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3. Democracy was created to help men toward darkness. Only by encouraging to find the God-way to selfhood, success and meet responsibilities and shirk no duties. Christians to envy, to covet, to be class con- happiness, and offers a heat-treated cell to all That is why our Nation has been concerned scious, to foster class conflict, and to ap who misuse life, be they rich or poor. about the honest needs of its citizens. We prove stealing and even murder, can such Paul, in his letter to the Church of Corinth, lead the world in justice, even though justice objectives be attained. To realize them denounced the lack of brotherhood within does not always move with prompt alacrity. would bring about a broad denial of law and the church, and urged men to be concerned Our Nation has been noted for the size of order and the orderly handling of social for one another, but he did not assume its heart, and not merely for the size of problems. Whenever we as a church, an equality to be one of the "must" characterits pocketbook.
educational system, or a Supreme Court en istics of Christianity. It was not a matter 4. Democracy demands that the Nation
courage people to misrepresent facts, to use of love without differences, but love in spite be governed by the capable, the honorable,
force wrongfully, to flout law and order and of them. the far-seeing, the clear-seeing, and not by to stimulate bitterness and hatred, we depart The church, as someone has said, learned mediocre men. In the beginning, it was so. from logic, Americanism and Christianity. a long time ago that it is easier to create May it be so again.
liberty than it is to establish equality. It 5. Democracy demands more from men
BLAMING THE PROSPEROUS
has always known that equality can only be than any other system in the realm of self I unhesitantly oppose the use of socialistic had by a loss of certain liberties. If men discipline, dependability, cooperativeness, and communistic methods in the solving of want equality above all else, they may best industry, thrift, and honor. Democracy will
the problems of our free enterprise democ- find it in communism. If men want liberty not work when party politics are not guided racy. Our problems are problems of human
and a fair portion of equality, they must turn by basic ethical principles. For a party to nature rather than of economics and soci
toward democracy. foster class consciousness, class conflict, mis ology. The man who has two cars is not
What the world needs is a change of heart, representation, covetousness, violence, theft, preventing another from having one.
a change of climate born of faith in God, a and an open defiance of established law is man who earns $50,000 a year is not robbing reaching up that there may be a reaching to breed anarchy. him who receives $300 a month. The man
out, a confession that produces a new dedi6. Democracy must give to all its people
who owns a good house does not thereby cation. This governments and laws cannot the following rights: force another man to dwell in the slums.
create, for governments and laws are but The right to equal learning.
And the people who prosper under our sys the reflection of the standards of a people. The right to equal employment. tem cannot be blamed for the problems that
Everything in social Christianity depends The right to equal treatment. plague the lives of those who compose the
on the wise use of possessions, time and talThe right to equal justice. lower 25 percent of the Nation. The SO
ents, and only when we, Christian members The right to adequate housing. called privileged are not always a credit to
of a democracy, become good stewards of the The right to vote. either church or state, but they are not, in
things that bless life do we begin to move The meditations of the summer convinced the main, parasites on the body politic. We
in the direction of righteousness and justice, me that governments of themselves cannot are, therefore, wrong when we damn the suc
peace and true prosperity. make men equal or remake men into the cessful, the wealthy, the enlightened, and the
LIBERTY FIRST-THEN EQUALITY beings they ought to be. That is a spiritual patriotic in order to gain what we call venture, not an economic and political one. equality.
The problem of equality may be in many A change from democracy to either socialism Having said that, let me hasten to add ways the greatest problem of our day. We or communism, or a change from private
that the redistribution of wealth will not cannot solve it by government, and we shall capitalism to state capitalism, will not solve
solve the human problem that plagues us. not solve it en masse. Only when we as the basic problems of mankind; it merely
Wealth is not fairly distributed in any land Christians take seriously the teachings and shifts the areas of power.
under the sun; it never has been and, I example of Jesus shall equality and liberty I am disturbed, therefore, when church
presume, never will be. Nor do we solve so exist without detraction or subtraction. leaders and church groups seem to advocate
cial predicaments when we blame the top 20 Only when we stand before God confessing socialistic means and objectives as the an
percent of our people for the inequities that our needs shall we be empowered to meet swer to the problems of democracy, and seem to mark the 80 percent.
the needs of others. especially the problems of equality. This
Nor is it logical for our Government to be If I must choose between liberty and equalis especially true when certain leaders voice
forever emphasizing the neglected duties of ity, I must choose liberty and then hope slogans that appear logical and Christian,
the employers, while ignoring almost totally and work for equality, for such seems to me
The but are not. Let me name four: the neglected duties of the rest of us.
to be the Christian's way. 1. "The world owes every man a living."
wealthy have many sins to confess, but so No, it doesn't. Christian ethics have never
do we. And when we come to the advocacy said so, and I havu never known any man
of moving from private capitalism to state ANTI-SEMITISM IN THE SOVIET worth his salt who has claimed special rights capitalism, and the listing of the sins of
UNION under such a slogan. It is the cry of the
democracy while ignoring its multiple virlazy, the inept, and the failures. Such a
tues, and assuming that virtue resides in the Mr. KEATING. Mr. President, No
have-nots, but not in the haves, I can only vember 9 marked one of history's most slogan is a far cry from our meeting the needs of the needy, which, of course, is our
shake my head at the presumed wisdom of tragic anniversaries. Twenty-five years
such positions. duty.
ago, on November 9, 1938, Hitler's storm
Let no one hearing my voice conclude that troopers turned on the German Jewish 2. "Production for use, and not for profit.”
