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done the administration and the foreign is essential to the achievement of its objec
is essential to the achievement of its objec- Alliance for Progress, for instance, will be tives.
lucky to get $525 million-apparently beaid program an incalculable service. Had this service been performed in pre
cause Senator MORSE and his friends are reTHE NEW KNOW-NOTHINGS
luctant to allow the United States to spend vious years, it would have saved the
as much on the prevention of communism in American people billions of dollars out
(By Joseph Alsop) In the tedious but crucial struggle over spending for the sole purpose of propping up
Latin America as the Communist bloc is now of the more than $100 billion which have been spent on foreign aid, much of the foreign aid bill, the old tradition of na
Fidel Castro in Cuba. it squandered. It would have made our tional-minded bipartisanship has been sav
If the effort in Vietnam is not weakened, ing President Kennedy's bacon. foreign aid infinitely more effective and
In the preliminary wrestling with the bill all other military aid programs will have to would have left the world in a much in the Senate Foreign Relations Committee,
be cut drastically. Thus old and tried allies better condition than it is now.
which cannot otherwise afford their present the senior members of the majority and mi
levels of defense, like Turkey, Greece, NaMr. President, I ask unanimous con nority, Senators WILLIAM FULBRIGHT, of Arsent to have printed at this point in the kansas, and BOURKE B. HICKENLOOPER, oftionalist China, and South Korea, will be hit
where it hurts most-apparently because RECORD the article entitled "The New
Iowa, acted together as partners.
Senators SYMINGTON and RIBICOFF think it is
is not widely Know-Nothings," written by Joseph
known for his reluctance to take a good, a bad bargain to add this strength to our Alsop, and the editorial entitled “Ser
side at one-tenth the cost of an equal numhard, partisan whack at the Democrats when
ber of American troops. mon on Aid,” both published in the
ever he sees a chance to do so. He thought Washington Post of today, November 15, that the foreign aid authorization that Sen
Finally, development loans, which offer the ator FULBRIGHT wanted the committee to ap
best hope of future progress and are also to 1963. prove-$4.2 billion—was a bit on the high
be repaid in the end, will be cut to the point There being no objection, the article side. But when FULBRIGHT argued that "we
of grave damage to American foreign policy. and editorial were ordered to be printed have got to give them something to cut,"
In short, the national interest is under heavy in the RECORD, as follows: HICKENLOOPER loyally went along.
attack. It would be more comprehensible if SERMON ON AID Again, when the leadership belatedly dis
the attack had a partisan motive; but pee
vishness, alas, is the only motive now identiPresident Kennedy used the pulpit of his covered the power of the new surge of knowoffice yesterday to deliver a powerful sermon
fiable. nothingism in the Senate, a hasty strategy on the need for foreign aid. He did not dis meeting to discuss the best blocking tactics
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the pute the constitutional right of Congress to was strictly bipartisan, and was even held
Senator yield? decide how much money should be appro
in the Republican cloakroom. The majority priated. But he did point out that the ex and minority leaders, Senators MIKE MANS
Mr. GRUENING. I am happy to yield. penditures involved are hardly crushing, that FIELD, of Montana, and EVERETT DIRKSEN, of Mr. MORSE. I congratulate the foreign aid is "a valuable arm” of U.S. policy, Illinois, joined with FULBRIGHT and HICKEN- Senator from Alaska on his penetrating and that in the end it is the President
LOOPER in the decision to make a voluntary analysis of both the Washington Post not Members of Congress—who is held acpreliminary cut of $385 million in the com
editorial and the inexcusable, ignorant countable for the success or failure of our
mittee total, in order to forestall worse cuts column by Mr. Alsop. The country is diplomacy.
by the new know-nothings. The pity is that the President did not Since then, through the long, squalid, and greatly indebted to the Senator from make his forceful statements weeks ago in still unfinished struggle on the Senate floor, Alaska for the strong leadership that he a full-scale address to the country. There DIRKSEN, HICKENLOOPER, and a good many extended to those of us who have fought were clear storm warnings that this year
other Republicans have continued to stand during the past 3 weeks to try to bring would see a bitter fight over foreign aid. four square for national mindedness and bi- to an end some of the worst inefficienYet here, as in other areas of controversy, partisanship.
cies, waste, and causes of international there has been a reluctance to commit the
Meanwhile, the President's bill has been corruption that are embedded and infull resources of the Presidency to a drive for under bitter, persistent partisan attack by grained in the foreign aid
program. the administration's programs. The sermon
Probably the Senate will complete comes late after the ushers have already Democrats, headed by the ineffable Senator passed the collection plate.
