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The PRESIDING OFFICER. The recrimination and speculation which gram in Latin America. I was glad to question is on agreeing to the motion of seems to be so rampant would stop, and agree to that. I do not know what the the Senator from Kansas.
that due recognition would be given to outcome would have been on my amendThe motion was agreed to.
the facts as they are rather than to wild ment, but I believe it had a very good The PRESIDING OFFICER. The speculation, which seems to be so much prospect of being approved. It should committee amendment is open to further the mood of the moment.
have been approved on its merits. But, amendment.
be that as it may, it is important that Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I
the record on the foreign aid bill consuggest the absence of a quorum. AMENDMENT OF FOREIGN ASSIST
tain this discussion of the problems The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
ANCE ACT OF 1961
created by the United States in Latin clerk will call the roll.
The Senate resumed the consideration America as a result of the types of miliThe legislative clerk proceeded to call of the bill (H.R. 7885) to amend further
of the bill (H.R. 7885) to amend further tary aid which we have been giving. the roll. the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961
few months ago, when I attended Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I amended, and for other purposes.
the inauguration of the new President ask unanimous consent that the order Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I send of Peru, I witnessed a military parade for the quorum call be rescinded.
to the desk an amendment to H.R. 7885, that included about 40 American SherThe PRESIDING OFFICER. Without the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, which man tanks furnished to Peru by the objection, it is so ordered. I ask to have read.
United States through military assistThe PRESIDING OFFICER. The
ance. What useful purpose those tanks amendment will be stated for the infor- could possibly serve in Peru escapes my ATTENDANCE AT NATO CONFER- mation of the Senate.
imagination. ENCE BY WIVES OF SENATORS The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. On page 52, The purpose they do serve in Peru
Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I line 14, of the committee amendment, it and elsewhere on that continent is to have been reading on the news ticker a
is proposed to strike out “$675,000,000” pose a constant and continual threat to story to the effect that two wives of and to insert in lieu thereof “$655,
and to insert in lieu thereof “$655,- the civilian governments of those counSenators have been mentioned as ac000,000.”
tries. They are the gun at the head of companying the House delegation to the
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The every elected President of Latin AmerNATO Conference some days .
question is on agreeing to the amend- ica-a gun that we have manufactured There have been some questions raised ment to the substitute committee amend- and furnished free of charge. All too about those wives going, and I wish to ment, as amended.
often, these weapons have been used to say on the floor of the Senate, and for
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I shall thwart and overturn the governments the RECORD, that they went in good faith. discuss the amendment shortly. Some
that have been seeking to carry out the Their husbands and other Members of discussions will be held off the floor of
discussions will be held off the floor of objectives of the Alliance for Progress the Senate had been appointed by this the Senate in regard to the amendment which, of course, we are also financing. body to represent the Senate at the anwhile I speak briefly on another matter.
When I say "gun" I mean heavy equipnual NATO Conference, and at my re
This amendment seeks to strike $20 ment like tanks and jet aircraft. The quest every single one of those Senate million from the Social Progress Trust kinds of guns that the armed services Members stayed here to be on the floor Fund. I do not wish to say any more
in Latin America do need to control during the debate on the foreign aid about it until the discussions off the
guerrillas and terrorists are the small bill. They stayed here on a day-to-day floor have been concluded.
arms and mobile equipment that we can basis, in the hope that it might be pos
Following action on the amendment, furnish under a ceiling of $40 million. sible for them, in light of the directions the Senator from Alaska has two or three Let me point out that the military laid down by this body, to attend that amendments to offer. If we are success castes in some of these countries have most important Conference; but, because ful in reaching an agreement on this $20
ful in reaching an agreement on this $20 become so arrogant in their demands for
million saving—and I shall show later expensive equipment, and have become had no control whatsoever, and because that the $20 million saving is reasonable
that the $20 million saving is reasonable such a threat to civilian governments beI requested them to stay here, they and fair-and we can make the saving,
and fair and we can make the saving, cause of it, that some governments have did so.
so far as I am concerned I shall not offer sought to obtain equally heavy equipI believe that instead of fault being any further money cut amendments, and ment for other branches of their services found with the wives of these Senators, the bill might reach the stage of a third
the bill might reach the stage of a third merely to offset the others. If one counwho went to the Conference in the ex- reading before the late afternoon or early
reading before the late afternoon or early try has an air force whose power and pectation that their husbands would join evening.
prestige have been elevated with late them shortly, as they had every right to
I wish to take a few moments to make model U.S. jets, then it is not unusual anticipate, we should give a great deal a record in regard to the significance of to find that government anxious to balof credit to Senators who remained be the amendment that was agreed to, of ance its air force with an army equipped hind, who missed a most important con
fered by the Senator from Alaska and with Sherman tanks, and a Navy equipference, and who attended to their pri- modified in conferences among the Sen ped with large ships, and a few jets of mary duty on the floor.