I am speaking as a have or a defender of That sounds good, but it is as phony as a
community, murdering and injuring the haves. Let no one believe that I am unRussian promise. It is profits that have concerned about those in our midst whose
large numbers of men, women, and chilproduced the blessings of our Nation and rights are often ignored and whose status
dren, and arresting 20,000 who were sent enabled her to be a blessing to the nations
is questioned. I am not blind to the sins of to concentration camps. Hundreds of of the world. Profits are essential to the gen
the privileged any more than I am the sins of synagogues were set on fire; thousands eral well-being of society. When the state
the underprivileged. The business leaders of shops and homes were looted and detakes over under the slogan of "use, not
do not need my voice to defend their posi- stroyed. So much glass was broken that profits,” men lose their liberties and their
tion; they are strong defenders of themstandard of living. Such a switch merely
the night has been described as "the selves. But I have walked the roads of life augments the insatiable appetite of the state.
with men of all classes, and have reached night of the broken glass.” The Jews 3. "Human rights, not property rights." one conclusion: "There is none righteous, had to pay for the destruction of their As I look out over the world, one thing is no, not one.” We are all bearers of the tell
own property and, in addition, were clear: Where there are not private property tale gray of selfishness. The 5 o'clock shouldered with a collective fine of 1 rights, there are no human rights. Private shadow is on all our faces.
million Reichsmarks. property rights form the seedbed in which
The Lord I love and serve was not overly This was the beginning of the camhuman rights mature. As long as private optimistic about humanity. He knew man paign of organized terror and destrucproperty rights are clear, human rights will as he is, and worked with him for what he flourish. could become. He ministered to the multi
tion that did not stop until the Nazis 4. “The end justifies the means." Accord tude, teaching, healing, feeding, encouraging,
were defeated in the worst war of all ing to Christian ethics the statement is not comforting, but he never assumed that times, and until millions of Jews were true. It was just such a statement that equality was part of the human scene. He slaughtered. produced the crucifixion of Jesus, the torture talked of love and neighborliness, but not Now, 25 years later, 3 million Jewish of the martyrs, the burning of witches, and equality.
survivors of Hitler's Europe are being the denial of life and liberty to the inhabit Perhaps that is why the New Testament hounded by the Soviet Government that ants of current communistic lands. puts the emphasis on brotherhood and not
seeks to blame Jews for its moral and Churchmen, whether lay or clerical, who equality. It emphasizes responsibilities, not seek to solve the problems of our society privileges. It stresses love toward God and
economic failures. Persecution of Jews through socialistic processes, rather than love toward neighbor. It seeks to create a
is on the increase; the outlook is omidemocratic ones within the free enterprise church that will be brotherly within, and nous. Jewish leaders are being executed system, are heading down a road that leads concerned for those without. It urges men following widely publicized show trials.
The press, radio, and TV are heaping in communities. In some communities battles normal part of life. These lowest income sult and slander on Jews, branding over school expenditures have left scars on groups are inarticulate and lacking in leadthem as spies and swindlers. Syna
the body politic. Nor can we look upon these ership. Thus most well-to-do Americans are gogues are being closed, and Jewish cem- of light and darkness. Rather, the financial important manifestation that the Negro is
unaware of their plight. I regard it as an contests as a struggle between the angels eteries are being desecrated. This is difficulties of the public schools derive main now voicing a protest against continued ecoa continuation of a policy begun by ly from these factors:
nomic and educational neglect. It should Stalin, and never repudiated by Khru
1. High taxation generally and especially help arouse the general public to the obvious shchev. at the Federal level.
truth that our underprivileged millions, State sponsored anti-Semitism is often 2. Lack of realization by many citizens whether black or white, must be given equal a successful solution to the problems of that the improvement of the public schools is opportunity for self-development if our so
ciety is to maintain its former rate of prothe state, functioning to direct public a matter of high, if not of first, priority. attention away from these problems,
3. Our attempt to meet the mounting, ductivity and progress. Nor is our democwhile projecting the blame to a defense
and necessarily mounting, costs of public racy entitled to be called such, if we de
education by means of an archaic system of velop a class society in which three-fifths of less scapegoat. This is a phantom solu financial support.
the population is prosperous and two-fifths tion, however, leaving the real problems The American public school system was struggling to keep body and soul together. unattended and out of sight where they built on a financial structure keyed mainly
In short, the whole muddled and varied grow undisturbed. The ensuing des to the local property tax. A century ago
methods of tax support for public education perate situation breeds tyrannical lead this tax was an acceptable measure of fiscal
call for analysis, if we are to keep pace with Yet we
the new and far more costly needs of a school ers and predisposes to reckless explo- capacity. This is no longer true. continue to pay most of the cost of a vastly
system that will educate our children so that sions of international violence. increased public school bill by a tax on
each and every one of them can develop his Mr. President, on the 25th anniversary property. In innumerable villages, towns,
maximum capacities—we must have a sysof the beginning of the Nazi exterminaand cities this traditional source of support
tem that can prepare our children to live in tion program, we are reminded that the for the schools has reached the maximum a changing world whose frontiers of knowlpreservation of the liberties of all, and which it can bear. The real estate tax can
edge are expanding at a frightening pace.
