 1961 and prior years.
understood as to what it does and does of the regular budget, Emergency Force, The United Arab Republic, concerning not do. The first thing it does is to reand the Congo ad hoc account. It will which considerable debate has been rag- quire the United States to be a collecbe noted that in the regular budget there ing during the past few days, received tion agency for the United Nations. It are nine countries which still have not from the United States $38,600,000 inputs us in that position.
It has also as one of its purposes, many countries are economically incapa- its United Nations commitments, that and this, I think, is commendable—the ble of making their payments to the alone would not be permitted. Such a strengthening of the financial position of United Nations; or, under the amend- policy seems to me very shortsighted, the United Nations. This, I believe, is ment, such loans could be made to coun- because one of the reasons for developin our national interest.
tries which had a program of getting ment loans is to enable countries to pay I have supported measures in Congress their dues payments on a current basis. their bills. So I am surprised to find to improve the financial condition of But what would the amendment per- thinking to the contrary in the Senate. the United Nations. I believe that the mit the U.S. Government to do? This Ours is a credit country; it is financed United Nations has a heavy responsibility permission is rather generous. First, on credit. Men go to banks and obtain to keep its financial house in order. It the amendment would not place any credit so they can pay their bills and is my view that the United Nations limitation on the United States, insofar can engage in business or in agriculture should have a position equivalent to that as supporting assistance is concerned, or one of the professions. They borrow of Secretary of the Treasury; at least, under chapter 4 of part I. Supporting money; in other words, they obtain dethat there should be a financial con- assistance is a grant, and generally is velopment loans with which to make the sultant to the U.N., working continu given to countries which receive mili- payments on their bills, on which they ously to bring into the Treasury of the tary assistance. Supporting assistance may be in arrears. United Nations the dues that are the is a large item in the foreign aid bill. But the amendment goes far beyond obligations of member nations, both their So even if a country were 5 or 10 just cutting off development loans, for regular membership fees and the re years behind in the payment of some of the amendment also provides—and this quirements or assessments for the peace its obligations to the United Nations, is another important provision: keeping activities. But the United Na supporting assistance--outright grants (k) In order to encourage preservation of tions is an institution in its own right. of money from the U.S. Treasury, which the financial solvency of the United Nations Although we are a charter member, we do not have to be repaid, but are simply which is being threatened by the failure of are not the whole United Nations. The
The gifts—could be given to such a country some member nations to pay currently their United Nations must take unto itself which was in arrears in the payment of
assessments and/or contributions to the through the Security Council, the Secre its obligations and assessments or com
United Nations, no assistance shall be fur
nished under the provisions of this Act tariat, and the General Assembly—the mitments to the United Nations.
(other than supporting assistance under basic responsibility for keeping its finan Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, will the chapter 4 of part I, assistance from the concial house in order. Of course we, as a Senator from
Senator from Minnesota yield for a tingency fund established under chapter 5 member of the United Nations, have an question?
of part I, and military assistance under interest in that. That is why a year or Mr. HUMPHREY. I yield.
chapter 2 of part II), or any other law auso ago Congress passed the United Na Mr. MILLER. The Senator from thorizing assistance to foreign countries tions bond issue bill, and that is why Minnesota has made the point that sup
(other than military assistance, supporting Congress attempted to use whatever in porting assistance could be given, under
assistance, or assistance from the President's
contingency fund). fluence it has among the membership of the amendment; but I am sure he unthe United Nations to obtain payment derstands that the object of supporting For example, that means that if there of the dues and of the cost of the peace assistance is to take care of nations were a faminé in a country, any U.S. keeping operations of the United Nations. which are hard put in their military pro- assistance from its food stocks to that I believe we have a vital stake in the grams, so we shall not have to increase country would be prohibited if the counUnited Nations, and I believe the peace our own national defense program. try were more than 1 year behind in the keeping operations of the United Na Mr. HUMPHREY. I thank the Sen- payment of its dues to the United Nations are in the interest of peace and ator from Iowa for that statement. tions. law and order in the world. Therefore, Mr. MILLER. So it seems to me that Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, at this I have supported the peacekeeping if we are to try to direct this amendment point will the Senator from Minnesota operations of the United Nations and the along reasonable lines, and not have a yield? maintenance of the United Nations as an
harsh approach to this matter, if there Mr. HUMPHREY. I yield. instrumentality for peace, law, and order. are to be exceptions, certainly we should Mr. MILLER. I am sure the Senator
But let us consider what the amend make them in the case of military as- from Minnesota has the best of intenment would do. It would place the sistance and supporting assistance, tions in connection with his criticism United States in a special position as a which I understand are ordinarily di- of the amendment; but I believe I should collector for United Nations dues. It rectly tied into our national defense pro- point out to him that what he has stated would do this indirectly, by providing gram, anyway.