ator from Alaska, the Senator from Ar- its own to keep the air force from taking And by the same taken, I think these kansas, the Senator from Minnesota, and
over. This kind of rivalry is going on two ladies deserve some credit instead of myself. I believe the amendment is per
myself. I believe the amendment is per- within individual countries. And it has carping criticism. In the circumstances haps the most important that has been
haps the most important that has been led to a similar rivalry among the armed they were cast in the role of unofficial adopted during all this debate. I am not
services of neighboring countries. representatives of the Nation, as are Forso sure that it is not now the most im
Senators will find at my desk a letter eign Service wives or military wives or portant part of the foreign aid bill. It I received from the Assistant Secretary Cabinet wives or any other wives of of- is not fully comprehended in the Senate. of Defense for International Security Afficials of this Government who happen
There is great concern in many coun fairs on June 24, 1963. It contains a to be abroad. I have no doubt that the tries of Latin America concerning certain
breakdown of the military aid that went two ladies acquitted themselves in a types of military aid. This amendment, to each country in Latin America in fiscal most commendable and exemplary man
in my judgment, is worth millions of year 1963. Of course, it is marked "Conner. dollars. If we could evaluate good will, fidential.”
fidential.” Therefore, I am unable to Furthermore, may I say, if my under- it is worth millions and millions of dol read it to the American people. standing is correct, that the two ladies lars in American good will in Latin But I can report that of all Nations who did go usually travel in separate America, because it will come as a great in the hemisphere, it was none other planes from their husbands, because of relief to many of our best friends in than the Dominican Republic that rethe safety factor involved, for their chil. high government positions in many ceived the most military aid from us in dren-a practice which my wife and I countries in Latin America.
proportion to its population. It received followed until our own daughter was 18 Part of the adjustment that was made, far more on a per capita basis than any years of age.
in agreeing is the amendment of the other country. So I would hope that this fact would Senator from Alaska, was that I would What a harvest we reaped from that also be set out on the RECORD; I suppose not press a money cut amendment for assistance. What a harvest the people it is too much to hope that the petty a $10 million cut in the military aid pro of the Dominican Republican reaped
from it. With that military assistance, militaristic fascism. That is how Castro of the country
of the country concerned, from the the armed services of the Dominican Re himself came to power. He knows very standpoint of defense of the hemisphere, public slaughtered a free, elected, con well that when any people are suppressed and so reports his reasons to the Constitutional government.
in their political and economic activities gress. Look at the other figures, if Senators by a police state, backed up by tanks and As will be seen from several commuwill but come to my desk. The next
The next other weapons, they will turn to equally nications I shall read shortly from some largest recipients of military aid from extreme and violent measures to throw of our best friends in Latin America, it us, relative to population, were Bolivia off that suppression.
will take the tremble out of their knees. and Chile. It is an interesting thing to The Communist cadres in Latin Amer- Some of our best friends in high places note that Bolivia remains one of the ica have their greatest opportunities in in Latin America have been trembling most unstable nations of the hemisphere, those countries run by military police as a result of their fears concerning what both economically and politically. She states. The whole reason for the Alli may happen to their governments if is a recipient of endless American finan ance for Progress was to give the 240 military juntas decide to use American cial aid. She is beneficiary of the Presi- million people of the continent to the heavy military equipment to overthrow dential contingency fund, for contin- south of us a chance to make some eco their governments, as has been done so gencies that plague Bolivia but which do nomic and social progress by peaceful frequently in the past in other places. not threaten the vital interests of the and progressive means. The military I cannot congratulate the Senator United States. She is the recipient of juntas are every bit as much an enemy from Alaska and the Senator from Arnonproject money, which means she gets of the Alliance as are the Communists. kansas too highly. Congratulations are it purely for budget support because the Neither faction wants to see the changes due them for writing into the bill the Bolivian budget must finance the na envisioned by the Alliance accomplished. policy contained in the amendment. tionalized tin mines. Because of the Their reasons are quite different: The Under this amendment, if aid is neceshuge, inflated payrolls of those tin mines, Communists do not want the Alliance to sary, and the President so finds it is necher budget is grossly out of balance, and succeed because they want to appear to essary to provide internal security for the United States makes up the differ- be the only vehicle whereby the people defense and economic needs, the amendence, just as we do in Turkey with her of Latin America can improve their ment makes it possible. socialized industries.
standard of living. The military castes As I said before, when we were trying Yet, because of this tenous eco do not want conditions to change at all. to make an adjustment in the amendnomic condition, there are those who be For them, the Alliance is as much a ment, what is needed in Latin America lieve Bolivia is also threatened by inter- threat to their privileged existence as are is not Sherman tanks, not mile upon nal communism. I suggest that the the Communists.