Under the new economic, social, and scienof peace itself, depend on the refusal of not be increased in many local communities the civilized world to accept minority without endangering the economic security tific demands upon education, such schools
of many households. group persecution as state policy. We
will be very costly. If factors such as those described have
How can we pay for so expensive a system hope and pray that the Soviets will caused difficulties in Great Neck, one may
of public education? Realizing that even relent in this increasing campaign of readily imagine the problems encountered
some of our most enlightened citizens are anti-Semitism as required by minimum in the vast majority of communities which
baffled by this fundamental problem, a Nastandards of human justice, and as so are far less favorably situated.
tional Committee for Support of the Public
Schools has been formed by a bipartisan prominently expressed in their own con The States now recognize the necessity of
group of citizens from every State in the stitution. State support for public schools. However,
Union. What brings us together is our bethis support is curiously uneven, ranging from 90 percent of local school expenditures
lief that survival and progress of the United in one State to a paltry 12 percent in an
States depend as never before upon the full NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE other. Furthermore, in most States the tax
development of our human resources. To SUPPORT OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
pay for our schools is a difficult task, espesystems which provide the funds for schools Mr. KEATING.
cially in a period when far too many AmerMr. President, the and other State undertakings are frequently
icans are appalled by the financial strain of National Committee for Support of the a hodgepodge and take little account of
military security and foreign aid, to say nothmodern sources of fiscal ability. Public Schools was formed in January
ing of social security and unemployment in
Federal funds are now expended for lit1962 by a bipartisan group of national
surance. But our national committee is erally hundreds of educational activities leaders in business, labor, agriculture,
convinced that better public education for totaling $2.2 billion in 1961–62. However, and the professions. Their goals are to
all will contribute vitally to the solution of only a fraction of this amount directly aids these problems by raising the rate of napromote an increase in financial support the public schools in the localities.
tional productivity, and by producing the of public schools at all levels of govern Moreover, the Federal Government in
trained personnel that is more important to ment and a reorganization of school fi creases the difficulty in securing adequate
the security of our country than the atom nance in order to develop a coordinated,
State funds for public schools by the practice bomb. If we are strong here at home we fair and effective system of school sup
of making substantial grants to the States shall be better prepared to maintain the port.
for several purposes, such as highway con world leadership that has been thrust upon
struction, on a matching basis. Lacking Mrs. Agnes E. Meyer, whose efforts on
us. And, assuredly, we can influence foreign such matching grants, the schools often are nations, whether friend or foe, far better behalf of worthy causes I need not enum placed on a low priority when State legisla- through our own exemplary performance erate for my colleagues, is the chairman tures appropriate funds.
than through the exhortations and promises of the National Committee. Mrs. Meyer There are a few fortunate and conscien of our statesmen. addressed the Great Neck Education As tious communities such as yours that spend What then is the program of our National sociation of Great Neck, N.Y., on Octo $1,250 a year per pupil. There is a far great Committee for Support of the Public ber 23, and because her speech is so
er number that spends less than one-quarter Schools? We are not a lobbying group. As timely and thoughtful, I ask unanimous
of this amount per pupil, some because they a committee we are neither for nor against
are indifferent to education, others because any legislation for support of education, consent that it be printed at this point they literally cannot afford a higher per cap- though our members are free as individuals in the RECORD.
ita expenditure. This inequality of oppor- ' to do as they please. Our program is educaThere being no objection, the address tunity for self-development is not only a tional. We are convinced, both the Republic was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, grave injustice; if it is allowed to continue
cans and Democrats, among our membership, as follows: it will be a serious threat to the future of
that a much stronger national determinaIT PAYS TO EDUCATE
our Republic for it will result in an ever in tion to improve the scope and quality of
creasing illiterate, semieducated, ill-trained (By Agnes E. Meyer, chairman, National proletariat-and by the designation prole- fact the Nation's major problem.
public education is urgently needed, is in Committee for Support of the Public Schools)
tarian is meant people having no stake in To awaken people to the fact that this
the welfare and progress of our Republic. By must be a nationwide concern and a nationThat may sound like a materialistic title. starting the schools in our city and rural wide movement, we invited our entire memBut the plain fact is that our public school slums we condemn the poor to continuing bership last April to a 3-day conference of system has always been and still is the poverty.