just now could not happen, in view of the that
Mr. HUMPHREY. But, for example, provision in the amendment on page 2 (k) In order to encourage preservation of we give supporting assistance and mili- namely, that if the President finds that the financial solvency of the United Nations tary assistance to Iran; but without de because of "unusual and exceptional cirwhich is being threatened by the failure of velopment loan assistance to Iran, there cumstances,” a country is “economically some member nations to pay currently their would be no use giving her military as
unable to give such assurance”—and so assessments and/or contributions to the United Nations, no assistance shall be fur
sistance, because in that case she would forth. It seems to me that a country nished under the provisions of this Act
collapse. If the Senator from Iowa does which was undergoing a famine certain(other than supporting assistance under not understand that, he has missed the ly would come within that category; and chapter 4 of part I, assistance from the con point of the foreign aid program.
it would be most unfortunate if the Presitingency fund established under chapter 5 But this amendment provides, in ef- dent could not make that determination. of part I, and military assistance under fect, “You can continue to have all the Mr. HUMPHREY. But the Senator chapter 2 of part II), or any other law au
free rides, and you can violate your from Iowa cannot have it both ways; he thorizing assistance to foreign countries pledges to the United Nations, and you cannot say that his amendment would assistance, or assistance from the President's can receive military assistance and sup- make those countries pay their dues to contingency fund), to the government of
porting assistance and generous assist the United Nations, but that the Presiany nation which is more than one year in ance from the President's contingency dent could say the circumstances were arrears in its payment of any assessment by fund, none of which have to be paid unusual, so they could obtain our loans the United Nations for its regular budget back, and you can still get all this help and our help anyway. That would be or for peace and security operations, unless from the United States, without being in playing both sides of the street. the President determines that such govern any way chastised or disciplined because Mr. MILLER. But is not a famine an ment has given reasonable assurance of paying (independently of such assistance) all
of your failure to keep up with your re unusual situation? such arrearages and placing its payments of sponsibilities to the United Nations."
Mr. HUMPHREY. Yes, in some counsuch assessments on a current basis, or de
But, Mr. President, if a country which tries; but in other countries, famine is termines that such government, by reason receives a development loan which it very usual. In many parts of the world, of unusual and exceptional circumstances, is must pay back with dollars and with famines are much more customary than economically unable to give such assurance.” interest happened to be more than 1 year adequate food. It would be unusual for
Of course that proviso would permit in arrears in the payment of its dues to the people of some countries to have a the President to make a finding that the United Nations or in the payment of good meal. So the Senator's amendment
would go up the hill and also down the Mr. MILLER. The Senator will ob- It has reached the point now where it is hill at the same time. The amendment serve that during the fiscal year 1963 pretty difficult to get a nomination provides that such countries can obtain Costa Rica received in grants and loans through the Senate unless the nominee military assistance and supporting as- $13 million.
has been paying his taxes. That example sistance and contingency fund assist Mr. HUMPHREY. Yes.
is much more analogous to the situation ance-and, by the way, those items rep Mr. MILLER. Is the Senator attempt- in which we are all members of the resent two-thirds of the foreign aid bill- ing to tell us that Costa Rica could not United Nations than discussions about no matter how far behind they may be find the wherewithal to pay $26,000 in church dues. in the payment of their United Nations back assessments to the United Nations?
