« ПретходнаНастави »
Mr. President, the United States-Ja Over the past 5 years, Australia has en- edly indicated that this price could be met pan Trade Council declares that if the joyed the greatest increase in exports of on future deliveries as well. United States succeeds in maintaining its coking coal to Japan, rising from 7 percent The low price Australian and Canadian present share of the Japanese markets of the total in 1958 to 27 percent in 1962. medium volatile coals are not only cutting for coal, this country can expect to have imports from Canada have also shown sig- into the sales of U.S. coal of similar quality nificant increases.
but encourage the Japanese to find ways of an annual 16-million-ton trade with Ja
Japanese steel industry and trading com- substituting these coals for U.S. low volapan by 1970.
pany representatives visited the United tile coal which sell for $13.50 per metric ton, We certainly should strive mightily to States in January and February 1963 and cost and freight, Japan, currently. share in such a market participation and negotiated price reductions with u.s. coal An additional consideration is the low growth, but it becomes more obvious as producers and also held discussions with price of Soviet Kuznetsky “K-10” low volatime and competition march on that we efforts to obtain reductions in U.S. inland
railroad and U.S. Government officials in tile coal which is currently being sold at must reduce the delivered price of coal at freight and Panama Canal toll charges with
the cost and freight price of $14.75. the points of destination in Japan. We apparently little immediate success.
The Embassy understands that this coal
is mined in the Urals, must travel about must especially seek to reduce Panama
Officials of the Eastern Gas & Fuel As 4,000 miles by railroad to a Pacific port and Canal tolls if we are to succeed in attain- sociates of Boston, one of the largest ex is quoted f.o.b. Soviet port at $11.95 per meting a 16-million-ton trade with Japan or porters of U.S. coking coal to Japan, visited ric ton which would seem to be hardly anything close to that order of magni- Japan for several weeks in May and June enough to cover the cost of inland freight tude.
1963 to discuss sales prospects with the alone. One steel company executive cateIn a recent communication to the Hon- Japanese steel industry and the Embassy. gorized the Soviet prices as “political” and orable Frederick G. Dutton, Assistant some of the major problems involved were The Embassy arranged a discussion at which said the Japanese industry recognizes that it
cannot consider this source of supply as Secretary of State for Congressional aired.
The steel industry representatives dependable. Nonetheless, the industry beRelations, I wrote that coal mined in made clear at this and subsequent discus lieves it can increase its dependence on this West Virginia and exported to Japan is a sions that further reductions in the landed source somewhat over the present level (a subject of vital concern to West Vir- price of U.S. coking coal were necessary if little less than 10 percent of metallurgical ginians. I added that there are disturb- the U.S. industry is to remain competitive coal imports). ing indications that shipping costs, in- with some of its rivals. The principal rivals
STEEL INDUSTRY COAL MISSION VISIT TO THE cluding Panama Canal tolls, are disad- medium volatile coal at attractive enough are the Australians and Canadians who offer
UNITED STATES vantages which must be overcome if our prices to induce the Japanese industry to
In January and February 1963 the heads markets in Japan are not to be taken develop technology permitting greater sub
of the raw materials purchasing departments over by Australian, Canadian, Commu- stitution of coals from these countries for
of four leading Japanese steel companies vis
ited the United States in the company of nist Chinese, or Soviet Union suppliers. the admittedly higher quality (but higher
several trading company representatives priI requested a copy of a report prepared priced even when quality differences are dis
marily to discuss price reductions with U.S. by the U.S. Embassy staff in Tokyo, dis- counted) U.S. coal. The U.S.S.R. is a direct
competitor with the United States in that it cussing problems of Japanese imports of has been selling low volatile coking coal ap
coal exporters. They also talked with the
Norfolk & Western and Chesapeake & Ohio coking coal from the United States. proximately matching the U.S. coal in
Railroads and visited Washington in the In transmitting a copy of the report, quality at considerably lower prices.
company of Stephen F. Dunn, president of Assistant Secretary Dutton made this The Eastern Fuel representatives noted
the National Coal Association, and Mr. W. B. important observation: that they had reduced their prices to the
Ross, senior vice president of Eastern Gas &
Fuel Association. The four Japanese steel In looking into the question of possible minimum and that any further reductions
industry officials present were Mr. T. Wagatsteps to facilitate coal exports to Japan, the would have to be achieved by reductions
suma, director and manager of purchase deDepartment [of State) has learned from a
in transportation charges. They felt that Panama Canal official in Washington that the negotiations with the railroads were pro
partment, Yawata Iron & Steel Co.; Mr. S.
Tanabee, manager of raw materials departaverage tool per ton of coal is considerably ceeding satisfactorily and that some reduc
ment, Fuji Iron & Steel Co.; Mr. O. Murata, less than the amount (about $1) mentioned tions in freight rates might be achieved.
manager of raw materials department, Nipin the attached
report. Ships transiting the They, and the Japanese steel industry repcanal are charged on the basis of 90 cents per resentatives, asked that the U.S. Govern
pon Steel Tube Co. (Nippon Kokan); and measurement ton. However, coal ships carry ment also cooperate in this effort by exam
Mr. H. Shio, manager of raw materials deon the average a much larger amount of coal
partment, Kawasaki Steel Co. ining the possibility of reducing Panama than indicated by the theoretical measureCanal charges.