WAYNE MORSE, of Oregon, leading the at- action on the bill today. But this will What Congress has done to the aid pro
tackers. Even that famous Republican con- not be the last time there will be action gram is, in our opinion, wrong and foolish. servative, Senator BARRY GOLDWATER, of Ari on the bill. If the conference report conNot only has Congress carved to the marrow
zona, had been kinder to the foreign aid pro- tains any attempt to undo what the Senthe President's budget request; the Senate
gram than the new Democratic know-noth- ate has done, there will be a further has also implanted a series of dogmatic re- ings, for he has at least been absent for alstrictions on the use of aid. Surely Mr. most every key vote.
debate at great length, so that the Kennedy is only stating the obvious in re The most dramatic vote, though not the American people may again have the minding Congress that the world changes closest, was on MORSE's motion to gut the facts presented to them as to how they swiftly and that spiteful use of aid as a club
bill for good and all, by recommitting it to are being rooked by the foreign aid prousually does not have the intended effect the Foreign Relations Committee. Twenty- gram. Yet the congressional onslaught was not eight other Senators voted with the Oregon
It is with sadness in my heart that simply the act of a small and willful mi paragon, and 20 of them were Democrats.
I find that my President is making statenority. The mayhem on aid found majority
Another Morse amendment, to cut the Desupport in Congress--and no doubt has mavelopment Loan Fund by $25 million, car
ments and speeches following that line jority support in the country. It is no acciried by a vote of 42 to 40, and 24 of the
on foreign aid, but is not uttering a word dent that the Peace Corps received generous
Morse adherents were Democrats. Embit in those speeches by way of a pledge treatment in the House at the same time tered southerners, like RICHARD RUSSELL, of to the taxpayers that he intends to do foreign aid was being hacked to bits in the Georgia, and HARRY F. BYRD, of Virginia, something about the inefficiencies, waste, Senate. Both actions express a consensus on have, of course, followed MORSE, gladly yield- and inexcusable wrongs that are emCapitol Hill and in the country.
ing him the leadership on this occasion. bedded in the foreign aid bill. It is easy to make Congress the scapegoat MORSE's deputy commander in the attack
I spoke yesterday on the basis of a especially when the Senate goes on an irre- has been the old New Dealer from Alaska, sponsible binge and appears to dictate day- Senator ERNEST GRUENING. So-called lib- foot-high compilation of reports from to-day policy to the Executive. But the erals who have joined MORSE are FRANK the Comptroller General of the United mischievous action of Congress cannot wholly CHURCH, of Idaho; ALBERT GORE, of Tennes- States, which pointed out the shocking absolve the President of his past inaction. see; the former Secretary of Health, Educa waste of millions of dollars of taxpayers' Whose job is it to disclose the purposes of
tion, and Welfare in the Kennedy Cabinet, money in the sinkholes of foreign aid. American policy, to explain in plausible ABE RIBICOFF, of Connecticut; STUART SY
I most respectfully ask my President: terms to the man in the street the American MINGTON, of Missouri; and STEPHEN YOUNG, “When are you going to do something stake in using aid to help buttress the inde of Ohio; plus HENRY JACKSON, of Washing about correcting those wrongs, which pendence of remote countries? When Mr. ton, and WILLIAM PROXMIRE, of Wisconsin, on Kennedy says that he needs foreign aid, he the fund cut.
are a matter of proof, in regard to forhas to persuade the electorate no less than Besides trying to gut the foreign aid bill eign aid?” Congress.
in every other way, the new know-nothings The President will get my support for Mr. Kennedy's sermon in and of itself was have put forward an astonishing number of a good foreign aid program, but he will admirable. It may yet be possible to ex backseat driving amendments. “Some peo- not get my support, and does not have punge some of the worst features of the ple,” Senator HICKENLOOPER has said grimly, my support, for a continuation of the Senate legislation in conference with the "want to turn the U.S. Senate into another kind of foreign aid that he is talking House. But the result thus far tells some committee on the conduct of the war, which thing not only about the frailties of Con- helped the South more than Robert E. Lee." about, and to which he referred in his gress. It also tells us that more vigorous The result, beyond much doubt, would be speech in New York City last Friday and leadership on the part of the administration a half-crippled foreign aid program. his news conference yesterday, because
the President cannot make a case in determined by the Pentagon, not by the was published an article, written by the support of that kind of foreign aid. State Department. If we let the Penta
If we let the Penta- columnists Rowland Evans and Robert The President asks, “Who will get the gon get its hands on militiary aid- Novak. The article, entitled “The Senblame if the program does not work?” which is inseperable from U.S. foreign ate's Scandal,” is clearly both cruel and He answers, "I will get the blame.” policy-we shall be in for very serious unfair. For one thing, the article inLet me say that Congress will get the trouble.
cludes the following statement: blame, and should get the blame, if it Bad as the State Department is at the
Kindly, well-meaning Senator MIKE MANSdoes not exercise its authority under the present time, we must require it to ad FIELD, of Montana, has been a tragic misConstitution to check the President in minister all foreign policy, and not per take as majority leader. connection with the wasting of hundreds mit it to divide its obligations and duties
The article contains other statements of millions of dollars of taxpayers' with the Pentagon.
along the same line; and they would money that is now being poured down Mr. GRUENING. Mr. President, I am the sinkholes of foreign aid in many glad the Senator from Oregon supports glad the Senator from Oregon supports facts to gain the impression that an
cause a reader-if he did not know the parts of the world.
