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poses, in the form of relief for hungry Aid to possessions, 1946-63—Continued Ohio (Mr. YOUNG], and myself be withpeople, or in the form of medical sup- Jamaica:
Millions drawn. plies, that is a different matter. We Technical co-op grants---
$2.5 The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
Public Law 480, title III.do not know what proportion of such
Senator has the right to withdraw it. aid was in that form. I do not have
He withdraws the amendment.
7.0 the figures at tongue point.
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I call up Mr. FULBRIGHT. Did the Senator Surinam:
my amendment No. 265, and I would like say “tongue point”?
Technical co-op grants---
to have the attention of the Senator from Mr. MORSE. Yes; tongue point. Public Law 480, title III.
.5 Minnesota (Mr. HUMPHREY). I have That is a familiar point with me.
prepared a modification of it. Mr. FULBRIGHT. Is that a colony?
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Mr. MORSE. I know from some of our
amendment will be stated. discussion in committee that some of the Trinidad and Tobago:
The LEGISLATIVE CLERK. On page 39 Technical co-op grants---
2.5 money was for humanitarian purposes.
strike out lines 10 to 17 inclusive, and inPublic Law 480, title III.
.4 Mr. FULBRIGHT. Certainly, some of
sert in lieu thereof the following: the aid that went to Hong Kong was.
2.9 SEC. 254. RESTRICTIONS ON ASSISTANCE.Mr. MORSE. Some of it was not.
(a) None of the funds made available under Mr. President, since I joined as a co- Hong Kong:
authority of this Act may be used to fursponsor of the amendment, if the Sena Technical co-op grants.
0 nish assistance to any country covered by this tor from Alaska wishes to share my Public Law 480:
title in which the government has come to judgment, in view of the record we
29.4 power through the forcible overthrow of a
1.0 have been making, I suggest that he
prior government which has been chosen in
free and democratic elections. might withdraw the amendment.
30.4 (b) The provision of this section shall Mr. SYMINGTON. Mr. President, will
not require the withholding of assistance to the Senator yield?
Western Samoa: Program under Public any country if the President determines and Mr. MORSE. I yield to the Senator Law 480 started fiscal year 1962---- 0 promptly reports to the Congress that withfrom Missouri.
Other oversea territories in Africa---- 0 holding of such assistance would be conMr. SYMINGTON. Would the Sen- Other British territories (sterling area): trary to the national interest and if the two ator tell us whether we are at tongue
Technical co-op grants.--
.3 Houses of Congress do not adopt a concurPublic Law 480, title III.
.6 rent resolution disapproving the continuance point for a vote tonight.
of such assistance within sixty days after the Mr. MORSE. I think, with mutual
.9 President notifies the two Houses of his cooperation, we can reach a vote tonight.
determination during a period when the The Senator had better sit down be- Other French community and posses Congress is in session. fore I tell him this, because I am sure sions:
The PRESIDING OFFICER. The he would not be able to take it stand Technical co-op grants--
Other-ing up. I have only one more amend
question is on agreeing to the amend5. O
ment, as modified, offered by the Senament.
tor from Oregon [Mr. MORSE] to the Mr. SYMINGTON. I would be will
committee amendment in the nature of ing to lie down if we could reach that Portuguese possessions: Technical co
a substitute. final vote.
.3 Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, I Mr. MORSE. I have only one more
Since 1942 (some countries later) eco
suggest the absence of a quorum. amendment.
nomic aid totals $18.2 million. Does not in The PRESIDING OFFICER. The I am waiting for a telephone call from clude title II-III, Public Law 480. All Pub- clerk will call the roll. the State Department. I believe it will lic Law 480 food and fiber was charitable; The legislative clerk proceeded to call have the good judgment to accept the none sold.
the roll. amendment.