The Japanese steel industry representative ment tonnage capacity. As a result, the aver
In further discussions with representa
reportedly emphasized the necessity for obage toll per ton of coal actually carried was
taining reductions in Panama Canal rates in tives of the steel industry in July, the Em
order to maintain the competitiveness of 44Y2 cents in fiscal 1962, according
to Panama bassy was told that with present price trends, Canal calculations.
long-range prospects for the U.S. coking coal's U.S.coal in the Japanese market.
The results of the trip to the United States With the admonition that references in sources stated that there will always be a
were a reduction in the price of coal from
at least some of the U.S. exporters, some the report to Panama Canal tolls be eval- market for U.S. coals because of their high
progress in obtaining serious consideration uated with Assistant Secretary Dutton's quality and the fact that the United States
by the U.S. railroads to reduce freight rates note of explanation in mind, I ask unani- is a dependable source of supply. However, mous consent, Mr. President, that por losing out completely on the growth of the the U.S. coal industry faces the prospect of
to tidewater, but (according to the Japanese
steel executives) little hope in obtaining tions of a July 19, 1963, report by the metallurgical coal market in Japan as in
changes in Panama Canal rates. On the conAmerican Embassy in Tokyo to the De- creasing substitutions for high quality coals trary, they understand that canal tolls may partment of State, subject: "Prospects are made and the Japanese industry cau
soon be revised upward. for U.S. Coking Coal Exports to Japan," tiously increases its imports of high quality EASTERN GAS AND FUEL ASSOCIATES VISIT TO
JAPAN be printed in the RECORD following my coal from the U.S.S.R. remarks.
For several weeks in late May and early There being no objection, the report Coking coal imported from the United June, Mr. Eli Goldston, president, and Mr. was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, States has in the past been of both medium
William B. Ross, senior vice president of as follows: and low volatile types. Within recent years,
Eastern Gas & Fuel Associates of Boston, PROSPECTS FOR U.S. COKING COAL EXPORTS TO the U.S. producers lost out on much of the
visited Japan to discuss coal exporting probJAPAN growing market for medium volatile coal in
lems with the Japanese steel industry. They Japan to Australia primarily because of price.
visited the Embassy several times and exINTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY
Australian coal, according to data made avail- plained the problems they were having in Coking coal is one of the principal able to the Embassy by the Japanese steel
maintaining and increasing their sales in the Japanese imports from the United States. industry, is currently priced at between
Japanese market. They noted that Eastern In 1962, the steel and gas producing industry $13.10 and $13.76 per metric ton, cost and
now sells approximately 1 million tons of imported 5.3 million metric tons valued at freight, Japan. Price quotations on similar
coal to Japan and that it is considering the approximately $110 million, c.i.f. Japan U.S. coal of medium volatility given the
opening of a new mine in West Virginia at from the United States. However, while
an investment of about $9 million which is imports of coking coal from the 'United Embassy range between $16.65 and $17.35
expected to be able to produce about 1 milStates have been rising over the past 5 per metric ton, cost and freight, Japan.
lion tons annually. In order to make the years, the proportion of the total imported The Canadians have been marketing a me
new mine a paying proposition, Eastern befrom the United States has been falling. In dium volatile coal at $15.54 per metric ton, lieves it must have reasonable assurances of 1958, imports from the United States were cost and freight, Japan, this year, but a being able to export about half of the mine's 79.6 percent of the total and this proportion recent sale of 100,000 metric tons was made output to Japan. They are consequently fell to 55.9 percent in 1962.
at $13.50 and the Canadian supplier report- looking for new long-term contracts with
Japanese consumers for 400,000 tons an
Offices Subcommittee of the Senate Apnually.
Neither the Japanese steel executives nor propriations Committee has reported The Eastern executives observed that their the Eastern representatives indicated that language on open spaces land grants plans correspond with two important U.S. U.S. coking coal exports to Japan are likely which would continue the eligibility for Government objectives: (1) the export to be reduced significantly in absolute terms promotion program and (2) the program to
grants under this program to Maryland as the result of more attractive alternative economically rehabilitate' West Virginia. offers being received from other sources.
and Virginia communities contiguous They expressed the hope therefore that
with the District of Columbia. These Steel industry representatives have on a the U.S. Government would provide assistnumber of occasions told the Embassy that
areas had been singled out by the House ance to Eastern's efforts in those areas where they value the dependable source of supply
committee as no longer eligible for asthe Government can properly do so. They of this commodity provided by the United sistance because they had already refelt there were two ways in which this could States. We believe, however, that the U.S. ceived substantial grants under this be done. In the first place, the Embassy coal industry does run the risk of losing out could be of assistance in holding a confer
program. of its share in the market growth for imence with the Japanese steel industry rep- ported coking coals in Japan.