my view--which I know he has heldMr. GRUENING. I thank the Sen- that Congress must retain control of,
that Congress must retain control of. incipient revolt is developing among the ator from Oregon. He has been the or must continue its efforts to control,
members of the Democratic Party in
the Senate against the so-called poor leader in the gallant and devoted fight the foreign aid program. At this ses
leadership of the Senator from Montana. to improve the foreign aid program. sion, that has been done for the first
But I believe the article completely I am not opposed to foreign aid. I time; and of course that requires mainfavor it.
misses the point, which is that there is I have favored it all along taining supervision over the military part
taining supervision over the military part nothing wrong with the leadership in the However, at various times I have sought of the program.
Senate, but there is a great deal of trouto present amendments which I hoped In connection with the next foreign would cure some of the deficiencies of aid bill, we must also be sure that the
ble with the leadership in the White
House. the program. Some of these were ac- lending functions are continued by U.S. cepted in the Senate, over the opposi- agencies, not turned over to international
In this connection, I invite attention
to another article which is in somewhat tion of the leadership, but later were de- agencies over which Congress would have leted in conference, when the State De- no real control. So if a move is made to
the same category, insofar as unadjustipartment and AID officials rushed up stop development loans as a part of the
fied criticism of the Senate leadership is. and said they would ruin the program,
concerned. This article was written by program over which Congress will have In the past 3 weeks, under the lead- jurisdiction, I warn that such an at
Doris Fleeson, and was published in the
Washington Star of November 13. ership of the distinguished senior Sen- tempt must be stopped, because if it were ator from Oregon [Mr. MORSE), the first to be successful, we would lose complete
In an article written by David Lawserious attempts to debate and to reform control over that part of the program.
rence, and published on the same date in were made, and they were successful. Such functions should not be turned
the Washington Star, the following conThey did not go quite as far as they over to international lending agencies,
over to international lending agencies, clusion is drawn: "that the people oỉ this might have, because some of the pro- which already have an important part
which already have an important part country, through their congressional posals submitted by the Senator from in the program; but all lending func
in the program; but all lending func- representatives, disapprove of the legisOregon and some of the proposals sub- tions now under the foreign aid program
lative program proposed by the Demomitted by me were not accepted, al- should be maintained there, where they
cratic Party's national leader and want though some of them came close to be- will be under the vigilant and alert eye
a change in leadership.” ing accepted, and thus showed that there of Congress. I hope that will be done.
I believe Mr. Lawrence has more coris widespread dissatisfaction with the I made a study, for the Government rectly called attention to the real probway the program has been administered. Operations Committee, of the programs
lem. The leadership in the White House
has been lucky to have had a majority The amendments which have been in 10 countries in the Middle East. In
leader in the Senate such as the Senator adopted are most desirable, but I con- the case of two of them, I found the prosider them only a beginning. gram was well carried out and was pur
from Montana [Mr. MANSFIELD], and is
lucky to have gotten what it received I hope that with the leadership the poseful, and that there was a clear un
during the first 2 years—the honeymoon Senator from Oregon has demonstrated derstanding of what was to be accom
years-of the New Frontier, and should and with the clear indications of con- plished. In those cases I recommended gressional leadership during the debate that the program be both continued and
that the program be both continued and not be at all surprised to find that the and in connection with the action taken increased. I make this statement be
I make this statement be honeymoon is over now that the people on the amendments, we shall have a bet- cause in the past it has been assumed
cause in the past it has been assumed back home have begun to realize what that anyone who was at all critical of
has been hitting them and what will hit ter program.
them for some years to come, as a result I believe we shall have a better pro- the foreign aid program was opposed to
of the billion dollar deficit spending program next year; but we must constantly foreign aid. However, that is not the be vigilant to be sure that the agencies
I shall support the foreign aid
grams which have been requested by the
White House. involved carry out the intent of Con- program whenever I can, when it is sound
Although I have opposed some of them, gress. I believe it would be very objec- and reasonably and effectively admin
I think recognition should be given to tionable if some of the activities now ad- istered, and not only does not squander
the fact that the majority leader, the ministered by the AID agency were to be millions and billions of U.S. taxpayers'
Senator from Montana [Mr. MANSFIELD], transferred to the Army or to other Gov- dollars, but actually produces results
has been a "good soldier,” and has done ernment agencies, and thus be concealed. which are effective in connection with
a rather effective job of getting through Congress must retain control of the pro- our national plans and purposes. gram.
But the aid we have given Sukarno is
the Senate the spending programs that
. really count.