HUMPHREY. The Senator's dues, and that they can also get all other Mr. HUMPHREY. Not at all. The analogy has a certain amount of relekinds of assistance, if the President says Senator from Minnesota is not making vance, at least for parochial purposes, they really need it.
that statement. The Senator from Min- but not for the bill. The one area which is the most im- nesota, who is not a delegate to the U.N., Let us consider what the Senator's portant area of all in the foreign aid will not stand in judgment on collec- amendment would do. In the long run program is the development loan pro- tions for the United Nations. There are his amendment would accomplish nothgram, because it is the development loan those in the United Nations organiza- ing, because it would leave an escape program which is repayable. Perhaps it tion who do that. Costa Rica is an ac hatch for the President. The amendis not repayable at enough interest to tive member of the United Nations. It ment would not apply to the Communist satisfy some Senators, but the Senate is one of our friends.
nations anyway, since they are excluded voted on that question. The loans would I hope the Senator from Iowa will not under the purview of the act. The nabe repayable at not less than 2-percent act as the stern school teacher, saying, tions that are listed, with few excepinterest after the first 5 years on a 35- “If you have not paid up your dues to tions, are very poor countries. According year maturity basis. The loans would the United Nations, you cannot receive to the amendment of the Senator from be repayable in dollars. The develop- these benefits.” Why does not the Sen- Iowa, the President must determine ment loan program is possibly the one ator make it a contribution to the thatway that some of the countries involved church or to the Red Cross?
Such government has given reasonable aswould have to pay their bills.
Mr. MILLER. Yet the Senator from
surance of paying (independently of such Furthermore, the amendment would Minnesota would say to Costa Rica, “We assistance) all such arrearages and placing not do anything to such countries as the shall give you development loans and its payments of such assessments on a curSoviet Union. We do not give them any grants if you will enter into internal rent basis, or determines that such governassistance. It would not do anything to tax reforms, and if you will see to it that ment, by reason of unusual and exceptional the Soviet bloc countries because we have your people who owe taxes pay their
circumstances, is economically unable to give
such assurance. already excluded any assistance from the Soviet bloc countries under previous Mr. HUMPHREY. That question re I point out that there are many counamendments adopted by the Senate. lates to the capacity of Costa Rica to re- tries that could make a pretty good case They were the Lausche amendment and pay its bills and these loans. That is in explanation of why they are slow in the Proxmire amendment. So our a good, smart move. For example, since their payments, just as many people enemies would not be punished by the I heard the Senator mention a banker, could make a good case as to why they amendment, but only our friends. I point out that a banker might well ask are slow in paying their taxes. That is
The people who are causing us trouble a borrower for a statement of his as- not unusual. But the 1 year requirement in the world today—the Communists— sets and liabilities.
sets and liabilities. The banker might would go further than the present rewould not be affected. We already have look over the statement before grant- quirement of the U.N. itself. The U.N. language in the bill providing that no as- ing a loan. The banker might then say, today has a requirement of 2 years. The sistance of any kind shall be given to “Look, my friend, before you can get Senator wishes to write into the bill a them. What the amendment really pro- this loan, you must cut down on your new provision so that if the arrearage vides is that if a country is neither a operating expenses at this point or some were more than 1 year, the nation in friend nor a nonalined country and has where else.” But the banker does not arrears would lose the benefits of the Fornot been paying its dues to the U.N., it say, “I understand that you have not eign Aid Act, if that nation should otherwill not get any help from us, unless it paid your church dues. You have not wise qualify under the criteria of the act. is military assistance. contributed to the church. We will not
I point out further that article 19 of Frankly, the weakest part of the for- loan you any money until you pay up the U.N. Charter now deprives any memeign aid program is military assistance your church dues."
ber country of its vote in the General Some of the countries to which we give That is not what a banker does. A Assembly if its arrears equal or exceed military assistance could not fight their banker tries to look at one's capacity to the contributions due from it for the preway out of a paper bag. pay his bills.
ceding 2 years. The International Court Every Senator knows that the real What the Senator from Minnesota is of Justice ruled in an advisory opinion military strength of the free world is in saying is that when a development loan that assessed contributions for U.N. a half dozen countries, including the is made, sensible conditions for the re- peacekeeping operations are subject to United States, Great Britain, France, payment of the loan might be laid down. article 19. The General Assembly speWestern Germany, Italy—and, yes— But to watch over the morals and the in- cifically accepted this ruling. Thus, any NATO. The strength of the free world ternational conduct of every nation to country substantially in arrears on its is not in some of the little countries that which we make a loan not only is an un contributions either to the regular U.N. are spread out over the globe. It would wise course of action, but I do not think budget or to the peacekeeping budget is be better off if they never had armies. it would be workable. I believe it would already subject to the severe sanction of
For example, one country which would get us into trouble. I point out that the loss of its vote in the General Assembly. be affected by the program is Costa Rica. Senate rejected the amendment once be This sanction, directly attached to Costa Rica does not happen to have an fore. I do not say that it will do so U.N. participation, would have a more army, and yet it is important for the again.
direct effect in obtaining payment than peace of our hemisphere that a nation Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, will the would the unavailability of some forms of like Costa Rica should receive develop- Senator yield?