In the statement which I made before resentatives who had visited the United
the Senate subcommittee, I rejected
The Japanese steel industry hopes to States several months earlier with the ob
achieve a production of 48 million tons of completely the idea that the National jective of giving their case a sympathetic crude steel by 1970 and will, therefore, re
Capital area should be penalized because hearing and, most importantly, providing quire ever-increasing quantities of imported of its ability to qualify quickly for Fedby this action a symbolic indication of the coking coals. (Domestic production is lim eral assistance, and to expend substaninterest of the U.S. Government in promot- ited and mostly of fairly poor quality.) Im tial sums of its own money for open ing this important export to Japan. ports of coking coal in 1962 amounted to
space lands. I urged the subcommittee The second area in which the Eastern exabout 9.6 million tons. These are expected
to take action to set aside the direction ecutives felt the U.S. Government could to rise to almost 15 million tons by 1970. In properly be of assistance is to give serious the meanwhile, over the past several years,'
contained in the House
in the House committee consideration to the possibilities of reducing imports of U.S. coking coal appear to have
report. the Panama Canal toll charges which cur plateaued out at slightly over 5 million If allowed to stand, the language of the rently amount to about $1 per ton of coal tons. While changes in technology which House committee report would have had moving through the canal. They noted that require lesser amounts of high quality coals a most serious and unfortunate effect canal charges are based solely on weight for blast furnace charging may be respon- not only on Montgomery and Prince which unfairly discriminates against bulk sible for part of the relative reduction in
demand for U.S. coking coals, more attraccargoes. They thought that if the matter
Georges Counties in Maryland, but also were given serious study, bearing in mind tive (in terms of price) alternative opportu on the entire National Capital area. the advantages that could accrue to the nities for importing coal have probably
I am pleased that the report of the United States and the canal authorities played an important role in the development Senate committee specifically bars the through the potential increase in bulk cargo of these processes which require less of unfair and discriminatory exclusion of a movements to Japan following toll reduc- the U.S. coals.
significant geographic area from a law tions, a solution might be found.
While it is not likely that Soviet low
meant to apply equally throughout the EMBASSY CONFERENCE WITH JAPANESE STEEL volatile coking coal would ever completely
replace U.S. coal in the Japanese market,
The area between Washington and On June 4, 1963, the economic counselor
creases the possibility that the Japanese Baltimore is one of the fastest growing hosted a meeting with the four steel com
steel industry will give the Soviets a greater regions of the country. The urban poppany executives who had visited the United
share of its increased demand than might ulation in Montgomery County increased State earlier in the year. Present were the be the case if the price differential were not
136 percent between 1950 and 1960. In two Eastern executives, the Deputy Chief of
so great. One steel company executive Prince Georges County, the increase was Mission, the Commercial Attaché and the
thought that the industry may be willing to reporting officer. The discussion was very increase its imports of Soviet and Commu
112 percent. Clearly this increase in frank and centered on the competitiveness
nist China coking coal from the present 11.5 population results in many thousands of of Soviet K-10 coal with the U.S. product. percent of total metallurgical coal imports acres of once open space land being lost The steel executives agreed with the conten to 20 percent in the near future.
to homes, streets, shopping centers, and tion of the Eastern representatives that
While the Japanese industry representa- parking lots.
parking lots. I am proud to say that the they could not reasonably expect further tives have talked much of the direct com Maryland counties in the National Capsignificant reductions in the price of coal
petition between Soviet and U.S. coal, the from the U.S. producers. They felt, however, indirect competition with medium volatile
ital area have been foresighted in prothat the railroads should cut their inland
atch Australian and Canadian coal is at least as
viding the necessary local funds to freight rates and observed that inland important. The Japanese have become ac
Federal contributions, thereby acquiring freight rates from mine to tidewater for coal
customed to using U.S. coking coal and find fast disappearing undeveloped land for destined to U.S. east coast markets are con
generally that it mixes best with the lower urgently needed park, conservation, and siderably lower than those for coal destined quality Japanese varieties. They are reluc- historic purposes. abroad. They mentioned the Panama Canal tant to shift to other varieties of coal but I urge all communities to take advantoll problem but felt that this was one of have been doing so to an increasing extent tage of this important program, and ask primary concern to the United States, over the past several years because of the unanimous consent that the article by Embassy representatives questioned the
price advantages offered by these alternative value of canal toll reductions since, in total
Ernest Baugh appearing in the Monday sources. cost and freight price of coal landed in Japan, Direct price comparisons are difficult to
edition of the Baltimore Sun be printed these rates amount to only $1 approximately make since even among coals which are gen- in the RECORD. of the $18.50 total price. The Japanese steel erally similar, differences in ash, sulfur and There being no objection, the article representatives replied that they did not
volatile matter can have considerable signif was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, expect, even with the most sincere effort on icance. Japanese industry sources have been as follows: the U.s. part, to achieve reductions in the reluctant to discuss the price reductions recost and freight price of coal down to the level quired to make U.S. coal more competitive
WASHINGTON AND BALTIMORE: PATUXENT in which it would be directly competitive with similar varieties elsewhere but one
GREENBELT AS BUFFER with Soviet coal. They felt strongly, however, trading company representative stated that The Maryland State government, through that the U.S. side must bring the price down U.S. coals, depending on variety, can be a 1961 act of the general assembly, is comto a level somewhat closer to the Soviet po- priced from 5 to 20 percent above Canadian mitted to the development of an open strip litical price if they were to be able to con and Australian coals and still be competi- or greenbelt along the Patuxent River from tinue to justify buying U.S. coal in the tive. The head of the raw materials pur Frederick County to tidewater. So, too, are future. By implication, they indicated that chasing department of a major steel com the counties bordering the river: Anne Aruneven a small reduction in the Panama Canal pany said it was his personai opinion that del, Calvert, Charles, Howard, Montgomery, rates would be helpful in this regard.