mile of heavy artillery equipment, not jet revolution that occurred in Bolivia in We ought to take notice of where planes. What is needed is small arms, 1952 was a revolution of the extreme large numbers of the sons of the rifles, machineguns, tear gas, and helileftwing, if not actually a Communist oligarchs go. They go into the military copters to protect a country internally revolution. It was then that the tin forces. They are a part of the military from a possible Communist uprising. mines were nationalized. They have caste system. The sad fact is that large
That intention was brought out as we served ever since to provide jobs for the numbers of the oligarchs take advantage made the legislative history at the time working people of Bolivia, even though of American foreign aid in Latin Amer- the Senate adopted the amendment. the mines do not support those payrolls. ica. To the extent that it does help in Under the amendment, aid for these purBut Bolivia has already had a left
some economic conditions, frequently poses is available. wing revolution. What useful purpose the chief beneficiaries are the oligarchs. Mr. President, that is worth much do we serve in sending her military aid By and large they profit economically more than a $10 million cut from a $50 now to seek to hold down by force the and take the increased profits that come million aid program as it came from the pressures that the revolution itself out of the expenditures of American for
out of the expenditures of American for- committee, which cut I was about to brought to Bolivia ?
eign aid and invest them in New York propose. The two nations ranking next highest and Swiss banks, and not in the future It is worth much more than that in in the per capita military aid standings economy of Latin America. But we are the savings we could make, because psyin Latin America are Nicaragua and expected to pour additional millions of chologically it will be a great thing for Honduras. I need not remind Senators dollars of taxpayers' money into Latin Latin America, and it will be a great what the military forces in Honduras America to make more money for the thing for the United States from the did with our military aid. They, too, oligarchs.
standpoint of the resulting good will that murdered an elected government to pre Too often that is the pattern, and will come from the adoption of the ventan imminent election from being held. that is why I say, most respectfully, to amendment. That is true of all of Latin After Nicaragua and Honduras, the
my President that when he talks in New America. It is not possible to buy such recipients of the military aid on a per York about doing something to help the good will. Therefore I am pleased and capita basis were Paraguay, Peru, and
poor, we must see to it that our foreign proud that I had a little part to play in Uruguay. There is another junta in aid is not so used by the rich that they my conversations with the leaders and that group—the military junta of Peru. grow richer and the poor become poorer. with the Senator from Alaska which re
Colombia, Guatemala, and El Salvador Indirectly, it is true it may help them; sulted in the adoption of the revised rank next in this list. Guatemala is but the indirect effects are unimportant. amendment. still another example of a military coup Indirectly, I believe that the amend The Senate, the Congress, and the which ousted an elected government.
ment of the Senator from Alaska, of United States have been firm in cutting Senators, Congressmen, all Americans, which I was proud to be a cosponsor, off aid to Cuba because we see no point must face the fact that we are arming and the wonderful cooperation it re in assisting a government that is subthe military castes of Latin America to ceived from the Senator from Arkansas verting much of the hemisphere and the destroy civilian government. How can [Mr. FULBRIGHT), chairman of the com United States, too. Yet we make it posanyone reconcile that with our own be
mittee, and from the majority whip, the sible, through misguided military aid, for liefs, or with our objectives in Latin Senator from Minnesota [Mr.
Minnesota [Mr. HUM- the oligarchies, backed by the power of America ?
PHREY], in modifying the amendment in their military establishments, to subyert I have been heard to say it many times, a manner that would be acceptable to the Alliance for Progress. and I shall say it many times in connec the chairman of the committee and the This amendn.ent to reduce the ceiling tion with this bill: We do nothing in the whip, are among the most important
whip, are among the most important on military aid goes hand in hand with world but further the causes of Castro
things we have done in connection with my proposal to cut off entirely aid to and communism when we, or the governthe entire foreign aid program.
juntas that overthrow elected governing classes of Latin America, reduce the By this amendment, if it remains in ments. choices of their people down to a choice the bill when it is finally adopted in con Later this afternoon I hope to be able between communism and military fas ference, the United States, as a matter to present to the Senate a modification of cism. It is the game of Castro to force of policy, announces that there will be my junta amendment with the approval this choice upon the masses in Latin no more military aid to Latin America, of the administration which, if accepted America, because he knows that even save and except when the President finds by the Senate, will have as helpful an tually communism will triumph over it is in our interest and in the interest effect in regard to the junta issue in
Latin America as the amendment of the ways lived under military dictatorships ition of which it is capable. However, if Senator from Alaska has in connection in Latin America and they always will. we kill it before it starts to bud; if we with military aid.