U.S. assistance. ment loans. The country has a high Mr. HUMPHREY. I yield.
The principal impact of the amendrate of population growth. It has a po Mr. MILLER. The Senator has used
The Senator has used ment would be upon the less developed tential for economic growth that is sig- the analogy of paying dues to a church. countries which are most in need of U.S. nificant. It pays its bills and it will pay I do not believe that that is quite apro- assistance and least able to keep payits U.N. bills. Other countries listed are pos. The Senator from Minnesota ment of assessments on a current basis. quite good friends of ours.
would find that the average banker These countries will be in this situation, Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, will the would look somewhat askance at an ap- not in unusual and exceptional circumSenator yield for a question in respect plication for a loan if the applicant had stances—for which the amendment proto Costa Rica ?
not been paying his taxes to the Gov- vides an exemption-but more often than Mr. HUMPHREY. I yield.
ernment, of which we all are members. not on a fairly long term basis. They
will pay, but to expect them to do so on dent could make a finding that there Nations, to prevent the United Nations a current basis is not realistic. Support- were unusual and exceptional circum- from going bankrupt. ing assistance is being reduced and every stances which would prevent them from We have already been asked to supeffort is being made to get countries off making payments on a current basis. If port the bond issue. The time on that the supporting assistance list and onto they are in that situation, I believe we bond issue is rapidly running out. I the list of countries getting loans on a should provide that the President can do not know what the next step will be, dollar repayable basis. The amendment make such a finding. I do not believe we but how many times are we going to is shortsighted in allowing only sup- should cut them off. We should give have this situation brought to the atporting assistance to countries in ar- them development loans and grants so tention of Members of Congress? Will rears.
that they can build themselves up and I be here 2 years from now, or 3 years Moreover, the amendment is inadyis- reach a position where they can pay their from now, making the same argument? able because it appears to tie U.S. assist- dues and assessments.
The United Nations faces a fiscal crisis. ance to support of the U.N.
To me, it is incredible that countries It has been termed the most important create the impression, already urged by such as those I have commented on
crisis the United Nations has faced. the Sino-Soviet bloc, that the U.N. is a specifically cannot see their way clear
Why we are supposed to do nothing tool of the United States and other west- to paying their dues and assessments.
about it, in connection with our foreign ern countries.
The Senator from Minnesota said this
aid program, I do not know. The U.N. needs the broadest possible would put us in the form of a collect
I hope this amendment will be participation and cooperation of all its ing agency. I pointed out earlier in my
adopted. I suggest that if it is not members, but the way to do it is to work comments that this would do nothing of
comments that this would do nothing of adopted, 1 year from now we shall be within the organization, not to unilater- the sort. The United States will not considering the problem again, and the ally impose pressure from outside.
collect 1 cent. The United Nations will figures in those tables will not be any I believe that the U.N. needs broad do the collecting. The analogy-if it better. The figures of 2 years ago are support. I do not contest the Senator's can be called an analogy-is just as ap
not so bad as the figures are today. The motives in relation to the amendment. plicable to our policy with respect to the
situation is becoming worse. It is not It appears to me that the Senator's Alliance for Progress, when we say to a
growing better. I wish to see the United amendment is a great expression of sup- nation, "You will engage in internal tax Nations prosper. I do not wish to see port for the United Nations and for its reforms. You will see to it that peo- it go bankrupt. I am not about to call peacekeeping operations. It seems to ple who owe their taxes pay their taxes."