Mr. MORSE. With that insertion in Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, I Mr. HUMPHREY. We have it here.
the RECORD by the Senator from Alaska, ask unanimous consent that the order Mr. MORSE. I wish to place certain which shows the aid that we have given for the quorum call be rescinded. figures in the RECORD.
to the colonies from 1946 through 1963, The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. PELL Mr. GRUENING. I appreciate the re- plus the figures for 1963, and with the in the chair). Without objection, it is marks of the Senator from Oregon. In light of the assurances of the chairman urging upon the administration that it so ordered.
recognize the fact that when they come Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I wish to that this relief is petering out—even for an authorization bill next year the further modify my amendment, so that though it involves only one case, I still Senator from Alaska and the Senator paragraph (b) of the amendment will think the principle is important—and in from Oregon, even if we are the only read as follows: view of the record that has been made, two, will be calling upon the administra The provision of this section shall not reI will agree with my cosponsor, who un
tion to show what was done with respect quire the withholding of assistance to any fortunately is not in the Chamber at to aid to colonies, and what justification country if the President determines and the moment to withdraw the amend
can be given for it, and that we will re- promptly reports to the Congress that withment. I ask unanimous consent to insert at is given, I am glad to join the Senator Houses of Congress do not adopt a concuroffer the amendment if no justification holding of such assistance would be contrary
to the national interest and if the two this point a list of the amount of aid from Alaska in withdrawing the amend- rent resolution disapproving the continuthat we have given to the possessions in ment. the past 15 years.
ance of such assistance within thirty days
Mr. GRUENING. When we examine after the President notifies the two Houses There being no objection, the list was the figures, we see that they are not of his determinationordered to be printed in the RECORD, as minuscule. They amount to over $18 That will strike out the language I forfollows: million.
merly had in the amendment
during a period of time when the Congress British Guiana: Millions about to say. That is since 1946.
is in session. Technical co-op grants..
$2.8 Public Law 480, title III.
Mr. GRUENING. That is a policy .7
Mr. President, I shall be as brief as I which we can condemn retrospectively.
can in discussing this amendment to the Total--
The stable door has been left open and 3.5
committee amendment, but it will call the horse is gone. I hope, in view of
for some discussion. British Honduras: the record we are making, that this
This language was drafted by the DeTechnical co-op grants.
1.0 folly would not be repeated. If it is partment of State. It is well known by Public Law 480:
repeated, such an amendment can unTitle II.-
the Senate and by the Senate Foreign Title III.-doubtedly be adopted next time.
Relations Committee that I have taken Mr. President, I ask that the amend the position that no President, I care not Total..
2.3 ment, sponsored by the Senator from who he may be, should be allowed to ex
Oregon [Mr. MORSE), the Senator from ercise unchecked power in granting U.S.
taxpayers' dollar aid to a military junta ought to go to some country that other The amendment may be defeated but in the Western Hemisphere that over- wise would be covered by the amend I assure Senators that rejecting the throws a democratically elected constitu- ment, and could make a case for it when amendment will not end the issue in this tional government. It is well known in Congress returned, the Congress would
Congress returned, the Congress would country, for I am satisfied that the the Foreign Relations Committee that sustain him. That is his risk.
amendment is in line with the thinking time and time again I have stressed a If he cannot make a case, and if he of most of the people of our country. fact which cannot be denied-namely, gives aid that proves to be unjustifiable, Most of the people of our country are that many of our best friends in Latin the President will have to answer for very much concerned about supporting America fear military juntas and fear either giving the aid or for his failure questionable governments around the U.S. economic aid to military junta gov- to do so. If the situation were so seri- world.
world. Our people have come to recogernments or to civilian stooges which ous that a special session of Congress nize that too frequently we have been those governments set up to control the was warranted, he could call a special found supporting the wrong man. Too country, using democratic sloganeering session of Congress. But that is a hypo- frequently we have been caught supportafter they have destroyed a democrati- thetical situation which bears very little
thetical situation which bears very little ing dictators and tyrants, only to have cally elected government.
resemblance to reality, for I do not be- them do such irreparable damage to An hour or so ago I placed in the lieve that any President would act in bad their people that their wrongs have RECORD communications from the Presi- faith. I do not believe that any Presi- washed off onto us.
washed off onto us. The image of the dent of Costa Rica, the former President dent would seek to take advantage of a United States has been tarnished in to Guatemala, and Senators of the Do- Congress when it was out of session. many places in the world because we minican Republic, among others, in Furthermore, the amendment would not have been found supporting dictatorships which they all expressed the fear that is in any way interfere with the diplomatic that have been guilty of atrocious conso well known in the Foreign Relations recognition power of the President of the duct toward their people. I believe that Committee of the Senate.