which the Saturday Review of Literature principal source of America's high per capita
How extensive is poverty in our country? stated: “At its first national conference the productivity. In the modern technological Far more than most well-to-do Americans committee put on as impressive a display of world—a world that is headed toward a new realize. It is officially recognized that one blue ribbon talent from industry, governhistorical era in which our place amongst fifth of the American people are living in ment, communications, and education as other nations will be a question of brains extreme destitution. Above this poverty- the Nation's Capital has seen in many years." rather than brawn-education has assumed stricken group are about 39 million people It was attended by 300 community leaders such importance that the country which who fall short of what is considered in our from 48 States, all of whom paid their own does not value a first-rate system of public country a modest subsistence. The chief way, put aside important professional, busischools is doomed.
cause of poverty in our affluent society is ness, and personal obligations because they And yet we find growing resistance to the ignorance--the fact that these people hap are, one and all, people who put education at approval of school budgets and bond issues. pen to be born in localities where good ed the top of their priorities. Our speakers This has happened in Great Neck and other ucation and training are not provided as a made it clear that we are engaged in a second
industrial revolution that will be more pro the changed and constantly changing Failure to recognize this change in the tax longed, more severe, more complex and thus economic structure. We cannot turn our structure has resulted in an inflexible atticreating more human misery than the first children on the streets and leave them un tude toward school expenditures. industrial revolution that gave us Karl Marx, protected against the work hazards of today. Whether the necessary funds to strengthen unless we develop the educational statesman The evils of unemployment afflict all age education will be forthcoming depends on ship that will rapidly adjust our public groups in our labor force. But the rate is whether the American people understand the schools to the needs of a new era. We have highest among teenagers, especially among social and economic importance of education. made a summary of the speeches in a booklet Negroes and other minority groups. It Do they understand that education as incalled “Light A Fire", a title taken from my is clear that we shall have to continue vestment is an economic fact and not a mere farewell message to the committee members, suitable education until the time comes figure of speech? Do they understand the in which I said: "Because of the size of when the individual is prepared to find his outmoded fiscal policies which block the America and its present apathy the individ place as a productive worker-perhaps until achievement of sound school finance patual citizen feels his own effort is often in- he is 20 or 21. To ask ill-prepared youngsters terns? Do they recognize the penalties, pressignificant and even futile. But the secret to shift for themselves before or even after ent and future, that attend the failure to of the fight for education is that it can be high school will only mean a still greater provide first-class schools for all our citizens? won by each individual committee member increase in crime and delinquency. We have Let me digress for a moment so that you working steadily and intelligently in his own a choice of keeping all youth in newly may see the revolution we face in education, community. On Main Street, in the city planned programs in our schools or keeping as I see it. This Nation is headed for serious hall, in the capitals of our States, we mem them on relief. Certainly the former is more trouble. The people who know this keep still bers of the national committee must each humane; no human being can be happy about it. Most people do not know it because light our fires. They will spread from the without work. At the same time such work they are lulled to sleep by a pervasive affluStates to Congress once the fire begins to and study programs would be economically ence. burn brightly in the grassroots." more constructive.
The heart of the trouble is our sluggish The program of our committee is different The provisions for continuing education economy. The famous Swedish sociologist, from that of any previous national commit would have to be adjusted to the geo Gunnar Myrdal, says flatly in his last book, tee to improve the educational system. It is graphical problems involved, namely the re "Challenge to Affluence”: “The most imporspecifically dedicated to a single aim: to gions of the country which have more pre tant problem in the world today * * * is that stimulate more adequate financial support carious problems than others. We must not America shall succeed in getting out of the of public education. This entails, however, forget the indigenuous problems which con rut of slow economic progress.” He is not that we make it crystal clear why and how front rural youth of this age in education, concerned because of any particular love for education must now be transformed without training, and job opportunity.
us. He argues that a nation which cannot delay. We are not in competition with or Economists have searched for some factor, solve its own economic problems can scarcely ganizations having similar aims who are hitherto imperfectly recognized, to explain assert the leadership it should have in interalready in the field. On the contrary, we the economic advance of western society. It national affairs, Failure here at home is work in close cooperation with organizations is in human resources, properly trained, that bound to produce lack of respect even among at the grassroots level, the State and local they have found a major factor of economic friendly nations. For on America's economic citizens committee, the PTA's, the League growth. Dr. Schultz, of the University of recovery, says Myrdal, depends not only the of Women Voters, and other large women's Chicago, has calculated that not less than 30
well-being of our own citizens but to a great and men's clubs.
percent (and perhaps as much as 50 percent) extent the well-being of the whole world. The National Office in Washington (1424 of the unexplained increase in income in the Our economic problems are aggravated by 16th Street NW.) acts as a clearinghouse of Western World is attributable to the addi the rapid expansion of automation by which information on school problems and school tional education of workers. The investment we maintain and expand production with a financing. But we fill in the gaps of knowl in education, he maintains, returns as much
fraction of the former working force. Charles edge on such subjects by original research or more than the investment in physical C. Killingsworth, professor of labor and inand factual studies because we are convinced capital. And Dr. Eli Ginzberg, of Columbia
dustrial relations at Michigan State Unithat the people themselves will act to im University, puts it this way: "Our economic
versity, estimates that our real rate of unprove their schools when they are fully in
system is misnamed. Capitalism suggests employment is not 6 percent, as reported by formed of the obstacles in the path of speedy that the key factor in development is capi the Labor Department, but 8.8 percent, an progress.