They don't know how to govern them- discourage the people of Latin America By sending military aid that cannot be selves any other way.”
before the Alliance for Progress blosused for any hemispheric defense, that That is the kind of talk that Castro soms, we shall lose Latin America, so cannot be used against any Communist likes to hear from us. That is the kind far as having an effective ally is conguerrillas or street fighters, by sending of policy he likes to have us follow, too. cerned.
cerned. We will then be confronted with military equipment that only enables a And we do follow it when we go on build a conflict between military fascism and military faction to shoot up a city or ing up military factions there with our revolutionary communism in Latin bombard a presidential palace until its free military equipment, and when we America. occupant is killed or surrenders, we are go on doing business as usual under the I am concerned about some of the undoing with one hand what we try to Alliance for Progress with military
happenings in Latin America among build up in Latin America with the other. juntas.
some of our so-called friends, such as It is a great irony that the same tax I am not asking Senators to inter- Brazil and Argentina. payers are paying for both programs. fere with what kind of governments
Mr. President, I ask unanimous conIn areas of tax reform, land reform, these people choose for themselves. I sent to have printed at this point in the interest rate, and budget reform, as in am not advancing any policy of inter- RECORD an article entitled “Brazil Plan many other areas, Latin American ef- vention in how Latin American coun for Alliance Is Rejected at Parley," pubforts to live up to the pledges of the tries are governed. But I am saying lished in the Washington Evening Star Punta del Este conference have fallen that we have the duty to decide how of today, November 14, 1963. short. Self-help is proceeding at a dis- American money shall be spent down There being no objection, the article appointingly slow pace. But of all the there, and for what purposes. Cutting was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, reverses and failures of the Alliance- off aid to a junta is not U.S. interven
as follows: and the United States is responsible for tion. Reducing somewhat our level of
BRAZIL PLAN FOR ALLIANCE IS REJECTED AT some of them, too—the most shattering military aid is not intervention. Aiding
PARLEY and potentially dangerous is the recent nations that want to help themselves and
SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL, November 14.-A U.S.series of military coups d'etat against help advance the living conditions of
backed proposal to give Latin Americans legitimate governments.
their people through democratic institu- greater responsibility in direction of the The number of military or military- tions is not dictation to them. It is not Alliance for Progress apparently faced backed dictatorships in Latin America an effort to force Anglo-Saxon institu smoother sailing today after general rejechas almost doubled since the Alliance tions upon Latin peoples, as some of us tion of a Brazilian plan to bring in as many was launched, increasing from four to are accused of doing.
European contributors as possible, including seven in a little over 2 years. There
even the Communist bloc.
What I am calling for is a policy of have been four coups d'etat in 1963, in pragmatism. I believe the evidence of only Bolivia's support from among the 20
Diplomats said the Brazilian proposal won Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, and the recent history in Latin America is very nations attending the Inter-American EcoDominican Republic.
clear, and that it compels us to reach nomic and Social Council session. It may be, as has been suggested, that the conclusion that putting American There was no official U.S. comment, but these military coups are merely rear- taxpayers' money into Latin American most Latin American delegates privately guard actions of a dying old order, but military machines and into the perpetu censured the proposal, circulated quietly it may on the contrary be that they are ation of oligarchies is pure waste. If
among delegates to sound out their reac
tion. As a result of the cold reception, the profound political retrogressions from we go on doing it, communism will sweep the principles of Punta del Este. It is the hemisphere, anyway. We cannot to a working committee.
Brazilians decided not to submit their plan quite possible that we are seeing the oli- build a barrier to communism in Latin
AIMED AT U.S. PLAN garchies of Latin America turning their America with nothing but American dolbacks on peaceful progress, choosing to lars. Neither can we build it with tanks
The Brazilian proposal apparently was intake their chances on communism rather and jet aircraft. We can only build that
tended to torpedo the U.S.-backed plan
to create a seven-nation coordinating comthan fulfill the obligations they under- barrier with the institutions that the
mittee to pass on aid projects and give took when they entered into the Alliance people there must erect themselves. All Latin Americans more influence in overall for Progress.
we can do is contribute a little of the control of the multibillion-dollar economic At best, they are a tactical setback capital it takes, and not very much of and social development program. in the democratic revolution of Latin that.