a reduction of $1 to $2 per ton in the landed Prince Georges, and St. Marys. In discussing the possibilities of increasing price of U.S. coal should be adequate to The reasons for that commitment are inimports of Soviet coal, the steel executives maintain competitive status.
creasingly urgent. The Baltimore and Washmade clear that they understood the dangers
ington metropolitan areas are expanding of becoming overdependent on that source.
rapidly and threaten to merge into each It was for that reason, as well as the tra OPEN SPACES LAND GRANTS IN other. Planning experts are in agreement ditional friendliness toward the United
NATIONAL CAPITAL AREA that the areas should be kept separated for States, that they will continue to buy U.S.
the good of each and that the place for divicoal even though it is several dollars higher Mr. BREWSTER. Mr. President, it is sion is the Patuxent, a natural open-space in price than Soviet coal of similar quality. my understanding that the Independent separator and reserve.
The preamble of the 1961 act is quite greenbelt plan. The reservoirs are the base The ACTING PRESIDENT pro temspecific. It reads in part:
of the water supply system for Montgomery pore. Is there further morning busi"The legislature finds that the Patuxent and Prince Georges Counties and are under ness? If not, morning business is closed. River and the land bordering thereon con the Washington Suburban Sanitary Comstitute some of Maryland's most scenic nat mission. About 5,700 acres of open land surural or esthetic assets, and that rapid growth rounding the reservoirs are owned by the and spread of urban development is en counties and so are within the public domain AMENDMENT OF FOREIGN ASSISTcroaching upon or eliminating many of these and reserved for greenery.
ANCE ACT OF 1961 bordering lands.
Howard County is just beginning to tackle
its share in the big project. Anne Arundel The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tem“It is the intent of the legislature to pro County is lagging. The southern Maryland pore. The Chair lays before the Senate vide means whereby the State department counties below Anne Arundel and Prince the unfinished business. of forests and parks with (the seven coun Georges seem to be doing nothing. All of
The Senate resumed the consideration ties] may cooperatively provide for the pro
which suggests that the foresighted and tection of the said Patuxent River and for active Montgomery and Prince Georges of the bill (H.R. 7885) to amend further
the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as the acquisition and use of the lands border Counties can't do the job by themselves. If ing thereon, so that the harmful effects of we are to have that highly desirable green
amended, and for other purposes. flooding, silting and erosion by the expansion belt to prevent Baltimore and Washington The ACTING PRESIDENT pro temof urban development may be discontinued from colliding, there will have to be early pore. The question is on agreeing to or eliminated.
determinations at the State House and coun- amendment No. 317, proposed to the “The legislature declares that it is neces ty courthouse levels.
committee amendment in the nature of sary * * to expend or advance public
a substitute, as amended. This amendfunds for, or to accept by, purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise or lease, the fee or any CONVERSION OF WAR INDUSTRY TO ment was proposed by the Senator from lesser interest or right in real property to
Alaska [Mr. GRUENING) as a substitute acquire, maintain, improve, protect or limit
for lines 1 through 17, on page 50, of the the future use of lands bordering on, and
Mr. McGOVERN. Mr. President, the
Mr. President, the committee amendment, as amended, rewithin, the Patuxent River watershed."
Industrial Union Department of the lating to interest rates on development The State's general improvement loan of
AFL-CIO has sponsored a resolution loans. 1961 carried an appropriation of $150,000 for calling for the conversion of the nuclear
Mr. CHURCH. Mr. President, we are the purchase by the State of property along industry to constructive peaceful pur
industry to constructive peaceful pur- fortunate in having some columnists who the Patuxent or for contributions toward
poses. I ask unanimous consent that the such purchases by the participating coun resolution be printed at this point in the for current congressional efforts to re
understand the reasons and justification ties. The general improvement loan of 1963
RECORD. carried two similar appropriations amounting to $500,000. Several of the counties either
There being no objection, the resolu- objective observer is Arthur Krock, of
duce foreign aid. Such a balanced and have money available for land acquisitions or
tion was ordered to be printed in the the New York Times. In an article are taking steps toward that end. RECORD, as follows:
which appeared in the November 12 issue But to be realistic, the money on hand or Since 1942, the United States has spent of the Times, Mr. Krock points out the in sight is insufficient. Development of the
over 33 billion dollars to develop atomic inenvisioned greenbelt is a big undertaking,
dustry. Over 95 percent of this sum has legitimacy of current congressional coninvolving as much as 40,000 acres of land and been spent on military application of this
cern over the foreign aid program. Almaybe more. Because of the lack of suffi
science. The stockpile of nuclear weapons though I cannot agree with the article in cient money in sight, there is no timetable has reached the stage of overkill with some
all particulars, it generally states a case for the fulfillment of the project.