United States, and I would not support any President would welcome the kind I went downtown and I talked with an amendment that did, for I am too of cooperation from the Congress that administration leaders. I wish to make firm a believer in our separation-of- my amendment calls for. clear that they prefer to have no check powers doctrine to interfere with what I do not believe any President wishes upon the President. It is true that the is, in fact, the Executive power of the to give aid to any country unless ConPresident himself would prefer to have President.
gress has had an opportunity to review no check upon his exercise of discretion.
But it is not within the Executive his proposals and his reasons therefor. It is also true that the Department of power of the President under our Con In my judgment, I shall not be doing State-yes, even the President-must be stitution to spend taxpayers
any injury to the President of the United reminded from time to time that our without authorization and authority States by this proposal. It will be those Government is a constitutional repre- from the Congress. That is the great in Congress who do not wish to vote for sentative government based upon checks, difference. In the debate on another the check who will weaken the prestige including the power of the Congress to amendment a few moments ago, we of the President of the United States. check the President. This is one place again heard the statement that some of Millions of people in this country wish in which we must maintain a check. No our amendments seek to interfere with to know, “What are they afraid of? matter what course of action the Con- the foreign-policymaking powers of the What is the President afraid of?” Since gress may take in regard to the subject President. That is pure nonsense.
when should the White House be afraid before the Senate, if it is unwilling to
The Congress has the constitutional of this kind of rightful check of the Conimpose a check, millions of American
duty to decide what taxpayers' money gress upon any recommendation he may people will make clear to this adminis- shall be spent for. It has the duty to make for aid to a foreign government? tration that they want a check.
pass on the details of an authorization Let us take a look at the kind of Many American people are disturbed bill. The Constitution itself provides foreign government we are talking about. about unchecked Presidential power.
that money may not be spent except in We are talking about a military, Fascist After my conferences downtown, the
accordance with appropriation by law. form of government. We are talking Department of State on behalf of the
That is the principle that the Senator about a form of government in which a Secretary of State, and acting through
from Oregon is standing for from the military coup has overthrown a demothe Assistant Secretary of State, Mr. standpoint of the constitutional right of
standpoint of the constitutional right of cratic, constitutionally elected, free govDutton, brought up the language which
the Congress. I do not intend to weaken ernment in the Western Hemisphere. I am now offering. They said they would that duty and responsibility.
Throughout Latin America one demoaccept that language. As the chairman
I emphasize again that the amendment cratic President after another is “tremof the committee said in conversation
would not interfere with the right of the bling at his knees,” figuratively speaking, with me a few moments ago, it is true President to recognize the government, because he is not sure that American that they would prefer no check at all.
but it does provide that he may not spend military aid, used in the hands of a There is no doubt about it. But I wish
taxpayers' money in aiding any govern- military junta, may not spring up to the Senate to understand that the lan
ment that has overthrown a democratic, overthrow him. We have witnessed this guage I am offering is the identical lan
constitutionally elected government in in the two recent overthrows in the Doguage which the State Department ad
the Western Hemisphere, unless Con- minican Republic and in Honduras. In vised the senior Senator from Oregon it
gress is given 30 days to review the rea Honduras a constitutionally elected govwould accept. I read it again:
sons for seeking to give that country eco ernment was overthrown only a few days (a) The provision of this section shall not nomic aid.
before a presidential election in which require the withholding of assistance to any
Listening to some Senators in private one of the major issues had become the country if the President determines and
conversation discussing the subject, one proposal of the leading candidate that, promptly reports to the Congress that withholding of such assistance would be contrary
might think that 30 days is 30 years, and if elected, he would urge passage of the to the national interest and if the two
that the proposed period of time would necessary legislation to bring the miliHouses of Congress do not adopt a concur
be unreasonable. It is the period of time tary under civilian control. The military rent resolution disapproving the continuance that the Department of State itself wrote in Honduras wanted none of that. The of such assistance within 30 days after the into the language that it sent to me. I military in Honduras wanted to be suPresident notifies the two Houses of his believe that it ought to have been 60 preme. The military in Honduras is a determination.
days. When I suggested to the State caste. The military in Honduras tramThe question might properly be
be Department representatives that it ought pled freedom underfoot in that coup. raised—and that is why I suggested to be 60 days, they said they would be The Dominican Republic had a consome additional language-What if the willing to accept 60 days. After conver
willing to accept 60 days. After conver- stitutionally elected government. I hold Congress is not in session ?