The Brazilians reportedly had still another
maneuver The amendment of the Senator from
in reserve. Informants America; at worst, they will destroy the
Brazil has indicated that if the seven-nation Alliance and serve final notice upon the Alaska, which, so far as I am concerned,
committee is approved, it will insist that the great booming masses of its people that eliminates any necessity for my amend
action be ratified by the congress of each they are reduced to the alternatives of ment, which would seek to cut an addi member nation. This could delay formation communism or military fascism.
tional $10 million from military aid for of the committee for several years. The United States, too, must make up Latin America, now gives us a new op
The Brazilians argued that the sevenits mind what it really wants to accom- portunity, a changed opportunity, and
nation committee would only impede the aid
program by increasing redtape. But many plish in Latin America. We, too, must gives to free nations in Latin America
delegates, particularly those from smaller decide whether we are going to base our a different opportunity, too, because we
countries, agreed that Brazil's opposition was policy on the assumption that is wide- say, “We will help you in the face of any
based on the feeling that she would be respread in many parts of this country, threat to your internal security from the
duced to the level of other nations applying including very high places in the Departs standpoint of Communist coups, from for aid funds and that a mostly Latin Ameriments of State and Defense, that Latin the standpoint of the Communist take
can committee would be less sensitive to people are incapable of self-government. over which seeks to destroy a free gov- political considerations than the United
States has been. It is a widespread assumption that they ernment, but we are not going to damage are not now and probably will never be you, and we are not going to weaken you;
FIRM U.S. BACKING good for anything but military rule, we are not going to put you in danger U.S. Under Secretary of State W. Averell autocratic rule, the kind of government from a threat by giving the other kind of Harriman, head of the American delegation, that directs their lives from above and military aid that we have been giving placed U.S. support firmly behind the pro
posed committee yesterday and said if the tells them what to do economically, for so long, which makes it possible for
program to accelerate Latin America's ecopolitically, and socially. a military coup to build itself up and
nomic growth is lagging, it is largely Latin I have heard variations on that line threaten the survival and the perpetua America's fault. many times. I have heard men experi- tion of a free government.
Mr. Harriman said that since the Alliance enced in international affairs shrug at Mr. President, we have a long way to
for Progress was launched 27 months ago, the problems of Latin America, and tell go in Latin America. Sometime ago,
the United States has poured out $2.3 billion. me that they never have had a legal sys- the chairman of the Committee on For
"Within Latin America,” he declared,
"there have also been delays in establishing tem or a social or economic system that eign Relations stated clearly that the would permit the kind of peaceful prog- Alliance for Progress would not be built domestic resources, in establishing priorities,
effective planning machinery, in mobilizing ress envisioned by the Alliance for Prog- in a few years—and it will not be if the and above all in the development of wellress. I have been told, "People have al- Alliance for Progress grows into the fru conceived and technically sound projects."
Mr. Harriman said the Alliance needs "a that the United States would accept modifi beaten by repressive forces. Senator Mella greater multilateralization of effort and cations of the plan.
also is under arrest and treated with lack of strengthened political leadership.” He said
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I suggest
consideration. Once more human rights are the proposed committee, "under the leaderthe absence of a quorum.
trampled in this country by usurpers of ship of a distinguished Latin American
power. Would that it were possible that chairman, can and should give a vigorous The PRESIDING OFFICER. The the committee over which you preside might new impetus to our common efforts." clerk will call the roll.
intervene with the appropriate organ so that Mr. Harriman's 45-minute speech was The legislative clerk proceeded to call the Human Rights Commission might be warmly received, even by the chief Brazilian the roll.
sent with the purpose of ending the persecudelegate, Finance Minister Carlos Alberto
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask
tion and outrages against the citizens and Carvalho Pinto.
unanimous consent that the order for legitimate representatives of the people. Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I also the quorum call be rescinded.
MORA OVIEDO, ask unanimous consent to have printed The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without
Senator. in the RECORD at this point as a part of objection, it is so ordered.
ESPINAL HUED, my remarks an article entitled "Brazil Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I shall
Senator. Suggests All Nations Join Alliance Giv- hasten this discussion by asking unani
CASMIRO CASTRO, ing," published in the Washington Post mous consent to have printed at this
Senator. of November 14, 1963, dealing with a pro- point in the RECORD a letter dated Octo That letter was from three Senators posal invitation to other nations, pos- ber 5, 1963, from Jose Figueres, former
of the Dominican Republic Senate. A sibly even the Soviet Union, to con- President of Costa Rica, in support of sordid tale is told of the persecutions and tribute to the Alliance for Progress. the principle that I have upheld in re
denial of civil liberties and human rights There being no objection, the article gard to juntas and military aid.
practiced upon many persons in the was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, There being no objection, the letter Dominican Republic as a result of the as follows:
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, junta. Thus there can be no denial of BRAZIL SUGGESTS ALL NATIONS JOIN ALLIANCE as follows:
the position which the senior Senator GIVING
from Oregon has taken in opposition to SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL, November 13.-Brazil is
FACULTY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES,
any assistance to that junta until consounding out Latin American nations on a
Cambridge, Mass., October 5, 1963.
stitutional government is returned. suggestion to invite other nations, possibly Hon. WAYNE MORSE, even the Soviet Union, to contribute to the
I ask unanimous consent to have The Senate, Washington, D.C. Alliance for Progress, informed sources said
DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Congratulations on printed at this point in the RECORD, withtoday.
your stand on the Dominican and Hon out taking the time to read it, a letter They said first reaction was cool from other duran crises.
to the editor of the New York Times from delegations attending the Inter-American In the New York Times, October 5, page 1 Miguel Y digoras-Fuentes, Constitutional Economic and Social Council session in São continued, Tad Szulk says that the U.S.