estimates as high as twelve times the maxi- worthy of our notice and approval. I However, there is, as noted, the statutory
mum needed to knock out all potentially ask unanimous consent to have the articommitment by the State and the seven military bases.
cle printed in the RECORD. counties and there are signs that progress is Senate ratification of test ban treaty and accelerating. The most promising sign was
There being no objection, the article the filling of all possible military requirelast week's approval of a general Montments poses the question of continued use
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, gomery-Prince Georges plan to acquire 18,000
and the very existence of the industry estab- as follows: acres of land, all of it, of course, within the
lished to develop nuclear science. Capital THE CONSTITUTION KEEPS GETTING IN THE boundaries of those two counties or, to put investment in plants and structures alone
WAY it another way, only on the Washington side
exceed $10 billion. This large investment is of the river.
(By Arthur Krock) threatened with disuse and potentially deThe major portion of that tract (16,000 struction unless it is converted soon to ef
WASHINGTON, November 11.—The Secreacres) would be in Prince Georges County fective peaceful uses.
tary of State, who is a man mild of manner and would be in a continuous strip running The same nuclear force which creates mili
and speech but as they say in his native downriver from Laurel to almost the Charles
State of Georgia—"sot in his ways," last tary destruction can under proper controls County line. The 2,000 acres in Montgomery be used to provide energy to meet mankind's
week supplied one of the two reasons for County would be along streams tributary to
Congress' sharp reduction in the foreign aid needs. The present first tentative uses of the Patuxent, primarily the Hawlings.
nuclear energy for production of electric budget when he said he doesn't "understand Another promising sign of accelerated prog
it.” power are uneconomic. They are unecoress also came last week when the Senate nomic in part because of the artificially high
Merely by reading the Senate speeches of Independent Offices Subcommittee wrote in costs which have been established for urani
the self-named liberals who are leading the to the $15 million Federal open-spaces bill a um and the custom-built plants in which fight for the budget cuts the Secretary could provision making Maryland, the District of the atoms of uranium are split to produce readily discover the first reason. It is, that Columbia and Virginia eligible for grants un energy to turn the wheels of generating
the executive proposes to give President Nasder the measure. A bar against eligibility for plants. These economic problems can be
ser of Egypt the aid which pays for the milithe three jurisdictions had been raised in solved with the traditional methods of mass
tary force he is using to back his refusal to the House on the ground that they had been production and production line techniques
withdraw his troops from Yemen; and to given more than their share of open-space which have been the boon to American in
continue to provide aid to President Sukarno money under a current appropriation. If the dustry: Therefore be it
of Indonesia, who is sworn to destroy the House accepts the Senate action, Federal Resolved, That the Industrial Union De
new state of Malaysia, and to Brazil, where money for the Patuxent project will be avail- partment, AFL-CIO, calls for conversion of
President Goulart is dissipating the aid by able. nuclear industry as a forerunner, and as pro
failing to control inflation. The second Unfortunately, the State has been mov- posed by Senator MCGOVERN in the establish
reason is that the only effective means Coning slowly with its share in the greenbelt ment of a National Economic Conversion
gress has to show disapproval of executive development. It is supposed to buy a total Commission (S. 2274), of conversion of the
policies it disapproves is through the approof about 8,500 acres, including a large tract military industries generally through the use
priating powers that the Constitution realong the upper reaches of the river above of modern production line techniques to
serves exclusively to Congress, foreign policy the Triadelphia Reservoir, a smaller tract be- build nuclear powerplants and help light
not excluded. tween that reservoirs' dam and the Rocky the underdeveloped world through the pro
The Senate, led by the Members who have Gorge Reservoir and a relatively narrow strip duction of 1,000 power reactors established
been the stanchest supporters of foreign to carry the greenbelt through the Laurel in the areas of greatest need to produce elec
aid, simply has turned to the use of this area. State work to date has involved sur- tricity, and 1,000 reactors especially designed means to impose on the executive budget for veying in the main.
to use the energy of the atom to produce the next fiscal year the revision and rationTo refer to the two reservoirs is to refer fresh water from the ocean for arid areas alization of the foreign aid program that to the one really bright spot in the whole throughout the world.
long has been overdue. Rusk's statement to
his November 8 news conference that he disapproved of this “tendency to legislate foreign policy” is not at all surprising. What is surprising is his other statement that he doesn't "understand” the why and wherefore; and seems not to realize that with this assertion he was furnishing the general explanation of the situation he "does not understand.”