tal; actually it is the values, aspirations, and alltime high since the great depression. The The committee's first effort to stimulate skills of people."
number of unemployed youth between 16 understanding and organized action was to If we consider the world scene we find an
and 22 is anybody's guess since many of the publish a report entitled "Changing Demands answer to the belief that the Western nations
unskilled Negroes and whites do not even on Education and Their Fiscal Implications” first became prosperous and that this pros bother to register. The problem is aggracompiled and written by the distinguished perity made it possible for them to have good vated by prejudice against the Negro. Bad professor of education, John K. Norton; schools. A careful international study as to as the employment outlook for youth is now, copies can be purchased from our Washing- whether prosperity came before education
it will grow worse without decisive action. ton office. The report is concerned primarily has led to the conclusion that, in the ad
On July 12 Secretary of Labor Wirtz said: with the interrelation of education and eco vanced Western nations, education has been “There will be 5,500,000 coming into the nomics as they affect the well-being of the the precursor rather than the follower in the
labor force in the next 32 months and unless individual and of the Nation. If you will table of progress. Brazil has extensive nat
we do something 2 million of these could be read this report you will find a statement of ural resources, limited educational develop- headed for the scrap heap.” In our autothe main objectives of our national commit ment, and a per capita income of $230. Den- mated industries there will be less and less tee:
mark with almost no natural resources but room for the untrained worker. At the first 1. To publicize individual and social high educational development, has a per conference of the National Committee for benefits which accrue from investment in capita annual income of $750. The compa Support of the Public Schools, Secretary the right kind and amount of public educa rable figures for Mexico and Switzerland
Wirtz told us: "I suggest that automation tion.
are $220 and $1,010, respectively. Japan, demands that the educational system, in one 2. To focus public attention on individual with the best school system in Asia and with form or another, must assume the responand social problems associated with inade the highest rate of literacy in the Orient, sibility of seeing to it that nobody leaves quate schooling of a considerable percent of has also the highest per capita income in the school until he or she is prepared to do the citizens. Far East.
kind of work that is available.” 3. To point out areas of educational policy These are some of the plain facts concern There is one aspect of the revolution in and action essential for full development of ing education and productivity that must be education that confronts us. Emphasis on human resources.
explained to the American people if we are the need for new insights and prompt action 4. To identify fiscal action essential to ade to overcome their lethargy concerning the in education of the disadvantaged in no way quate financial support for effective public need for better public schools and willingness diminishes the need for better education education at all levels from kindergarten to pay the costs.
throughout the public schools for all chilthrough grade 14.
One reason for poorly financed schools is dren, including those who are able to benefit We have not gone beyond grade 14 in our the failure of school programs to match the by a college education. But the million or calculation since the public schools at pres economic changes in other areas. For exam more young people who are at present neither ent do not envisage an education beyond the ple, 30 years ago the U.S. Government col at school nor at work, and the fact that this age of 16, or of 18 years, if the community lected about one-fifth of all taxes, Federal, group may be increased to a dangerous exhas a junior college. But let us not forget State, and local. Today the Federal Govern tent year after year makes it imperative that that the high school population skyrocketed ment gets over two-thirds of all the tax reve we take prompt and effective action so that when the opportunities for employment of nues. Yet it pays only 3.6 percent of the all youths up to the age of 21 will be in unskilled youngsters disappeared. Now that school bill whereas the local communities school, be employed, or have their time occuautomation calls for people of ever higher pay 39.4 percent. Our school finance pat- pied by a combination of schooling and emskills, it may well be necessary to keep those terns have not reflected that very important ployment. boys and girls who do not go to college in shift. They are still bogged down in the out I am in sympathy with the present drive school until they have been prepared, moded belief of a preindustrial age that local for excellence provided it does not result in through work and study programs, to fit into real estate taxes can foot most of the bill. a rat race for marks rather than an interest
in learning. We must not only give su The increased sums needed were estimated to heading: "To Rule Space: Law or perior training to the obviously talented. be between $7 and $8 billion per year in Might?” with the subheading: "The Day We must institute a nationwide search to 1958 as cited by Dr. Conant, to $13 billion Is Coming When the Far Beyond Will identify and develop talented youth. What per year in 1961 as estimated by former is more, much talent could be found among President Eisenhower's Commission on Na- Be a Fairly Busy Place, and It Is About the neglected groups, if our guidance experts tional Goals. A calculation for the National Time for the
Nations To Agree on Who's were sufficient in numbers and in alertness. Committee for Support of the Public Schools Allowed To Do What, Where." But I see the most insidious danger to the estimates that the minimum increase in cur This is an important presentation and civil order and the future of democracy in rent public school expenditures, between perhaps the first serious discussion by educational indifference to the underprivi- the 3 years 1962-63 and 1965–66, should be an experienced student of international leged whether in our city slums or the poorer $16.9 billion.