President of Guatemala, dated November Paulo. military mission encouraged the coup in
6, 1963, and published in the New York Many delegates obviously fear that the
Santo Domingo. opening of the Alliance to those outside the
This is what is happening everywhere.
Times of November 13, 1963. Western Hemisphere would endanger U.S. The military call communism any social re There being no objection, the letter financial support. The United States is com form, and act independently.
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, mitted to give Latin America economic aid It is a waste of time, money, and health as follows: to the tune of $10 billion over 10 years. to try to do anything wholeheartedly until
GUATEMALA UPSET SEEN-OUSTED HEAD BEThe Brazilian paper circulating among the U.S. Government adopts a uniform pol
LIEVES OPPOSITION IS RISING TO REGIME delegates was said to be an explanation why icy toward social reform through elected gov
ernments. Brazil opposes the present plan to create a
To the EDITOR OF THE NEW YORK TIMES:
Although I do not agree with all of Paul
Sincerely, seven-man coordinating committee to spend
Kennedy's appraisal of the present political Alliance aid.
Mr. MORSE. I ask unanimous con tragedy of the Guatemalan people, he deThe sources said Brazil's plan is not in the form of a proposed resolution but merely is sent to have printed at this point in the
serves praise for his November 3 news arti
cle "Guatemala Chief Facing Pressure," for advanced as a suggestion. RECORD a telegram I received from Fran
it sheds light on the tragedy. The idea would be to internationalize the cisco J. Orlich, President of Costa Rica,
Some of the business sector accused my Alliance for Progress program, now strictly dealing with my position in regard to administration of being inept and corrupt, United States-Latin American operation. military juntas and military aid.
as your correspondent states, but that was One highly placed informant said the plan There being no objection, the telegram due to the agrarian reform, the first income would open the Alliance to all comers, includwas ordered to be printed in the RECORD,
tax law and other social measures adopted ing the Soviet Union if necessary. as follows:
by my constitutional government, which This is the Brazil plan as reported: All
SAN JOSE, COSTA RICA,
greatly affected the vested interests of the Latin American countries would contribute
October 17, 1963.
wealthy in Guatemala. They went so far a total of $1 billion a year to the Alliance Hon. Senator WAYNE MORSE,
as to imply that I was also a pro-Commuprogram; the United States would contribute
Chairman, Foreign Affairs Subcommittee for nist in disguise. $1 billion; then other countries would also
Latin America, U.S. Senate, Washing The opposition to Col. Enrique Peralta be invited to participate.
Azurdia's de facto and dictatorial regime is Last week at a meeting of Alliance experts,
Congratulations for your magnificent stand certainly growing, as I predicted. It should Brazil opposed the generally agreed upon against military coups in Latin America. be borne in mind, however, that the despotic plan to set up a seven-nation inter-American
Your fight is considered necessary and with regime never did enjoy a wide and deepcoordinating committee.
due respect I beg you to maintain the same seated popular appeal. That is the reason The Brazilian paper now in circulation is effort until we can consolidate democratic why it abolished the Constitution, eliminatsaid to argue that the committee would only regimes in Latin America. My Foreign ed Congress and converted Guatemala into a increase the red tape and bureaucracy that Minister will see you next week in Wash- police state. Brazil insists is holding up the program now. ington.
Almost all political parties, as Mr. KenOfficially, the conference took no notice of
nedy's article points out, are bitterly against the Brazilian proposal.
FRANCISCO J. ORLICH,
the present de facto regime, opposing by all The Alliance came in for criticism from
President of Costa Rica. means at their disposal the brutal internal Bolivia's Roberto Jordan Pando, who claimed
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, under ures adopted by Peralta and his associates in
policies and the senseless international measthat the aid program was being bogged down by U.S. bureaucracy. date of November 2, 1963, I received the
crime. Bolivia also joined Brazil in opposing the following cablegram from three members
INCREASED TERRORISM creation of the seven-nation inter-American of the Senate of the Dominican Re
Terrorism and guerrilla warfare have inAlliance Committee. public:
creased lately. Both have been so great, in However, the committee plan was support
fact, that on several occasions road and ed by U.S. Delegation Chief W. Averell Harri
other communications have been severed man.