sations with the chairman of the com no brief for any shortcomings of the In my judgment, if the state of affairs mittee, the majority leader, and the ma administration of their President, but should be such-although I cannot imag- jority whip, I said I would offer the
jority whip, I said I would offer the he was serving under a constitution; and ine such a hypothetical state of facts amendment and leave it at 30 days with the Constitution of the Dominican Rethat during a recess of Congress the sit out changing a single word of the lan- public provided for procedures to check uation should become so serious that the guage that the Department of State the President in connection with any inPresident would think that some aid sent up.
efficiencies or maladministration of
which he might have been guilty—if its recommendation to the Senate, as if The Senator from Oregon states very any. But, instead of following a consti- we should accept it. This is one rec- glibly that it requires only a few days tutional system, a military junta- ommendation of the State Department, to obtain action. We have already taken trained by American military training if it is a recommendation-with which 3 weeks on a bill with which we are thorprograms, using American military I do not agree.
oughly familiar, which we have passed equipment-destroyed that Government. It may well be that State Department 15 times, and we are not through with it
To date, the Government has not been officials have told the Senator from Ore- yet. I do not know how any Senator recognized. To date, we have withheld gon that they could live with this lan- could stand up in this body and say that our aid. The question is: When should guage. However, it is unwise to tie the we would act in a few days. We do not aid be resumed?
hands of the President in that way. know. We know that the power of one In my judgment, aid should not be re I call attention to section 254, on page Senator to delay action is a great power. sumed until a constitutionally elected 39 of the bill This language was offered More than one could cause indefinite government is reestablished in the Do- by the Senator from Oregon, but he also delay. minican Republic. The coup in the Do- offered additional language, which is not
I do not think it is good argument to minican Republic and the coup in Hon- unlike, in purpose. what the Senator now say that action would require only a duras gave rise to much of the ferment offers, and which restricted the power short period. in American public opinion that led to of the President even more.
That is not the main reason why I this amendment.
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, if I may object to the amendment. In a sense, it All I ask the Senate to do is to accept interrupt the Senator, it is all right to reflects on the integrity of any Presithe language that the State Department cite the language, but it is not the lan- dent, and intimates that he cannot be itself is willing to accept, although, as I guage of the Senator from Oregon. It is trusted in an emergency to exercise made clear to the Senator from Arkansas language that was within the amendment power within the restrictions that al[Mr. FULBRIGHT), they would prefer no of the Senator from Oregon.
ready exist in the bill, and particularly language at all. The Department sug Mr. FULBRIGHT. That is what I with regard to the emergency funds. gested this language, and I have offered said.
I hope the Senate will not accept the it as my amendment.
Mr. MORSE. I do not own the lan
amendment. The PRESIDING OFFICER. The guage in the bill.
Mr. LAUSCHE. Mr. President, will question is on agreeing to the amend Mr. FULBRIGHT. I know. I was
the Senator yield? ment of the Senator from Oregon (Mr. making the point that the committee
Mr. FULBRIGHT. I yield. MORSE) to the committee amendment, thoroughly considered the amendment
Mr. LAUSCHE. If the amendment in the nature of a substitute, as amend- offered by the Senator from Oregon, and were a part of the law and an emergency ed.
this was the part which the committee existed such as occurred in Vietnam, Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I agreed upon. It rejected the further would the President be able to act? suggest the absence of a quorum. restrictive language which is now being
Mr. FULBRIGHT. This amendment The PRESIDING OFFICER. The sought to be reinserted. It is not exact
is restricted to the Western Hemisphere. clerk will call the roll. ly the same language, but for all prac
It does not affect Vietnam. However, if The legislative clerk proceeded to call tical purposes, it is.
a similar emergency occurred within the the roll.
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, let me
Western Hemisphere, he could not act Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I interrupt once again to say that the within 30 days if Congress were in sesask unanimous consent that the order language I had offered in committee was
sion. If it were not in session, the for the quorum call be rescinded.
language that called for a report from President would be able to call it into The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without the President, and a concurrent resolu- session. objection, it is so ordered. tion by both Houses, approving it. As I
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, of course Mr. MORSE. There is not much point made clear, it would require only a mat
the President could come to Congress in voting until a quorum is present. ter of days to obtain action. In lieu of and ask for affirmative action, and he Mr. FULBRIGHT. I understood that it, the administration proposed the neg
would get it, if there were an emergency. the Senator from Oregon did not wish a ative approach of 30
ative approach of 30 days, in which both Mr. FULBRIGHT. The Senator knows yea-and-nay vote.