There has been considerable criticism in the Far East; and we have done much of Congress. I, for one, do not object to Mr. GRUENING. I yield.
the same in the Middle East, with Nasser. a certain amount of criticism, if criticism Mr. MORSE. I am glad the Senator from Alaska has made that statement, Senate has adopted, which will stop the
I am hopeful that the amendments the is due. But too many persons who are
too ready and willing to snipe at Conbecause that matter will be the subject giving of our aid to aggressors, and par
gress apparently do not realize that of one of the great debates next year, in- ticularly to Indonesia,
in connection with
there are three branches of the Federal tempted is to turn the military aid pro- out and administered rigidly and corthe foreign aid program, will be carried Government—the executive, the legisla
tive, and the judicial. Some of them gram over to the Pentagon. The great rectly by the administration.
recognize that there is a judicial branch issue is, How much longer are we going
when the Supreme Court hands down a to let the Pentagon determine so much
decision involving the recital of prayers of our foreign policy? RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EXECU
in the public schools. But as between The State Department is really a split TIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES the executive branch and the legislative entity, these days, because much of our Mr. MILLER. Mr. President, in the branch, I fear there are too many people foreign aid is, in fact and in effect, being Washington Post of November 11 there who are too much impressed by the
Madison Avenue techniques utilized in One of my great disappointments since would provide that during the first 3 statements coming out of the White I have been Senator has been to see the hours of debate in the afternoon the disHouse, as a result of which they over Senate, which historically has existed as cussion must be on the subject that is look the shortcomings there.
a great independent legislative body of pending. After that a Senator could The volume of White House-sponsored our Federal Government, degenerate talk about anything. We do not have measures submitted in the last 2 1/2 years, pretty much into a rubberstamp Senate. such a rule. As a result, with the Mundt all carrying the label of "urgent,” has There have been a few exceptions. The amendment now pending, discussion been multitudinous. It has been beyond Senate's rejection, on a procedural point, could take place on almost any subject. the capacity of any Congress to digest, of the Department's ill-devised, ill-con- What I am now saying has nothing to do much less the ability of the people of the ceived, poorly presented, and highly par
ceived, poorly presented, and highly par- with the pending business, nor has much United States to pay for.
tisanly presented urban affairs proposal, of what has been already said this afterThere was no mandate from the peo the Senate's rejection of the unfair noon. That rule should be changed. I ple for such a program. President Ken Kennedy medicare proposal, known as believe that the resolution proposed by nedy was elected by less than 50 percent the King-Anderson bill, which was at the Senator from Rhode Island [Mr. of the votes of the people who voted in tempted by way of an amendment a year PASTORE] and other Senators would 1960. For some strange reason or other, ago, and now the Senate's treatment of
ago, and now the Senate's treatment of greatly speed up the legislative process some of his advisers seemed to conclude the foreign aid bill, are about the only
the foreign aid bill, are about the only in the Senate, because if the Pastore that there was a mandate from the peo three exceptions during the last nearly proposal were now in effect, we would be ple for an overwhelming deluge of vast 3 years in which the Senate has really about finished with the amendment, and new Federal spending programs and in existed as an independent legislative we would probably be through the foreign creases in existing programs. There branch of the Federal Government. aid bill by 3 o'clock. Then if any Senwas no such mandate at all. Members The Senate and the House are to be ator wished to talk about anything else, of Congress are more directly connected criticized for not adhering a little more
criticized for not adhering a little more he could remain here and do so. That with the feelings of the people in their closely to the traditional separation of
closely to the traditional separation of is a change that should be made. districts and States; and they know that powers.
powers. I am ready, willing, and able Of course, there is the perennial questhe people have had too much already. to criticize those bodies for not doing so.
to criticize those bodies for not doing so. tion of whether there should be a Joint It took them 272 years to wake up to I am also ready, willing, and able to committee on the Budget. For the past what is hitting them.
criticize some of the rules which I con 2 or 3 years the able Senator from ArI have been pointing out that if we sider obsolete for effective management kansas [Mr. MCCLELLAN] and approxmerely consider the inflation that the of our legislative business. I have not imately 60 other Senators, including mysum of $21 billion of deficit spending been around here so long that I have self, have cosponsored a bill which has since January 1, 1961, has produced, become so enamored with every type of passed the Senate unanimously. It has which amounts to about $19.5 billion, rule that we have as to think that no gone to the House, and there it has never and apply it to the people throughout rule can be changed or abolished. Some seen the light of day. That bill would the United States in terms of sales taxes, rules are desirable. It is desirable to provide for the creation of a Joint ComSenators will find that their people in have a brake in the form of a better than mittee on the Budget. There is a Joint the various States have been hit by sales 50-percent vote for cloture. There was
There was committee on Internal Revenue to take taxes and indirect sales taxes ranging quite an argument on that question early
quite an argument on that question early care of the finance side of things, and it all the way from 2 to 412 percent. this year. Some Senators said that 51 works very well. When we are dealing
People wonder why the cost of gro- Senators ought to be enough to choke with subjects as complicated as revceries, the cost of housing, the cost of off debate. Some said that it should re
off debate. Some said that it should re- enues, taxes, and tariffs, we need a thorbuilding new schools, and the cost of quire two-thirds of the Senators present oughly competent staff, and we need a State and local government are going up. and voting to choke off debate. That is
and voting to choke off debate. That is harmonious working group of Senators They can look to the New Frontier for the present rule. Some said it ought to and Representatives. the answer, and particularly to Members be three-fifths, or 60 Senators. All kinds
So those have come along pretty well of Congress who have engaged in spend of combinations were proposed.