affairs of some of the unresolved aspects States whose schools, especially in the rural The Rockefeller Bros. Fund made a reareas, are a disgrace to a nation which boasts port on this question of needed expendi- lished in an organ of national circula
of space penetration by man to be pubof equal opportunity for all its citizens. As tures: "It will not be enough to meet the I have said, our sluggish economy is not only problem grudgingly or with a little more
tion. It deserves the widest reading and a menace to our domestic social progress but money. The Nation's need for good edu- adds one more of the constructive apto prestige throughout the world. I am not cation is immediate, and good education is proaches to national and international an economist. But I do know that our pub- expensive. That is a fact which the Amer- problems which characterize Senator lic schools have always been a major source ican people have never been quite prepared GORE's distinguished career of public of our economic leadership. I am convinced, to face.
service. therefore, that if we now have the courage to
"Perhaps the greatest problem facing create a totally new educational system American education is the widely held view
I therefore ask unanimous consent which develops every child's capacities to the that all we require are a few more teachers,
that the article be reprinted in the RECutmost, and makes that youngster produc
ORD at this point in my remarks. a few more buildings, a little more money. tive, however humble the job may be, we Such an approach will be disastrous. We are
There being no objection, the article shall increase the buying power of the Na
moving into the most demanding era in our was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, tion and start our economy on an upward history. An educational system grudgingly as follows: trend. There are indications that the ex
and tardily patched to meet the needs of the pansion of the public school system is al
TO RULE SPACE: LAW OR MIGHT? moment will be perpetually out of date. ready having this effect. The Labor Depart. We must build for the future in education
(By ALBERT GORE) ment has just reported a sharp unexpected as daringly and aggressively as we have built (NOTE_ALBERT GORE, Senator, Democrat, increase for the month of September in
other aspects of our national life in the from Tennessee, gained a close acquaintanceschool employment, the only field except the past."
ship with international space issues when automobile industry which has improved
The National Committee for Support of he was a member of the U.S. delegation to during that month. "The increase in school the Public Schools will underpin such gen
the U.N.) employment," said the Labor Department ex
eral statements with factual studies of State WASHINGTON.-Recent spectacular achieveperts "reflects a trend toward more educational services, and has long-term economic out to its membership every month by which tax structures, with fact sheets that go ments in the effort to conquer outer space
have seized the imagination of men everysignificance." This trend will increase in significance for our economy as we improve achievements and the fiscal support they our members can measure the educational where. And perhaps for good reason. After
all, most of the drama-producing elements our educational system at a period when in
give their school systems in comparison with surround the race into space: danger, addustrial jobs will be limited due to more
other States. We are confident that the venture, and the added excitement of a deautomation.
American people want better schools. We termined contest between two great world Furthermore, the failure to educate re
are confident that our affluent country can powers. sults in rejection for military service, in
pay for them, provided the obstacles to lo But the conquest of space involves conlow earning capacity, unemployment, and
cal, State, and Federal support are removed. siderably more than the excitement of a an appalling expenditure for relief. Thus By dint of hard work achieved by our dis Buck Rogers-type adventure. Enormous we all pay for educational neglect.
tinguished local representatives in our military and economic consequences obThe U.s. Assistant Secretary of Health, States, cities, and townships, we are confi viously would accrue from a proven ability Education, and Welfare testifying before
dent that we can publicize what the penal to transport men and machines freely in a congressional hearing in 1962 stated:
ties of failure to provide good education will outer space. Furthermore, there are im“There are 714 million persons in our afflu- be for the future prestige and well-being of portant technical and social benefits to be ent society receiving welfare payments today. our Nation. By contrast we hope to inspire considered. Total annual Federal, State, and local ex the American people with a vision of what The United States is clearly committed to penditures for this purpose exceed $4.5 bil
community life, what our national develop- a policy of development of outer space for lion. Forty-five percent of all families with ment, economic, social, and cultural would peaceful purposes with the widest possible less than $2,000 annual income have a head become; how our status among nations dissemination of the fruits of that effort. of the family with less than an eighth-grade would be enhanced as the reward of provid- But if development is to proceed under a education. These families, in turn, con- ing excellent schools everywhere in the rule of law rather than a rule of might, all stitute the source from which the public United States.
nations must agree upon and accept internawelfare rolls develop, when an individual
You here in Great Neck who are struggling
tional rules of behavior governing space acbecomes unemployed or sick or some other so valiantly for good education in your com
tivities. hazard occurs to him.”