Houses would have an opportunity to it would be very unusual for Congress to Mr. MORSE. That would be true, if reject.
act within a few days when a question we can have some understanding as to Mr. FULBRIGHT. I assure the Sen of that gravity was involved. accepting the amendment; but if I am ator that I was not trying to mislead the Mr. MORSE. If a real emergency to be outvoted by a voice vote, I desire Senate. There is a difference in the lan were involved, Congress would act in a a record vote, to put Senators on record. guage. I make the point that while the few hours. We provided $3 billion in
Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, State Department may have preferred the Berlin situation in a very short time. there are not enough Senators present that language to the previous language, Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I in the Chamber to order the yeas and in my opinion it is not favorable to either ask for the yeas and nays on the pending nays. I ask unanimous consent—this is version. Be that as it may, the prin amendment. not to be considered a precedent—that ciple involved is not the right or power The yeas and nays were ordered. the yeas and nays be ordered on this of Congress to determine the payment amendment.
Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, will of our taxpayers' money under the bill. the Senator yield? The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there Nobody is questioning that right. objection?
Mr. FULBRIGHT. I yield. Rather, there is involved the question of Mr. FULBRIGHT. I wish a quorum the wisdom of doing it. In my opinion, clear that the objective of the Morse
Mr. HUMPHREY. I want to make call in any case, if there is to be a yea it is not wise to further restrict the and-nay vote.
amendment is contained in section 254 President's freedom of action in this Mr. MANSFIELD. Mr. President, I field.
of the bill, under the heading "Restricsuggest the absence of a quorum.
The bill before the Senate provides
tions on Assistance." The provision The PRESIDING OFFICER. The for a contingency fund. It always has.
reads: clerk will call the roll. It is recognized that there will be emer
None of the funds made available under The legislative clerk proceeded to call gency situations. Certainly, the over
authority of this Act may be used to furnish the roll. throw of governments by force and
assistance to any country covered by this Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, I violence—which is the case when mili
title in which the government has come to
power through the forcible overthrow of a ask unanimous consent that the order tary juntas take over governments—is an prior government which has been chosen in for the quorum call be rescinded.
emergency situation which requires quick free and democratic elections unless the The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without action by the President. He is respon President determines that withholding such objection, it is so ordered.
sible for it. That is why we have pro assistance would be contrary to the national Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I vided a contingency fund.
interest. shall speak briefly. First, I am a little I think this further restriction is in The difference is that under the Morse surprised, after listening to the Senator tended to tie the hands of the President, amendment there would be a period of from Oregon castigate the State Depart- more than he is already restricted, in 30 days.
30 days. The Senator cooperated, durment for 3 weeks, to hear him now cite emergency cases.
ing the discussion on the amendment, by
"'(C) That it seeks to estahlish and maintain only such military force as may be adequate to prevent the internal overthrow of an elected government or to deter threatened external Communist attack;
“'(2) The furnishing of such assistance is required by an irrevocable commitment made, or contractual obligation incurred, prior to the date of enactment of this section; or
“'(3) In case of any such assistance extended in the form of loans, the interest rate thereon is not less than the average rate payable on obligations of the United State of comparable maturities.
“'(b) The total number of countries or areas receiving assistance under this Act subsequent to June 30, 1965, shall not exceed
reducing what he thought was the rea If present and voting, the Senator sonable period of 60 days to 30 days. from Nebraska (Mr. CURTIS) and the
So far as the principle of providing no Senator from Kentucky [Mr. MORTON] money or assistance to the Latin Ameri- would each vote “nay.” can countries is concerned because that The result was announced-yeas 11, is what is referred to under this title- nays 78, as follows: that principle is embodied in the bill be
(No. 233 Leg.) fore us. The difference is that the Morse
YEAS-11 amendment reads:
Gruening Robertson The provisions of this section shall not re
Dodd quire the withholding of assistance to any
NAYS—78 holding of such assistance would be contrary
Miller to the national interest and if the two
Hickenlooper Mundt rent resolution disapproving the continuance Bennett
Muskie of such assistance within thirty days after Bible
Nelson the President notifies the two Houses of his Boggs
Pell the Congress and the fact that Congress Byrd, W. Va. Jordan, N.C. Prouty
Jordan, Idaho Randolph could adopt a disapproving resolution.