in the area of tax legislation. But when ing billions of dollars more than we take The point was made by the Senator it comes to spending, we really have in. I do not think it should be over from Minnesota [Mr. HUMPHREY] that trouble because there is no organization looked that the White House has been more than half the Senators thought in the legislative branch that can possipart and parcel of the entire operation. there ought to be some change in the bly cope with the Bureau of the Budget, The White House would have taken rules. We never could agree on what in the executive branch. On taxes, we more if Congress would have given it the rules changes should be. I had my have the Joint Committee on Internal more.
own little plan. I said that I favored Revenue, which can hold its own in anaLet us face the fact that it takes peo a three-fifths rule, provided at least a lyzing the proposals of the Treasury Deple a while to realize what is hitting majority of Members of both parties partment; but we have no control over them. It has now taken them about were included in that three-fifths. I am the Bureau of the Budget. It is about 212 years; and we trust that by the elec- not about to submit to a change in the
not about to submit to a change in the time we had a little control over our tion a year from now quite a few mil rules to permit a Senate composed of 67 budget. It is about time to start putting lion more will be realizing what has hit Democrats and 33 Republicans to have our revenues and spending into balance. them and will vote accordingly. debate choked off by a vote of 60 Demo
Although I know there are some econAn article by the distinguished col crats. If 60 Senators, composed of a omists who believe it is sophisticated to umnist, William White, appeared in the majority of the Democrats and a ma- have inflation as a means to achieve Washington Evening Star on November jority of the Republicans, desire cloture,
jority of the Republicans, desire cloture, prosperity, the fact remains that the 11. The article is entitled “Congress that is satisfactory. But to think of great bulk of the American people beNeeds Defenders.” Mr. White expressed choking off debate by a vote of all the lieve thank goodness in the “Puritan concern over the fact that there have Members of one party is to me something ethic” toward which Dr. Heller, the not been enough Members of the legis that would violate the traditional protec- Chairman of the President's Council of lative branch of the Government speak tion of minority rights which the Senate Economic Advisers has such a disdaining out in defense of some of the stands for. criticisms that have been thrown at I am not in favor of some of the pro- should be made, and until they are made
ful attitude. But these are changes that Congress, particularly this year, and sug posed rule changes in respect to cloture, gested that there ought to be more de
but I do favor a change along the lines I shall be ready, willing and able to critfense of Congress. I have mentioned.
icize the legislative branch, of which I I should like to say that I have done There is the rule of germaneness which am a Member. my share of pointing out where Congress the distinguished Senator from Rhode
Let us get a proper perspective of the is to blame and pointing out where the Island [Mr. PASTORE) and many others, situation, as far as what has been going White House is to blame. I have done including myself, have sought to change.
including myself, have sought to change. on this year is concerned. Let us recogmy share of defending Congress as an The proposal is on the calendar. nize that Members of Congress are fairindependent legislative branch of the Whether it will ever be called up remains ly close to the people back home. They Government.
to be seen. It is a sensible rule. It are closer than the President of the
United States. They know when the peo- 1961, he began to dismantle the elaborate plaint heard in ever-rising volume. The ple are beginning to be disturbed. They intelligence and persuasion machinery con complaint comes from moderates as well as know that if they do not acquiesce to a
structed by JOHNSON. The once formidable liberals, and even some experienced conservreasonable extent in the people's con
staff of the majority leader shrunk to a piti. atives acknowledge misgivings that the "ins" ful handful.
of both parties will eventually suffer at the cern, either by voting the way the people
Moreover, MANSFIELD'S theory fed upon polls. want them to vote or by being able to itself. As his sightless and voiceless opera The complaint is itself a paradox. It persuade the people to change their tion predictably gave birth to disorderly amounts simply to a cry for leadership. Reminds, they will not be reelected to Con- fiascoes in the Senate, he increasingly with minders that strong leadership from the gress. drew within himself.
President and party leaders is always reI have supported the foreign aid bill MANSFIELD is now nearly isolated. He has sisted with cries of "dictator” are brushed
aside. It would appear that what is wanted for each of the past 2 years. I shall regular contact only with two or three con
servative Senators (who have little interest is at least an appearance of conviction and have something to say about the bill be
in promoting the Kennedy program). There struggle. fore final passage, which we hope will
is almost no communication between MANS Congress misses those impatient men who come today. I propose to support the FIELD and Minnesota's HUBERT HUMPHREY, breathed down their necks and demanded foreign aid bill this year. the assistant majority leader.