munity should realize that you are setting These international rules of behavior, if Now, in conclusion, let me answer, those standards for the rest of the country, and they are to be fully effective, must relate who cry: “Money isn't everything." The that the rest of the country needs the kind to the conduct of both nations and individfacts which I have presented tonight prove of effort you can make, enlarged to a na uals. When developed and accepted, these that improvement of our public schools can tional scale. When your children and the rules will become space law. not develop our human resources without children of every other American family are Some may question the need for "law" and the expenditure of huge additional sums. guaranteed an education of quality from the its application in outer space, an environIt is costly to provide schools in every com time they are 6 until the time they are ready ment in which man is now taking only his munity able to meet the changing demands to take on the tasks of their society, we will
first experimental steps. Already, however, of a technological age. It will be costly to have the education this great democracy de certain practical legal questions, though they develop the varying talents of all youths
serves and the one it must have if it is to have not yet arisen as judicial controversies, the gifted, those of average ability, those of
carry out its historic mission of raising the can easily be forseen. low scholastic aptitude. It will be costly hopes and the capacities of all men every The basic question, fundamental to soluto eliminate illiteracy not only among the where.
tion of all others, is: Where does space beyoung but among older persons. Above all,
gin and national sovereignty end? The it will be costly to meet the needs of non
member nations of the U.N. have tentatively academic youngsters who will have to be TO RULE SPACE: LAW OR MIGHT? in outer space, but they have not agreed on
agreed that no nation may assert sovereignty kept in school or in other training until they can find a job. It will cost huge sums Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, our where above the earth's surface this injuncto pay the higher grade of teachers for able colleague, ALBERT GORE, senior Sen tion takes effect. whom Dr. Conant has made such a strong ator from Tennessee, has written an ex
Usually we think of space as the area beappeal. It will cost a staggering amount cellent article on the legal and other yond the earth's atmosphere. But the atoratories, and other necessary facilities for aspects of the space age and man's entry mosphere does not just end all at once.
It simply gets thinner and thinner until an ever mounting school population. To be into this infinite new area so challengsure, money isn't everything. But the evi- ing to man's imagination and effort and finally there isn't any to speak of.
This presents a problem. For even on the dence is clear that there is a correlation so full of potential for good or ill.
surface of the earth there is often disagreethroughout our country between the quality Last Sunday's New York Times maga- ment among nations about the geographical of schools and their level of expenditure. zine published this article under the limits of national sovereignty. This is true,
for example, with respect to the law of the body. There are some indications that they The policy of the U.S. Government in seeksea. Some nations, including the United may have had second thoughts about the ing to emphasize specific legal topics (rather States, subscribe to the traditional theory wisdom of this position, but they are clearly than propagandistic political pronouncethat national sovereignty extends seaward on record in support of the principle.) The ments) in the discussions in the United a distance of 3 miles from shore. This "rule" law of the sea recognizes the free right of Nations is fully consistent with
this came into being many years ago when 3 transit of international waters by the ships approach. miles happened to be about the maximum of any nation, including warships. Simi An example of a problem that should be range of weapons then in existence. But larly, the use of the air space above inter- susceptible to legal solution is this: What some nations insist that sovereignty should national waters by military aircraft is per- rule should govern financial liability for inextend to 12 miles seaward from the shore- fectly legal and is generally accepted as a jury or damage to persons or property caused line. Quite a bit more is involved in this con- peaceful operation. At least, in the absence by a space vehicle accident? It is not betroversy than questions of national defense. of some aggressive action, such transit is yond possibility that two space vehicles For example, a nation may control fishing generally not characterized as nonpeaceful. might collide. Perhaps likely to occur sooner rights within the area of its sovereignty, but If space is to be really international ter is a space vehicle landing by accident or not in international waters.
ritory, then its use by vehicles which have mistake in a country other than that from But when legal questions arise in the set both military and civilian purposes would which it was launched. tlement of disputes involving international appear to be wholly permissible. But the In the latter eventuality, is there any obliwaters, there is at least a body of interna- Russians denounce the use of observation gation on the part of the state to provide tional law that can be applied. Why, then, satellites as espionage, and seek to declare assistance to astronauts who may land in cannot there be general agreement that the their use to be an invasion of sovereignty, their territory unexpectedly? What about basic principles of the law of the sea would on the grounds that the mechanical eyes the return of the astronauts and the space also apply to outer space?
of such satellites might look through the vehicle to the country from which the vehicle This would appear logical, but the prob- atmosphere above the terrestrial area over was launched? As of now, there are no lem is hardly that simple. The subject is which a nation exercises sovereignty.
agreed rules concerning the obligation of complicated, among other reasons, because of This Russian contention is somewhat novel states to provide such assistance or the terms the existence of the cold war and the fact from the standpoint of legal theory. If it upon which they should do so. that the United States and the U.S.S.R., the is a violation of international law to observe The list of questions that might arise is leading space powers, are also the chief an any activity in a nation from a point outside almost endless. It is conceivable, to take antagonists in the cold war.
that nation's border, then it would be a other example, that before many decades a Moreover, within the framework of the ten- violation of law for anyone standing on a crime may be committed aboard such a sions of the cold war it is often difficult or ship outside the 3- or 12-mile limit to look vehicle in space. If so, what nation would even impossible to differentiate between at the shore. If this is a violation of inter invoke jurisdiction to investigate the crime questions that are legal and those that are national law, then it surely is frequently and to punish the offenders? Would it be political. Even where the distinction can be violated.