Kennedy Russell not we are to rely upon the President of
Scott the United States to make the decision, Cooper Long, Mo. Smith under the limitations that are now in Dirksen
Mansfield Sparkman section 254.
Dominick McCarthy Symington
Thurmond the Senator yield for a question?
Edmondson McGovern Tower Mr. HUMPHREY. I yield.
McIntyre Williams, N.J.
Fulbright McNamara Williams. Del. Mr. KEATING. Does that language Goldwater Mechem Yarborough apply to any particular area of the world?
Young, N. Dak.
Ellender Magnuson Walters to Latin America.
Morton The PRESIDING OFFICER. The
So Mr. MORSE'S amendment to the question is on agreeing to the amendment of the Senator from Oregon (Mr. committee amendment in the nature of a
substitute was rejected. MORSE), as modified, to the committee amendment in the nature of a substitute,
Mr. FULBRIGHT. Mr. President, I as amended.
move that the Senate reconsider the vote The yeas and nays have been ordered, by which the amendment was rejected. and the clerk will call the roll.
Mr. HUMPHREY. I move to lay that
motion on the table. The legislative clerk called the roll.
The motion to lay on the table was Mr. HUMPHREY. I announce that the Senator from Louisiana (Mr. ELLEN
agreed to. DER], the Senator from Washington (Mr.
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I send to JACKSON), the Senator from Louisiana the desk amendment No. 129, and ask
that it be read. [Mr. LONG), the Senator from Washington [Mr. MAGNUSON), the Senator from
The legislative clerk read as follows: Florida (Mr. SMATHERS], the Senator On page 48, between lines 3 and 4, insert from Mississippi (Mr. STENNIS], the Sen- the following: ator from Tennessee (Mr. WALTERS], and
“(e) Add the following new section at the
end thereof: the Senator from New Mexico [Mr.
“ 'SEC. 620A. (a) PROHIBITION ON FURNISHANDERSON] are absent on official busi
ING OF ASSISTANCE SUBSEQUENT TO JUNE 30, ness.
1965.-Notwithstanding any other provision I also announce that the Senator from of this Act, no assistance shall be furnished California (Mr. ENGLE] is absent because pursuant to this Act to any country or area of illness.
(or enterprise therein) subsequent to June I further announce that, if present and
30, 1965 unlessvoting the Senator from Washington such assistance and can show that it is pur
“‘(1) Such country or area has requested [Mr. JACKSON), the Senator from suing the following economic, political, and Louisiana (Mr. LONG], the Senator from military policies: Washington (Mr. MAGNUSON], the Sen "'(A) That it (i) is seriously and continuator from Florida [Mr. SMATHERS], the ously engaged in measures of self-help, (ii) Senator from Mississippi (Mr. STENNIS), has taken appropriate steps to assure that its the Senator from Tennessee [Mr. WAL own private capital resources will be utilized TERS], and the Senator from New Mexico
within its own country or area, (iii) will (Mr. ANDERSON] would each vote “nay." enterprise sector of its own economy, (iv)
encourage the development of the private On this vote, the Senator from Louisi
has taken adequate steps, where appropriate ana [Mr. ELLENDER] is paired with the and necessary, to bring about reforms in Senator from California (Mr. ENGLE). such fields as land distribution and taxation If present and voting, the Senator from to enable its people fairly to share in the Louisiana would vote "yea” and the Sen- products of its development, and that the ator from California would vote “nay.” project or program for which economic aid Mr. KUCHEL. I announce that the is requested will contribute to the economic
or social development of the country; Senator from Nebraska [Mr. CURTIS] is
“'(B) That it is promoting the maximum absent on official business.
amount of individual freedom and is enThe Senator from Kentucky [Mr. couraging its people freely to choose their MORTON] is necessarily absent.