upon the people of my State—the taxme that the Senator feels that our own If the argument is not then made that
payers of my State—to underwrite the payments to the United Nations have
we are dabbling in the collection busi United Nations, when there is such a been very desirable. I would expect from ness, collecting tax moneys for them, glaring list of delinquencies on the part the amendment support for even bigger the argument should not be made in this
of its members. Let them "get straight." payments, since we are so interested in respect, either. I do not think
much of Let us gear our foreign policy and our having American policy have a direct ef- the argument.
foreign aid program together. fect upon the policy of other countries
The point is made that someone-I am
Mr. President, I ask unanimous conrelating to the U.N. sure it was not the Senator from Minne
sent that the two tables to which I have The amendment is not the type of sota-“dreamed up” the argument that
referred in my remarks may be printed amendment that should be attached to if the amendment were adopted it might in the RECORD. the foreign aid bill-surely not to the de- make us suspect in the eyes of the world
There being no objection, the tables velopment loan section. If the Senator for using the United Nations as a tool
were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, wishes to attach the amendment, he for our policy. If there were any grounds
as follows: ought to include all the aspects of foreign for suspecting that the United States was
TABLE 1 aid. The Senator should include mili- using the United Nations as a tool, those
Total United Nations arrearages as of Septary assistance, supporting assistance, grounds have long ago been laid to rest.
tember 30, 1963: $103,830,553.05. the contingency fund, and development
An amendment like this, which in efloans, because they are all tied together. fect says, “We only want to see to it that
$4, 738, 141, 36 Perhaps the most important aspect the recipients of our taxpayers' money
27, 258, 371, 04 which the amendment would tend to are going to play fair with the United
Congo ad hoc---
71, 834, 040. 65 cripple is the development loan program. Nations" will not provide any more
Summary of payments due United Nations Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, first, I grounds than already exist.
and number of countries in each category: wish to make clear to the Senator from
The sum and substance of the argu- Regular budget: Minnesota that I cannot share his opin- ment I have heard against this amend
Calendar 1962 (18 counion with respect to the comparison be- ment is that it is not tight enough, that
$4, 273, 456.36 tween development loans and military we should make it more restrictive, that
Calendar 1961 (9 counassistance. Earlier in my statement I we should say to those countries, “You
493, 553.00 pointed out that military assistance, sup
Nine of these countries owe for both years. are not going to get any military assist Sixteen of these countries have received porting assistance, and the contingency ance, or supporting assistance, or assist economic assistance from the United States fund, if used properly, are of much more
ance from the contingency fund, or any and fifteen are still receiving assistance: direct and immediate impact than the grants or loans, if you do not pay your Nepal, UAR, Yemen, Cuba, Argentina, Bolong-term development loan. That is dues."
livia, Chile, Niger, Costa Rica, Guatemala, precisely why they were excluded from
Haiti, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay Mauricoverage of the amendment. Now the harsh. I am concerned about the direct
I do not believe we should be that
tania, China. Senator suggests that the countries to and immediate connection between our
EMERGENCY FORCE which we are extending development national security and military assistance
January 1-June 30, 1962; $2,370,402.50 (48
countries). trying to help so that they can pay their and supporting assistance. But, if Sen
Calendar 1961: $4,797,622.45 (44 countries). bills. If they cannot pay some of the the second column on the second table, ators will look at the figures set forth in
Calendar 1960: $4,685,276.09 (36 counbills I have pointed out in the table, I do
Calendar 1959: $4,304,907.00 (30 counnot believe they are ever going to be able they will find plenty of leverage without to pay. getting into military assistance and sup
Calendar 1958: $7,174,259.00 (28 counIt sounds incredible to me that the porting assistance. Those figures amount
tries). Senator from Minnesota should say, in to several hundred million dollars in
Calendar 1957: $3,928,296.00 (25 couneffect, that Brazil, which received $67,- loans and grants. I do not believe we tries). 200,000 in development loans and grants should bring in anything else. I believe Twenty-four of these countries have paylast year, cannot see its way clear to pay- there will be sufficient leverage so that ments due extending back to 1957; three back ing $287,990 in back dues and assess- most of the nations can "get right” with to 1958; three to 1959; five to 1960; four to
1961. ments to the United Nations. the United Nations. If they do not, our
Thirty-seven of these countries have reI grant that there are probably some taxpayers will be asked to "shell out” ceived economic assistance from the United countries listed as to which the Presi- more money for the support of the United States since 1946 and 35 are still receiving