"hurry, hurry, hurry.” A veteran moderate I have received a good amount of cor In his isolation, MANSFIELD got the current who has served in House and Senate voices
the pervading lament in these terms: respondence from people indicating their foreign aid debate off to a bad start by pro
“The President is working hard, but he great disaffection with the foreign aid posing a cut in funds without consulting
does not make us feel that he cares intensely, program. I do not have many letters key members of the Senate Foreign Relations
Committee. He has not conferred with Ari and we must care, too. Sure, the public saying “chop off foreign aid altogether," zona's Senator CARL HAYDEN, chairman of the likes him and his family and he will get by although all of us have received some of Appropriations Committee, about the critical next year, but what about us? We are takthose. Most people, I believe, are con- slowdown in money bills. He mistakenly got ing the rap for his desire to get on with vinced that foreign aid is a proper part the impression that Virginia's Senator HARRY everybody.
"Even the calendar is turned against us of our national policy. They want to see F. BYRD, chairman of the Finance Committee, a dollar's value for a dollar spent. I do had agreed to finish action on the tax cut by our own leaders. They are so eager to not believe that we in Congress have been such intention). bill within 6 weeks (when BYRD really had no please us as individuals they make it next to
impossible for us to function as a legisladoing as good a job on that point as we Worse yet is the way MANSFIELD'S over tive body. We anticipate a vote and then should have done. We are to be criti- courteous attention to the wishes of other learn that MANSFIELD has promised we will cized for this; but when we start to do Senators gives de facto control of the Senate not have it for a week so some Members can a job, the criticism should not be leveled to any Member who wants to impose his own go home. We are repeatedly in session when at us but should be leveled at those who schedule on his colleagues. That often turns a private promise means nothing can haphave brought this situation upon the out to be WAYNE MORSE, of Oregon.
Though blessed with a 2-to-1 Democratic A Democratic Senator who doggedly reCongress; namely, the administrators majority, MANSFIELD defers repeatedly to Re sisted the then majority leader, LYNDON and those who have been asking for it, publican wishes-an attitude which helps JOHNSON, at some cost to himself, still says and that includes the President of the make Minority Leader EVERETT MCKINLEY that JOHNSON was imperious, unfair and United States. All the talk in the past DIRKSEN, of Illinois, the most powerful man played favorites but adds: “I wish I had him few days about the shortsightedness of in the Senate today (and one of MANSFIELD'S back."
The situation on the Hill raises the old Congress—and particularly the Senate - ardent admirers). in chopping down the amounts of foreign
The confusion is compounded by the fall question of the President's commitment to aid is falling on deaf ears back home. of Bobby Baker, who as the Senate majority's his ideal of a strong Presidency and to his
secretary often was MANSFIELD's only link program. His aids are already in print with I believe most people are beginning to to reality and the rest of the Senators. explanations of the limits of his power, and say, "Thank goodness, Congress finally is
Rank-and-file Democratic Senators reveled it is hard to discern even now any real dent starting to exercise its prerogative of in their new-found freedom when MANSFIELD in the complacency of the executive branch. serving as a true check and a true bal- first replaced JOHNSON, but their smiles ance on the executive branch.” faded long ago.
THE PRESIDENT AND HIS PARTY-DEMOCRATS Mr. President, I ask unanimous con
They also yearn for a little old-fashioned CONTROLLING CONGRESS CALLED UNWILLING sent that the articles to which I have publican senator JOHN WILLIAMS, of Dela
TO ENACT LEADER'S PROGRAM partisanship. When MANSFIELD lauded Rereferred may be printed in the RECORD
(By David Lawrence) ware, for exposing details of the Baker case, at this point in my remarks. two Democrats silently stalked off the floor
President Kennedy would be overwhelmThere being no objection, the articles in disgust.
ingly defeated if the presidential election But this doesn't mean a plot to dethrone
were held today and the standards of judgwere ordered to be printed in the RECORD, MANSFIELD is in the making. That's not the
ment and the system prevailing in other as follows: way of the world's most exclusive club.
English-speaking democracies such as Can[From the Washington Post, Nov. 11, 1963]
ada or Great Britain-were applied. THE SENATE'S SCANDAL
For the Democratic Party, which holds 67 [From the Evening Star, Nov. 13, 1963]
percent of the membership of the Senate and (By Rowland Evans and Robert Novak) CREEPING ENNUI IN CONGRESS-LACK OF
almost 60 percent of the House of RepreThe real scandal of the Senate isn't the ACCOMPLISHMENT SAID TO MAKE MEMBERS sentatives, has failed after more than 10 Bobby Baker case or the ethical code of Sena FEEL CRITICISM MORE
months of continuous sessions to pass the tors. It's the Senate's ever-widening leader
(By Doris Fleeson)
legislative program proposed by its titular ship void. What Connecticut's Senator THOMAS DODD to which it is not accustomed, and that is The Congress is experiencing something leader, President Kennedy.