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, my amendment No. 129 was proposed, in the first instance, to Senate bill 1276 on July 18. I now offer it as an amendment to the committee amendment. It was pending in the Committee on Foreign Relations while consideration of the foreign aid bill was underway. It is now amendment No. 259. It was of this amendment that the committee said in its report:
In fact, the committee gave serious consideration to an amendment which would have terminated the program in its present form June 30, 1965, so that both the Congress and the administration could consider a major reorganization and reorientation of the program prior to that date. The committee refrained from adopting this amendment in the expectation, which it hopes will not prove unjustified, that the administration will submit a fiscal year 1965 program to Congress which has been revamped in major respects.
In the language of my amendment:
Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, no assistance shall be furnished pursuant to this Act to any country or area (or enterprise therein) subsequent to June 30, 1965, unless
And the amendment continues by setting forth new conditions for future aid.
We have accomplished that particular objective of amendment No. 129 by repealing the existing authorization for development loan funds.
Some progress has been made toward other objectives of the amendment for recasting the whole foreign aid program. For example, the amendment calls for all future loans to be made at interest rates that will be less than the average rate payable on obligations of the United States of comparable maturities.” The House bill requires that henceforth interest rates be at least 2 percent. The Senate bill now provides that they be at least 2 percent after the first 5 years.
When the effort was made to make these interest rates the equivalent of our own cost of borrowing, and later to substitute the House rate for the committee rate, it was argued that to do either of these would put our aid program in the form of a moneymaking one. Of course, it would do no such thing. It would only remove the interest rate subsidy from the loans.
Neither the provision in my revised foreign aid program nor the Gruening amendment would make this a moneymaking program. There is no proposal to eliminate grant aid. Grant aid would continue for projects that are vital to social and economic growth but which are not self-liquidating.
Any program for extending our aid I will go along with the President, as loafers standing around the sides of the after 1965 should be on the basis that he knows, every inch of the way in con- Chamber, engaging in conversation, and at least 75 percent or more of the money nection with a reformed foreign aid pro- preventing Senators from hearing the will be spent under a loan program, not gram which gives the U.S. taxpayers the debate. under a grant program. The time has protection which the Foreign Relations
The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. come when our foreign aid program Committee itself, as it states in its own KENNEDY in the chair). The Senate will should be reoriented, and it should be report, pleaded should be provided. But be in order. Conversations will cease. basically a loan program, and should not it did not give us a bill that would do Those standing along the walls of the be extended to 107 countries. Instead, that. Instead, it passed the buck—for Senate Chamber will leave the Chamber. it should be extended to not more than another year to the Executive; and
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I am 50 countries, because we cannot justify that buck has been passed by the Foreign shocked by the conduct of the Argentine the spending of the money of the U.S. Relations Committee to the Executive group and the Brazilian group at São taxpayers in connection with a foreign year after year, for year after year we Paulo. The Brazilian group in their secaid program for more than 50 countries, have been pleading for reform of the
ond attack now propose that we allow inasmuch as it is impossible to find more foreign aid program.
Russia and the countries of Western than 50 countries which really could
I also say to the President that our Europe to have a voice in the Alliance for qualify for a fair and equitable foreign country, with 6 percent of the population Progress program. I have no objection aid program.
of the world and with limited wealth, to their obtaining aid from those counWe propose that when loans are made, cannot begin to pour enough money into tries on the basis of whatever bilateral they be genuine loans. If a nation can foreign aid sinkholes around the world arrangements they may wish to make. not afford, or if a project will not sus- to help the poor very much. We do not
Mr. President, here is one voice and tain, a repayable loan, we might better have enough money or enough wealth for
one vote. In my work as chairman of make it a grant. that.
the Subcommittee on Latin American Another objective which my amend
The argument the President made in Affairs I have tried to make the subject ment seeks to attain in future foreign the course of his speech last Friday night
a study. I have tried to be a student of aid is to restrict the number of countries in New York City was a highly specious the problems in Latin America. I do not receiving it at any one time. The For
emotional argument. It sounded plau- stand on the floor of the Senate to make eign Relations Committee report is very
sible; but when we begin to analyze the these very serious criticisms without critical of the tendency of the United
foreign aid program from the stand- knowing that I can produce documenStates to put aid programs into new
point of the results of the expenditures tations for every sentence I speak. nations just for the sake of having an made under it, that argument falls flat
I am shocked by the conduct of the American "presence" of some kind in
on its face. that nation. This point was made If we really wish to help the poor in Argentine delegation and the Brazilian against my amendment in the "position those countries, we must attach to our delegation at São Paulo, for I find it paper" of the Agency For International foreign aid program some restrictions
foreign aid program some restrictions extremely difficult to interpret their Development, which insisted that an which will not permit the rich in those conduct on any other basis than that American "presence” is desirable in new countries to mulct the program, and we they do not desire to live up to their sig-nations.