between Guatemala City and other points He conceded that no one is "wholly satis
November 2, 1963. in the interior, notably the northeastern fied with the progress of the Alliance pro Senator WAYNE MORSE,
seaboard. Military unrest has been growing gram,” but he said much more has been done Washington, D.C.:
despite Colonel Peralta's attempt to court than often is recognized by public opinion. Today Dr. Juan Casasnovas Garrido, Presi the affection of younger military officers and
While backing the creation of the seven dent of the Republic in accordance with the more liberal-minded military that remember man Alliance committee, Harriman indicated Constitution, was arrested, wounded, and with shame their oath to defend the Con
stitution. This unrest is bound to increase of President John F. Kennedy. I am re- people, is conducting its business in an illuntil the tyrannical regime is overthrown. ferring specifically to the Alliance for Prog- mannered fashion, the thing for its members
Hundreds of Guatemalans are in prison, ress, that gigantic and multilateral effort to do is to resign from the Armed Forces
Undoubtedly, the more than 200 petition destined to raise, in the social and economic and enter politics, observing—as any one ers who signed the recent political memoran fields, the standard of living of millions of else—the rules of the game. When they dum are extremely brave citizens, who de Latin Americans. You may recall my own usurp power and oust a democratic and serve the gratitude of the whole nation. It efforts, initiated during the first semester of constitutional government, no matter what is imperative, as they urge, to put an end to my term in 1958, to accelerate the economic pretext they might advance for their action, the de facto regime with its military clique, integration of the Central American Repub the international community should react who believe that free institutions always lead lics; and President Kubitscheck's vast plan with energy, vigor and indignation-sancto chaos and, in the end, to communism. which he entitled "Operation Pan America," tioning their ill-conceived and ill-executed
The only legal solution is to return to of the same year. But it is also true that performance. constitutional government, calling the Vice without President Kennedy's understanding In normal times, the international family President (First Designate) to rule the coun of the problem and without his complete of nations suffers inmensely when a demotry and in accordance with our National Con support, the Alliance for Progress would not cratic regime is decapitated. In this atomic stitution, article 165, to call for presidential have been established at Punta del Este, on era, when years are reduced to weeks and elections in the next 4 months, supervised August 17, 1961.
months to minutes, any democratic setback by the Organization of American States. The Alliance is a most ambitious program, is much more dangerous to the community Guatemala deserves this solution in order but it must be implemented, as the "Declara because it affords its enemies an excellent to benefit from such great undertakings as tion of the Peoples of the Americas” reads, in opportunity to give the West a major setthe Alliance for Progress.
a free climate, with free institutions, always back in international politics. MIGUEL YDIGORAS-FUENTES,
respectful of human rights. If it were other As to the present situation in Guatemala, Constitutional President of Guatemala. wise, as the Communist claim to be doing the de facto and dictatorial regime has MIAMI, FLA., November 6, 1963.
in the enslaved island of Cuba, the joint openly and defiantly violated the Charter of
effort would make a mockery out of repre the United Nations, the Charter of the OrgaMr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask sentative democracy and, in the end, it would nization of American States, the Universal unanimous consent to have printed at be completely useless.
Declaration of Human Rights, the American this point in the RECORD a letter dated The military that overthrow legitimate, Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man, October 5, 1963, that I received from constitutional and democratic regimes in the Declaration of Santiago de Chile of 1959 Miguel Y digoras Fuentes, constitutional Latin America do so ostensibly on many and most of the instruments pertaining to President of Guatemala, in support of grounds, but in fact because they abhor the the rule of law and the protection of funda
democratic way of life, free and constructive mental freedoms. It has converted the many of the positions I have taken.
dialog, and the right to dissent from the There being no objection, the letter philosophy that guides any government or
country into a terrible police state.
Colonel Enrique Peralta and his associates was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, the means used to achieve the ends sought. in crime have ruthlessly suppressed the freeas follows:
To them the multiplicity of political parties, doms fully enjoyed by the Guatemalan peoSAN MARCO ISLAND, MIAMI, FLA.,
the establishment of labor unions and the ple under my administration. Monstrous 5 de Octubre de 1963.
free expression of opinion, for example, are laws have been decreed. Congress has been Hon. WAYNE MORSE,
characteristic of "decadent” societies, and abolished. Habeas corpus has been elimU.S. Senator from Oregon, Chairman, Latin
roads which inevitably lead to chaos and inated. An indefinite stage of seige exists American subcommittee, the Senate of anarchy. This is the outlook-very primi in the country. Military tribunals judge the United States, Washington, D.C.