the nation above whose territory the incident made, agreement on international legal ques In fact, this Russian contention is based occurred, or would it be the nation from tions is obviously often influenced by inter more on political considerations than on le which the vehicle was launched? national political considerations.
gal considerations. It is probably influenced Again, we are hearing already about trips Both the United States and Russia have by their conviction that we are well ahead to the moon and back. If colonization of joined other member states in support of a of them in the development of this type of the moon or some other celestial body should United Nations resolution passed unani satellite. The Russians frequently condemn become feasible, what rules will govern the mously relating to peaceful uses of outer something someone else has and they do not ownership of property there? By what procspace. Among other things, this 1961 reso have.
ess will rights, if any, be established? lution commended to member states of the It is also quite possible that Russian op These are the types of questions on which United Nations two important principles position to observation satellites is really a
the beginnings of a body of space law might first, that international law, including the reflection of their fear of penetration of the gradually be built. United Nations Charter, applies to outer
secrecy upon which their society is built. If The law of 'the sea was not developed space; and, second, that outer space and the Russians dared to open up their society overnight. . In fact, it is still in the process celestial bodies are free for exploration and as ours has always been open, the thought of of elaboration and refinement and there is use by all states and are not capable of ap- mechanical eyes looking across hundreds of still disagreement about what the law is. propriation by any state.
miles of air space would not be disturbing That is one of the things that keep internaIt will be noted that this resolution reflects to them. But then, if the Communists really tional lawyers busy. agreement "on paper" that international law did open their society, it would constitute The law of outer space will take some time applies in outer space. The resolution does such a basic change in the nature of the to develop, too. not, however, purport to reflect agreement on Communist way of life that the whole course It must be remembered that international what the law is, or ought to be, other than of the cold war would be changed any law is effective only to the extent that it is incorporating by reference the provisions of way.
accepted by nations through their accesthe United Nations Charter. I need not re The fact is that observation satellites can sion to a treaty or convention or through mind the reader that more often than not serve both civilian and military purposes. custom and practice over a period of years. there is disagreement between East and West They can measure solar and stellar radiation, A resolution adopted by a substantially diconcerning the application of United Na
observe the atmosphere or observe the earth vided vote in the U.N. General Assembly on a tions Charter provisions to specific facts or and thus add significantly to the science of controversial cold-war issue will not be accircumstances.
geodesy. Any major scientific or technologi. cepted as law by those nations which vote Significantly, there is not even agreement cal breakthrough in space development in “no," and it will not have the force and on what constitutes "peaceful use" of outer evitably has both civilian and military ap- effect of law. space. It seems obvious enough that arming plications. It would be impossible to elim On the other hand, it would appear wholthis new environment with weapons of mass inate the military implications of space re- ly reasonable to expect the world commudestruction for aggressive purposes would search, and it would be foolhardy to ignore nity to agree, for example, on the rules for not be a "peaceful use." And the United them. If the Russians persist in seeking to assessing liability, damages and means of States has clearly and repeatedly stated its declare illegal any use of space which might collection should there be damage to proppolicy of not placing nuclear weapons in orbit have some military application, little prog- erty or persons arising from an accident asunless forced to do so by action of the Soviet ress can be expected in the development of sociated with space research. Other topics Union-while at the same time making clear space law.
that are primarily legal in nature should be our determination to take every legitimate The orbiting of nuclear weapons and the equally capable of resolution.
If agreestep necessary to preserve our security and possible use of space vehicles for military ment can be reached on this type of questhat of our allies. A United States-Soviet
purposes generally are not really legal issues tion, perhaps the formula by which it was agreement not to orbit weapons of mass at all. They are political issues. I do not reached can be successfully applied to destruction has now been followed by a think it realistic to expect that space can broader questions relating to the conduct unanimous U.N. General Assembly resolution be isolated and dealt with just as though the of nations in a world community within the to the same effect.
political issues of the cold war did not exist. framework of law. But if "peaceful use" precludes launching Neither East nor West will voluntarily aban There is some basis for encouragement in H-bombs from outer space, what about orbit don an advantage they believe themselves to the fact that we have achieved an agreeing observation satellites? The argument possess, and all the talk about what is "le- ment for cooperation with the Russians in about so-called "spies in the sky" serves gal” and what is not "legal” is often nothing space research experiments. The bilateral to illustrate how military-political issues act more than propaganda.
agreement was an outgrowth of an exchange as roadblocks to progress in reaching agree But failure to resolve political issues need of letters between President Kennedy and ment on practical legal questions.
not mean that no progress at all can be Mr. Khrushchev which was followed by talks In supporting the United Nations resolu- made in reaching agreement on the applica- between Dr. Hugh L. Dryden of the National tion of 1961 on the application of interna- tion of international law in outer space. Aeronautics and Space Administration and tional law to outer space, the Soviets There is hope for progress through the ap Dr. Anatoli Blagonravov of the Soviet Acadendorsed the principle that no nation could proach of concentrating on the areas where emy of Sciences. The agreement was anclaim sovereignty over space or any celestial political considerations are not dominant. nounced during the United Nations debate