The truth is the chosen representatives of dared blurt out on the Senate floor last week, just plain boredom.
the Democratic Party have been unwilling to other Senators have been whispering in the
It is on the defensive more than usual, but use their clear majority of votes to adopt the cloakrooms for months. Kindly, well-mean
criticism is par for the course, and Members recommendations of the President, either being Senator MIKE MANSFIELD, of Montana,
are adjusted to it. They ride out attacks cause the voters of the country do not aphas been a tragic mistake as majority leader.
and even scandal with considerable indif prove or because the legislators have themThe all-year session of Congress won't pro- ference, provided they feel they are accom
selves mistakenly interpreted the wishes of duce either the tax bill or the civil rights plishing something.
the people. bill. Appropriations bills that should have But it is mid-November, and they are When a party in power under the parliabeen passed last summer may actually be car
marking time on the annual appropriations mentary system fails, it is customary for the ried into 1964, throwing Federal agencies into chores and dawdling over what was, at the
Nation to turn that party out of power in utter confusion. And although the Senate start, mostly leftover programs. The result an election called whenever the voters really is considerably more liberal than the House, is creeping ennui which is expressing itself demand it. Under the American system, there it has become the real stumbling block for in the remarkable outbreak of personalities is no such way to fix responsibility. It canthe Kennedy program.
in the Senate and frequently a reckless in not be determined immediately whether the Much of the blame rests with MANSFIELD'S difference to the consequences of the Mem President is at fault for having failed to exunique theories of leadership. He sees the bers' own acts.
ercise effective leadership within his party. majority leader as an administrator, neither Senator DODD, Connecticut Democrat, apol Nor can it be determined for 2 years after prying into individual Senators' views nor ogized rather comically for breaking the club an election whether Congress has really been trying to change them.
rules with attacks on his own and the Re heeding the voices of the citizens in disapAccordingly, when MANSFIELD replaced publican leadership. Yet out of the result proval of the President's policies or whether LYNDON B. JOHNSON as Democratic leader in ing ooze emerges a clear notion of the com the Democrats in Congress have misconstrued
the wishes of the people in holding up many This strictly bipartisan assault comes from the human shortcomings of a human assemof the measures proposed by the executive an odd collection. There are political theo bly. But it is surely not always wrong. branch of the Government.
rists who believe both the Senate and House And in defending its constitutional indeIt has often been argued that, in the United are mere horse-and-buggy nuisances which pendence it can never, never be wrong. States, a President who cannot control his should be retired to some dusty national own party in Congress can look to the opposi museum while the White House-so long as tion party to gain enough votes so that a co they like its current occupant-runs all the alition will form a majority and adopt his show. There are violently pro-Kennedy men
LASER RAY AS AN ANTIMISSILE program. But the fact is that an unorganized who think anything the President proposes
DEVICE coalition of Republicans and Democrats in is unarguably good and thus that any con
Mr. both Houses of Congress has actually gressional resistance, or even delay in meet
MILLER. Mr. President, the emerged on several controversial questions ing his demands, is unarguably obstructive Sioux City, Iowa, Journal, on September as an opposition majority to block the pas and evil.
29 published an intriguing article on sage or demand substantial changes in pend There are other well-intentioned people the potential of a fantastic experiment ing measures before they can even be con who, through long brainwashing, have come which it said could "easily tip the world sidered for passage.
to believe that congressional performance is balance of power.” If this weapon, betThe Democratic Party in Congress today, to be measured like industrial production or
ter known as the laser ray-light ammoreover, not only possesses a clear majority the sales rate of liverwurst at the supermar- plification by means of stimulated emisbut controls every committee in both Houses. ket. So many thingajimmies off the assemIn committees, too, a combination of two bly line this month; so many packets of sion of radiation-could be developed as parties can block action and actually is doing sausage across the supermarket counter.
an antimissile device, it could well be so today in many instances. So, for all prac
a fruitful and giant step toward the
OVERLOOKED OBLIGATION tical purposes, the coalition majority is, in
peace all of us desire. But the question effect, repudiating the policies of the Demo
In many minds the sole standard of con
is: Will we or the Russians develop it cratic Party leader-President Kennedy.
gressional achievement has come to be how In other countries, this repudiation would many bills have been passed in what period. first? It is a matter of major importance
to all of us. be accepted as sufficient reason for asking This extraordinary foolishness wholly over
I ask unanimous consent that the arthe country by its votes to decide at once looks the fact that negative inaction on unwhether a new prime minister should be
wise proposals is quite as important as posi- ticle, “United States Bets Billion on chosen from the opposition party or whether tive action on wise proposals--and also hap- Laser Ray To Become Missile Killer the existing majority party should be given pens to be the constitutional obligation of Beam,” may be printed in the RECORD. a vote of confidence and permitted to keep an independent constitutional body called
There being no objection, the article its leader or select a new one from its own Congress.
was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, party. Thus, the people do the deciding, and
And, finally and most important, there is a
as follows: they hold the incumbent party or its leader highly articulate splinter group within Conresponsible.