tive indeed-of the extremists of the right, ordinary offenses (called, by the ruling and DEAR SENATOR MORSE: Since our last con
of the totalitarians a la Hitler and Musso reactionary clique, seditious and subversive). versation in the middle of the summer, when
lini. In other words, their outlook is com Hundreds have been jailed, and many miswe exchanged points of view regarding the pletely negative and obstructionist; and, treated before being sent into exile in formilitary coup in Guatemala which ousted the
what is worse, they form a close and fra eign but friendly lands. There is a growlegitimate Government I had the honor of
ternal alliance with every other bitter enemy ing list of Guatemalans being summarily presiding, in accordance with the mandate of
of democracy in that they wish democracy to shot. The paredon as in Cuba, is becomthe majority of Guatemalans expressed in
fail. They pretend to stay in power by point ing a national institution. Freedom of exthe free elections of January 1958, other ing out, falsely of course, that the sole al pression is not only a myth: it is admittedly military takeovers have occurred in Latin
ternative to Communist rule is military mis nonexistent. High schools have been miliAmerica and the social-political situation in rule and oligarchic reaction.
tarized. Social progress has come to a comGuatemala has gravely deteriorated.
Some have advocated that dictatorship plete stop. My own struggle against communism is, and de facto governments should be ex I denounced all these terrible violations I believe, well known in the United States cluded from participating in the Inter to the Inter-American Commission on Human and in Latin America. It is, I am sure, American System. A year ago, at the Rights, in late August, and requested that recognized by the political leaders in your Organization of American States, several body to investigate the charges and take apcountry and by many Latin Americans who Latin American democratic countries intro propriate measures. In statements and lethave the responsibility of government. It is duced a resolution to have a Meeting of ters to the press I have warned that represstated in my book: "My War With Com Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs sive measures are on the increase and that munism,” Prentice Hall (July 1963).
discuss that possibility. Although my Gov the hatred of the Guatemalan people for I say this because the American Continent ernment was naturally sympathetic to the the present regime is growing. Guatemalans, must, on the one hand, repudiate the im- initiative, it instructed its Permanent Mis from every walk of life, are responding to perialist and aggressive policies and purposes sion not to vote affirmatively because (1) it the situation with greater acts of bravery, of the international Communist movement,
was uncertain as to the effectiveness of the and even with terrorist acts and increased and, on the other, condemn in no uncertain step proposed and (2) it believed that other guerrilla activities, because there is no soluterms the objectives and the methods of the measures (joint breaking of diplomatic rela tion in sight. right extremists, since they are intrinsically tions and collective economic sanctions, for Not a word has been said officially about antagonistic to the democratic aspirations example) could be taken outside the Inter general elections. And even if they were of the peoples of the Western Hemisphere American System, in a less formal but more convoked, there is absolutely no guarantee and destructive to their free institutions. effective manner. What my Government that they would be free. As a matter of
As it happens with any human society, on had in mind, my dear friend, was to consult fact, they could not be, unless a new govoccasions legitimate and democratic govern with other legitimate governments as to the ernment took over and conducted itself fairments commit errors in procedure which, possibility of "continentalizing" Article II ly, restoring the fundamental freedoms unfortunately, are greatly exaggerated in of the Central American Treaty of Peace and which have been trampled over by the milipress dispatches. The Guatemalan press had Friendship, signed in Washington on Feb tary boot. been under censorship prior to 1958. The ruary 7th, 1923, through which de facto and Colonel Peralta's regime has not only departies opposing my government and de- unconstitutional regimes would not be rec fied the sovereign will of the Guatemalan feated at the polls, began, by means of the ognized diplomatically.
people, but-with incredible audacity and freedom of the press I imposed, a vicious What the Latin American community impunity-has defied all the American Corcampaign against my government, never seen needs, in my opinion, is to intensify its eco tinent. Its contempt for the opinion of before. One thing is to correct the mistakes nomic development and to greatly acceler democratic leaders of the Americas has no that might be committed in a democracy, ate social justice, before it is too late, but bounds. and quite another to take advantage of the certainly preserving-in the process—the Should you wish, my dear Senator MORSE, freedoms of democracy to destroy it.
fundamental rights of man. It is intoler to distribute copies of this letter to your During the past 2 years, the inter-Ameri- able to have any part of the population pass distinguished colleagues in the Latin Amercan community has come to realize that dogmatic judgment on the desires and needs ican Subcommittee of the Senate of the Unit“political" and "social” democracies must go of the majority; and much worse if any pop ed States and, particularly, to my good hand in hand, because they mutually com- ular sector denies, through undemocratic friend Senator BOURKE B. HICKENLOOPER, of plement each other. This realization has re means, the wishes of other popular sectors. Iowa, you may do so without any hesitancy. ceived great impetus, in my opinion, thanks If a group of Colonels believes that the If, however, you desire to include it in the to the courageous and dynamic leadership legitimate government, freely elected by the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, feel free to do so.