Until and unless the President and the Secretary of State comprehend, if they really do not, what is so clear, the part of Rusk's news conference that states a sound principle of Government will not have the desired beneficial effect on Congress. This principle the Secretary phrased as follows:
"I am very much concerned about the tendency in the Congress to legislate foreign policy as it might apply to specific situations or specific countries.
"It is not possible for the Congress to anticipate * * * what the circumstances are going to be in any given situation. * * * These are responsibilities carried by the President [who is] the one the country will hold responsible if things go wrong."
FLEXIBILITY IN DISUSE But support in Congress of this sound precept in foreign policy is impaired when the Executive continues disuse of the flexibility in judgment it admonishes Congress not to impede-by perpetuating aid programs, such as those for Egypt, Indonesia, and Brazil. These are automatically self-defeating of the plain and declared objective of foreign aid. The eventual consequence, as is now being demonstrated, is that Congress will go too far in its efforts to restrain Executive flexibility.
An example was the Senate vote denying aid to any nation interfering with American fishing vessels in what the United States unilaterally decrees to international waters. Diplomatic negotiation is the proper means, instead of legislation requiring other nations to accept U.S. charting of the seas. And only the Executive, not Congress, can conduct diplomatic negotiations.
Congressional foreign policy support by appropriation is also impaired when the Executive assumes leadership for this Government in coercing another to yield to military blackmail, and in violation of the United Nations Charter. Yet the administration, in concert with Secretary General Thant of the U.N., did precisely this to assure the success of Indonesia's threats of seizure of west New Guinea from the Netherlands.
This helped to build up the revolt in Congress. And in furthering the revolt Congress, of course, is using its constitutional power to cut authorizations and grants from the revenues contributed by American taxpayers. Thus again the Constitution annoys one arm of the truine Federal Government by getting in its way.
Yet though this constitutional power, and the reasons for the tendency to invoke it, are plain, strangely enough the Secretary of State "doesn't understand it."
Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, the amendment now pending before the Senate is my amendment No. 317. In order that there may be a full attendance of Senators for debate on the amendment, I suggest the absence of a quorum.
The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore. The clerk will call the roll.
The legislative clerk called the roll, and the following Senators answered to their names:
[No. 228 Leg. )
Byrd, Va. Cotton
aid. They are fed up with doling out billions Dominick Kennedy Pell
in American tax dollars to people who
couldn't care less about what we in this counEastland Lausche
try like to speak of as "the American way of Ellender Magnuson Ribicoff
life.” They are bored to tears with the Ervin Mansfield Robertson
threadbare argument that the Communists Fong McCarthy Russell
will take over the world unless we pay the Fulbright McClellan Saltonstall
bills for countries which don't know or care Goldwater McGee
which team they are playing on, assuming Gore
that they are willing to play on any team.
Mr. Khrushchev can't even feed his own
Mechem Sparkman people. Why not let him try this foreign
Symington aid load for size?
To sum up, we think the American people,
as far as foreign aid is concerned, have just
about had it. And we haven't the slightest Humphrey Moss
Williams, N.J. doubt that it is this more than anything
Williams, Del. else which underlies the attitude of Con-
gressman attitude which the President either Johnston Nelson
Young, N. Dak.
can't or won't understand.
This Congress, of course, will pass a foreign
aid bill. But the appropriation will be Mr. HUMPHREY. I announce that sharply cut back. And it should be. The the Senator from West Virginia [Mr. 88th Congress will go down in history (with BYRD], the Senator from Washington applause) if it begins the quick phasing out [Mr. JACKSON), the Senator from Louisi of foreign aid. And we do not believe that ana [Mr. LONG], and the Senator from the rest of the world, without the Yankee Mississippi [Mr. STENNIS) are absent on
dollar, will go either to pot or to the Com
munists. official business.
I also announce that the Senator from I concur with what is written in the California [Mr. ENGLE] is absent be- editorial.
editorial. It certainly expresses my cause of illness.
opinion. I believe it expresses the The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. NEL- opinion of a majority of the American Son in the chair). A quorum is pres
I thank the Senator from Alaska for
Mr. BEALL. Mr. President, will the
CAN LAWS MAKE MEN EQUAL? Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, one of shall be happy to yield to the Senator the most scholarly and thought-provokfrom Maryland, with the understanding ing articles that I have read in a long that I do not lose the floor.
time appears in the November 18 issue The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without of U.S. News & World Report. It is writobjection, it is so ordered.
ten by Dr. Walter R. Courtenay, minister Mr. BEALL. Mr. President, the for- of the First Presbyterian Church of eign aid debate during the past 2 weeks Nashville, Tenn. has generated a great deal of editorial I believe that the readers of the CONcomment. On November 10, 1963, the GRESSIONAL RECORD and others will find Washington Sunday Star, in an edi the article worthwhile reading, and I torial entitled “Tired of It All,” express- therefore ask unanimous consent that it es what I believe to be the sentiment of be printed in the RECORD at this point in the American people on the subject of my remarks. foreign aid.