gress itself which for 2 years has been mak- UNITED STATES BETS BILLION ON LASER RAY Today in the United States, however, the ing its own wild attacks on the very con
TO BECOME MISSILE KILLER BEAM Nation has no clear idea of who is responsible stitutional body to which it asked to be
(By John Woodfield) for the stalemate in Government. The con
BALTIMORE.-Somewhere in outer space, cept of Presidential leadership is fuzzy. The
an intercontinental ballistic missile streaks talk in the press is that President Kennedy gruntled legislative failures in a forum where their political abilities fall short of their am
for its target. is popular, and the public opinion polls are cited to support the idea. But a foreign obbitions. Unable to impress their colleagues,
Suddenly, from a satellite orbiting the
earth, a tiny beam no larger in diameter server would ask how a President can be they look about for the reason. Invariably,
than a piece of thread, is trained on the popular if he cannot command a majority they find that reason not within themselves in the National Legislature. but within the shortcomings of Congress it
ICBM. The missile shudders, Jerks erraticalIn off-year elections, when the names of self. It is archaic. Its rules are backward- ly, then plunges harmlessly into the ocean.
Although it sounds like something out of the presidential nominees are not on the looking. It needs vast, if somewhat amballot, a clear-cut example of a mandate biguous, reforms. It is run by some sinister
a comic strip, such a beam soon may become
a reality. So much faith does the U.S. Govis rarely furnished by the electorate. Indeed, establishment.
They are like second-rate ballplayers who
ernment have in it, that $1 billion in conin the November 1962, congressional elections
tracts for its research and development althere were more Republican than Democratic blame everything in sight-the manager, the
ready has been let. votes cast in the regions outside the solid umpire, their associates, the rules for their South, but the Democratic Party neverthe embarrassing inability to hit more than .150.
CUT THROUGH DIAMONDS less furnished enough Members to make vir In sports, nobody is fooled by such fellows. Known as lasers (light amplification by tually a two-thirds majority. Yet every- Sour grapes, in ordinary life, are sour grapes,
means of simulated emission of radiation), body knew that southern Congressmen don't and a few need a degree in advanced horti- laboratory models already have hinted at the agree with the administration's viewpoint. culture to know them for what they are. tremendous source of untapped energy by
When, however, the Democrats retained When, however, attacks upon the institu cutting through diamonds and battleship their majorities in both Houses of Congress
tion of Congress come from among presum steel in seconds. in the national election in 1962, this was ably responsible members themselves, they Discovered less than 3 years ago, in 1960, hailed by Mr. Kennedy's supporters as a vic stir the interest of the outside citizen and, lasers are coherent light beams—light beams tory for him. Yet today-12 months later, finally, his support. Quite understandably, all of one wave length. Because the beams the Democratic Party has failed to get the he cannot believe that men elected to Con- are of the same wave length they do not support of its majority in both Houses to gress would demean it without cause. After dissipate as does incoherent light. Thus, pass the legislation the President has de all, this is no Friday night ball game and laser beams are many times brighter and manded. The conclusion is that the people beer and hotdog romp.
hotter than the center of the sun. of this country, through their congressional
NOT ALWAYS WRONG
Scientists already have discovered many representatives, disapprove of the legislative program proposed by the Democratic Party's has failed to answer these attacks from with but the Government is most concerned at national leader and want a change in leader in. Worse, too many Members who know
Nevertheless, Congress generally not only fields in which lasers can work effectively,
the moment with their use as antimissile ship. better give shamefaced and crawling coun
weapons. Such a weapon could easily tip CONGRESS NEEDS DEFENDERS tenance to them, lest they be branded as not
the world balance of power, and it is com“modern” enough. To cite a notable ex
mon knowledge that Russia is working along (By William S. White) ample, Senator CLARK, of Pennsylvania, has
the same lines. What's the matter with Congress, and es made a positive career of denouncing the
Because lasers, like other light rays, have pecially the Senate, and why isn't it doing Senate in which he sits, and of complaining difficulty piercing fog, their use as a defense more?
in private of the better committee assign- against missiles would have to be from satThere are several answers. The session ments unaccountably given to others, with
ellites orbiting the earth. This would elimhas been far too long, the President having out once being challenged on the center of
inate the problem of cloud reflection present asked far too much, and it looks as if the his philosophy.
in the earth's atmosphere. present Congress will still be sitting here But when a good man of Congress like Sen
SIMPLE DEVICE struggling with old problems when the new ator DoDD, of Connecticut, blows up in mo The laser itself is a rather simple device. Congress is called to assemble next January. mentary frustration to criticize not Congress It consists of a core or rod around which Members therefore are tired and irritable- but simply some leader or leaders of it, the is wrapped a spiral flash lamp similar to and unduly afraid of a bitter and sustained roof falls in upon him. What Congress needs those used in taking pictures. As the lamp is attack on Congress, as an institution, that is to pull up its socks and defend itself as flashed, the light excites the chromium is not being met by Congress itself with cour- part of the constitutional structure of this atoms in the core, and they move farther age or commonsense.
country. It is often wrong and it has all away from their nuclei. As the atoms drop