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modification, the licensing of controllers, and Resolved by the North Dakota Water Users "Never pass up a bargain like that,” parthe fixing of fees and penalties, which bill Association, at its fifth annual meeting, held ticularly when you're located in the middle was indefinitely postponed: Now, therefore, in Fargo, N. Dak., October 8, 1963, That the of a county that's recognized as one of the be it
President be authorized to appoint a com- Nation's most depressed. Resolved by the North Dakota Water Users mittee of five citizens of the State to (1) The bargain? In this case it was $43,398 Association, at its fifth annual meeting, held consider the merits of and need for the es- worth of job training provided by the Fedin Fargo, N. Dak., October 8, 1963, That the tablishment of a State water conservation re- eral Area Redevelopment Administration unPresident be authorized to appoint a com- volving fund, (2) determine the advisability der the U.S. Department of Commerce—just mittee of five citizens of the State to (1) of giving the association's support thereto, one of a dozen or more projects that has fed consider the merit of and need for legislation and (3) report thereon with recommenda- nearly $2 million into Aroostook County's relating to weather modification and con- tions to the 1964 midyear meeting of the hard-hit economy. trol, (2) determine the advisability of having board of directors; and be it further
The man with the "good old down east this association express support of legisla- Resolved, That the board of directors be
horse sense" was William C. Viner whose tion for the achievement of such objectives hereby authorized to take such action on the family has been using horse sense in Maine at the next legislative assembly of the State, report and recommendations of the commit- shoe manufacturing since the turn of the and (3) report thereon with recommenda- tee on behalf of the association, as it may century. tions to the 1964 midyear meeting of the deem appropriate and proper.
As President of Viner Bros. a Bangor board of directors; and be it further
shoe manufacturer, Bill Viner had a probResolved, That the board of directors be
lem. He wanted increased production for hereby authorized to take such action on the
Whereas the annual meeting of the North his firm but could not locate the needed report and recommendations of the com
Dakota Water Users Association, Inc., held employees in Bangor. mittee, on behalf of this association, as it
in Fargo, N. Dak., October 8, 1963, is nearing Querying Industrial Representative Raymay deem appropriate and proper.
the end, and those in attendance are mind- mond W. Curtis, of the Maine Department of ful of the many courtesies, favors and serv- Economic Development, Viner explained:
ices extended to its officials, members, and "I'm not too particular where I locate our RESOLUTION 5
guests for which formal expressions of appre- new plant, so long as it fulfills three requireResolution authorizing creation of a com- ciation are in order: Now, therefore, be it ments. It must be a town that really wants
mittee to study the need for and proce- Resolved, that the North Dakota Water an industry. There must be a labor supply. dure involved to establish a State water Users Association, aware that it would be And there must be an adequate building alcommission revolving fund
almost physically impossible to identify and ready in existence.” Whereas the 38th Legislative Assembly of thank all of the individuals and organiza- After screening a half dozen possibilities North Dakota, through enactment of senate tions whose efforts resulted in the success suggested by Curtis, Viner decided to expand concurrent resolution 1, recognized the ever- of this convention, does hereby express sin- his firm's operations into Presque Isle's increasing demand and anticipated future cere thanks and appreciation to the individ- readymade industrial park, provided when need for water and declared as its policy that ual and collective numbers of the Federal, the U.S. Air Force vacated a once-strategic conservation and storage of water supplies State, and local agencies and organizations, missile base. should be provided wherever and whenever Fargo City Commission, chamber of com
All three of Viner's requirements were met. feasible and practicable; and
merce, housing committee, news media, as- A former missile hangar provided some Whereas almost every area, community and sisting personnel and all who assisted and
25,000 square feet of manufacturing space. municipality in the State of North Dakota gave of their time and talents in making
The community-still attempting to fill the has or will have problems of water shortage this fifth annual meeting a success.
economic void caused by the base deactivawhich must be met and solutions therefor
tion-realized it needed new industry; realprovided; and
ized that its agricultural mainstay, the po
MAINE BENEFITS FROM AREA Whereas there are and will be many oppor
tato, wielded less economic power and, in tunities for mitigating or solving such water
fact, had lost money for the farmer 6 years problems through cooperation and partici
Mr. MUSKIE. Mr. President, on June
in a row. Employment was scarce but pation of local interests with State and Fed- 26, the Senate passed legislation to pro
workers were plentiful. eral agencies engaged in the planning, de
Almost everything was perfect-everyvelopment and construction of multiple-pur. vide additional funds for the continua
thing except that out of 450 applicants in a pose projects for watershed protection and tion of the area redevelopment program.
labor survey conducted for Viner, none improvement, flood prevention, water sup- This legislation is now pending before had ever made shoes. However, within 6 ply, outdoor recreation, fish and wildlife en- the House of Representatives. Its enact- weeks of the day that 120 employees first hancement, and related purposes and ac- ment is important to the continued im- reported for work, the newly formed Arootivities for the beneficial utilization of our provement of the Nation's economy,
stook Shoe Co. was not only producing shoes water resources; and
but turning out 350 pair a day.