There being no objection, the article I am confident that the bill which the
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, Senate approves will reflect the demands
as follows: of the American people that our tax dol
CAN LAWS MAKE MEN EQUAL?-A MINISTER'S lars be expended with greater care and
(By Dr. Walter R. Courtenay, minister of I now read the editorial, entitled
the First Presbyterian Church, Nashville, “Tired of It All,” for the RECORD at this Tenn.) point:
(NOTE.-"Equality”—That's the battle cry TIRED OF IT ALL
now, in the United States and around the President Kennedy, in accepting a dis world. But what does it really mean? Are tinguished service award from a Protestant all men actually equal? Can they be made group, got in the following plug for his equal by laws or by other government acforeign aid program:
tion? Does liberty necessarily provide "I think the American people are willing equality? Can democracy
Can democracy guarantee it? to shoulder this burden. * * * Some say they This problem of "equality," says a Nashville, are tiring of this task, or tired of world Tenn., minister, "may be in many ways the problems, or tired of hearing those who re greatest problem of our day.” In a sermon ceive our aid disagree with our diplomacy. that has attracted widespread attention, this But what kind of spirit is that? Are we minister discusses the whole question of intired of living in a free world? Do we ex dividual rights-also of individual and govpect to make it over in our own image? Are ernmental responsibility.) we going to quit now because there are
During the past summer the air was filled problems not yet solved?
with the raucous sounds of conflict in BirThe implication here is that the American mingham, Chicago, New York, and Danville. people (who have been lugging the foreign It was also redolent with discord within the aid load for 17 years) are ready, willing, and United Nations, and within the backward happy to keep on lugging it. Some other countries demanding recognition. AccomPresident, 17 years in the future, may be panying these was the endless struggle of saying pretty much the same thing. But we labor and capital, and the seemingly endless dissent.
drain of our resources into the giveaway proIt is our belief that the American people, grams at home and abroad. The air was or most of them, are sick and tired of foreign charged with social electricity as individuals,
groups and nations fought for new status of happiness? Life is the gift of God, and
of happiness? Life is the gift of God, and desires. They never pace themselves by the under the banner of equality.
so are liberty and happiness—in a certain speed of the mediocre, but by the speed of Equality has intoxicated the modern world. sense. But being born is never enough. the best. They are never satisfied by crumbs; Men walk starry-eyed through streets and Getting here alive is only a beginning. In
Getting here alive is only a beginning. In they want half loaves and whole loaves. halls dreaming of new days and improved order to really live, one needs medical sci
PEOPLE WHO MAKE PROGRESS status. The whole world seems in a pep- ence, proper nutrition, adequate care, and
It is such people who made America possirally mood, and the bonfires grow larger and a chance to become educated and equipped burn more fiercely, even as the songs, chants, for adult responsibilities. As to liberty, it is ble, and who have always led men in the up
ward climb. They are, in truth, the beneand shouts of the participants become louder not something that comes with birth. Lib
factors of the race. It is their ideas and and more fervent. In a thousand tongues erty is man created, man achieved, and man
creativeness that establish businesses and inmen scream their demands for equality, for maintained. God approves it, but man must
dustries, thereby providing employment for place, for recognition, for rights, for privi win it.
others, and the taxes that make community leges.
Happiness is a byproduct of a way of life
and national progress possible. They furnish As one listens, he frequently hears the rather than something granted us by birth.
our best leadership, and give to the Nation words, “All men are created equal, and are It, too, is something we achieve by effort. It
our best guarantee of security. It is because endowed by their Creator with certain un depends on many things: employment, pur- of them that progress is produced in all areas alienable rights, that among these are life, pose, personal development, and the right use
of life—the intellectual, the artistic, the ecoliberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” But of the opportunities and duties of life. Life
nomic, the governmental and the social. the words never end there, but hurry on God gives, but liberty and happiness we to declare that it is the responsibility of
While they did not build America alone, they must achieve.
provided the means whereby our Nation came government to make all men equal and to Having reached that state of mind, I won into existence and has continued on its upmaintain equality amongst men. Still other dered why men ever thought that govern ward way. words are heard, declaring that democracy ment could make men equal and keep them
Looking critically at such a line of thought, has failed to establish equality, and that equal. How can mere laws produce equality I suddenly realized that the success of the man, therefore, must now turn to socialism among men on a heart level? How can few creates the inequalities that loom large and communism. coerced fellowship ever become real fel
in the minds of the many. The haves highIn my summer setting, close to nature, lowship?
lite the have-nots. It is the successful who I looked around for evidences of equality
WHAT GOVERNMENT MUST DO
outlive the failures and all others who take in nature, and found none. Trees and hills are not the same in breadth and height.
That government has a role to play in
their places on the curve of life as it sweeps
downward. Rivers and lakes are not of uniform size.
the mighty, moving drama of man's progress Not all animals and birds are swift and is not to be denied. Our Constitution and
During my summer days it seemed to me
that: beautiful. The lion does not recognize the
our Bill of Rights stand to affirm it. It is the
It is the nature of some men to succeed, equalness of the antelope, nor the fox the rabbit. Some fields are fertile and others tions of liberty, equality, and responsibility, and others to fail. but unless it is the will of the people to give
It is the nature of some men to get by, and sterile, and clouds and puddles are not the same, though both are water created. In life to the law, it will not work. The pro
others to achieve. hibition era proved that beyond our con
It is the nature of the have-littles to want nature inequality seems to prevail, and yet testing.
more. the inequalities of nature produce the beauty we admire.