must insist that countries such as Brazil natures on the Act of Punta del Este. Mr. President, who says so, and why?
and the Argentine keep their commit- I am not free to name the high Argentine If the new nations do not want our rep
ments under the Act of Punta del Este. official, but a high Argentine official resentatives there, they should not be They signed that act; but they have not spent more than an hour in my office there; and if they do not want our rep
cooperated by submitting any program of this morning. He, too, is shocked. We resentatives there on the basis of a forthe sort the Alliance for Progress pro
are reaching a point at which we must eign aid program that is fair to the U.S. gram calls for before they can become
raise the question of good faith on the taxpayers, our representatives should eligible for Alliance for Progress pro- part of some of the Latin American not be there. The President said last gram funds. They have been able to
countries. Friday night, in the course of his speech obtain millions of dollars from the Presi
I refer to the excellent legislative hisin New York City, that we should help dent's contingency fund; but he should
dent's contingency fund; but he should tory that the Senator from Iowa (Mr. the poor, and he made supposedly a great
not have given them even one dollar of HICKENLOOPER) made yesterday in regard moral argument about helping the poor. that money; not one dollar of the money to the Hickenlooper amendments vis-aHowever, we should ask him how we
in the President's contingency fund
contingency fund vis the question of oil contracts in the help the poor by means of a program
should have gone to Brazil or to the Argentine and the discriminatory policies such as the one he proposes. We do not Argentine. However, by such use of the of Chile. The record is perfectly clear help the poor by pouring our money into President's contingency fund, operations
President's contingency fund, operations that Chile is seeking, in connection with countries when we do not limit our aid under the Alliance for Progress have certain American copper companies, by means of fair restrictions which pro been set back on their heels in Brazil, such as the Kennecott Copper Co. in tect the U.S. taxpayers. Furthermore, the Argentine, and Ecuador. They will Chile, to follow a confiscatory tax policy we do not help the poor by pouring our
not come forward with a program of ac which is discriminatory and not applied money into a country whose oligarchs complished reforms—which the Alliance
complished reforms—which the Alliance to their own domestic industries. It is a are sending out of that country their for Progress requires of them before they disciplinary or penalty program against profits, much of which are made as a
can become eligible for aid under the Al American companies, with the result that result of the stimulus given to that coun liance for Progress program—until we they will drive the companies out of busitry by our foreign aid. We should stop insist that they help themselves.
ness, and the properties will then have pouring our money into Argentina and
In the past few days we have taken to be sold for a song. Brazil, two of the most notorious examinsults from some representatives of
The question of good faith is raised. ples of this sort of situation, because as
those countries. Their spokesmen at São The time has come when the foreign a result of the pouring of our money into
Paulo have opposed our program in con-
aid program must be reoriented and rethem, they have let inflation run wild, and the result has been to make their program.
recommendations of the committee repoor poorer, while the oligarchs have We sent there, to speak for the Presibecome richer and have shipped their dent of the United States, a distin- port of the Foreign Relations Commitprofits out of those countries, frequently guished statesman who urged the making
guished statesman who urged the making tee of the Senate ought to be put into to New York banks. of reforms whereby our aid would be
effect. We ought to have done it this So I say to the President that his for given in connection with the Alliance year. We ought to have written a bill mula is a very poor one when it results in for Progress program. But that calls
that would do so, rather than say, as the giving of our aid in that way to such for commitments and cooperation and
the committee stated in the report, that countries. We must see to it that the self-help by these countries.
it gave consideration to this amendoligarchs there do not make money as a Mr. YOUNG of Ohio. Mr. President. ment, and pointed out to the adminisresult of our expenditures, and thus I ask for order. The situation about tration, in effect, that it had better give make themselves richer and the poor which I previously complained has again consideration to it again before another people there poorer.
developed in the Senate Chamber, with authorization bill comes before Congress. CIX-1377