Then why do we believe and state in our
It is the nature of the successful to seek to
dominate. As I thought of it, the same seemed to be
legal documents that "all men are created true of history. Nations and races do differ
It is the nature of those who are unsucequal," and have "unalienable rights"? in size, wealth, prestige, power, creativity,
I presume it is because we must find some
cessful to resent it. and vision.
It is the nature of the poor to envy.
means of limiting the powers of the power-
It is the nature of the wealthy to assume tables and weeds in the garden called the Great power, unpoliced, tends to become de
unjust privileges. earth. Between individuals, races, groups, structive power. The rights of the weak tend
It is the nature of those who inherit and nations there are broad differences, and to be lost in a land where only the strong
wealth to use it well, to misuse it, or to feel prevail. equality is not a characteristic of either
guilty because they have it. nature or human nature.
We all understand this, even as we all
It is the nature of the intellectuals who re
ceive their compensation from taxes or the Having reached this point, my mind asked
realize that the clamor for equality is always the question, "Can we have both freedom a push from below rather than a pull from gifts of the economically successful to advoand equality?” Someone has said, “Freedom above, although it has often been both in cate a change of system in order to get one without equality tends to become license. these United States. Slaves have never en
wherein the intellectuals will be generously
rewarded as business executives under free Equality without freedom tends to produce joyed being slaves. The poor have never en
enterprise. stagnation." How can these great objectives joyed being poor. The exploited have never be secured without damage to the highest been happy with exploitation. Those who
It is because men are unequal in ability social system men have yet devised-democ fail have never been proud of their short
and drive, in opportunities for recognition racy? comings, and the employed have always felt
and advancement, in rewards for work done that it would be better if they were the
and services rendered that people become Looking back across history, I realize: that the Jews preached concern for the poor, but employers.
restless socially. It is the inequalities of It is from this level of life that the hunger equality. In the 18th century men looked
humanity that create the crusaders for not equality. The Greeks preached democracy, but not equality. The Romans for equality rises. It is here that Utopia dis
to democracy as the answer to the inequalipreached justice under law, but not equal plays its broad green fields and still waters.
ties amongst men, and now in the 20th ity. The Middle Ages in Europe preached It is from here that the valley of Shangri-La
men look toward socialism and communism. Christ, but not equality. In fact, not until appears as the answer to all the ills of man.
Democracy, as we have tried to shape it in the French Revolution did men openly affirm It is the hopelessness of the masses that pro
America, has been heavily impregnated with that "Men are born and always continue free vides the soil for hope in those who will not
the Ten Commandments of Judaism and the and equal in respect to their rights,” and surrender to the accidents of birth and en
spirit of Jesus. Because of this, we are susnot until our declaration declared that "All vironment, and it is well that it is so.
picious of any system that advocates the men are created equal" did the world come And yet, one must face facts. In any class
big lie, covetousness, greed, the stealing of alive to the possibilities of equality. These room of pupils only a few qualify under the property, the destruction of life, and the taktwo events placed a new chemical in the letter A. Below these leaders of the class are
ing away of liberties. Democracy condemns cup of life, and the contents of that cup the B students, and then the C's, and then
without reservations the confiscation of priare changing men.
the D's, and then the F's. Some, by ability vate property and capital by the state and Here I paused to rethink the words, “All and effort, rise to the top, while others, be the regimenting of human beings like animen are created equal.” Are they? I could cause of lack of ability or application, take mals on a farm. Our democracy is not persee that all men are created equally helpless, their places on the descending curve of fect. Imperfections exist, but its virtues exequally ignorant, equally inexperienced, scholarship.
ceed those of any other system mankind equally sin touched, but I could not see how In every nation it is the same. Only a has tried. they could be said to be created equal in any small percentage of people have the ability, These observations moved me then to other sense. Men do not begin life with an the desire, the drive, the willingness to work reach certain opinions concerning American even start for all. Their beginnings are and sacrifice, to foresee and prepare for suc democracy: marked by differences in pedigrees, health, cess in any realm. The people who struggle 1. Democracy was never created to be a educational and moral levels, economic to succeed are never interested in equality, leveler of men. It was created to be a lifter, strength, social status, and personality po but in superiority. Their goal is never the developer of men. tentials. There are broad differences in tem level of the masses, but a level above the 2. Democracy was created to let the gifted, perament, talents, drives, and desires. They masses. They endorse and espouse liberty the energetic and the creative rise to high do not begin life on a common line.
because it creates for them a favorable cli heights of human achievement and to let And what of the so-called unalienable mate in which to think, plan, create, work each man find his own level on the stairway rights, such as life, liberty, and the pursuit and achieve according to their abilities and of existence.