During the Senate debate on this bill, Whereas reservoir storage makes available I pointed out how the State of Maine has
Herein lies the story
the story of the bargain. a water supply that may become of major benefited from the area redevelopment
Maine shoe manufacturers have usually proimportance in the future for satisfaction of
vided new employees with on-the-job traindownstream water supply needs and which, program. Maine firms have received
ing at considerable cost to the firm. Wages coupled with agricultural products or other loans for the establishment of new busi- while the trainee was learning, wages to raw materials, might be a factor in an in- nesses and the expansion of old ones. instructors plus a loss of production caused dustrialized river basin; and The Maine Sugarbeet Growers Associa- by his absence from the production line, and
, Whereas local interests in many instances tion has received a gr tion has received a grant for conducting
employee benefits to the trainee all sapped are or will be unable to financially contrib- feasibility studies for the introduction of
profits from the manufacturer. ute to or participate in the cost of desirable the sugarbeet industry to Maine. Several
Although the Aroostook Shoe project cost and needed water projects in cooperation hundred unemployed Maine workers
ARA $43,398, the same instructional program with State or Federal agencies unless re
would have cost over $60,000 had Viner atquired funds therefor can be obtained
have been trained for new jobs under tempted it without ARA. What's more, through grants or loans upon such terms and ARA training programs.
most training offered by industry encomconditions as are within their normal capa
The success achieved by ARA in com- passes one skill only while the ARA program bilities to liquidate; and
bating unemployment and stimulating taught two or more skills to each trainee. Whereas the State water commission is duly Maine's economy has been widely
Thus, Aroostook Shoe Co. obtained a authorized and empowered, and it is charged acknowledged. I ask unanimous consent
trained labor force with multiple skills in with the duty, among other things, to fi
the shoe industry for nothing. "I doubt if to include in the RECORD at this point nance the construction, establishment, op
we'd have gone to Presque Isle if we hadn't news release prepared by the State deeration, and maintenance of public and pri
received the ARA grant,” Viner admitted. vate works, dams, irrigation and recreation partment of economic development.
"We just couldn't afford the cost of setting
up a new plant and training the personnel projects; provide for storage, delivery and This statement outlines the benefits a
too." distribution of water for municipal, indus- Maine firm received under the area retrial, agricultural and recreational purposes; development job training program. It is
Once Viner had selected Presque Isle and and to cooperate with the United States, just one of several case studies which
decided to seek ARA funds for a training State and local agencies in achieving the underlines progress achieved under ARA
project, the red tape aspects of procedure aforesaid purposes and objectives; and
were out of his hands and into the hands of and the need for continuation of the Whereas the aforesaid legislative assembly ARA program.
the Maine Employment Security Commission implemented the said Senate Concurrent
and the Maine Department of Education. Resolution 1 by appropriating and providing
There being no objection, the news MESC's headquarters coordinated Viner's certain funds to the state water commission release was ordered to be printed in the release was ordered to be printed in the application for approval. First, proof was
. for limited use in connection with carrying RECORD, as follows:
needed that a labor surplus did exist in the forward the program and activities under PRESQUE ISLE.-Good old down east horse area. Secondly, there must be a guarantee the legislative policy aforesaid: Now there- sense has taught one Maine Yankee an eco- that trainees would be employed upon sucfore be it nomic fact of life.
cessful completion of training.
An MESC-sponsored survey-seeking per informers against those who are non- years ago the AMA reported this alleged drug sons from the roster of hard-core unem- members of the American Medical Asso- was worthless. But in the intervening years, ployed—soon proved that a need existed for ciation on the side.
the promoters of Krebiozen managed to disadditional manufacturing employment.
tribute and sell it. In desperate or hopeless
Secondly, inasmuch as the theme of Viner indicated his intention to employ the conference seemed to be self-con- not offer an effective treatment, the patient
cases of cancer where medical science could those successfully completing the course by leasing and equipping the building.
gratulation for the vicious campaign car- or his family has forced the physician into In the meantime, the department of edu- ried out against a test of the cancer drug administering something other than Krecation approved a curriculum, instructors, Krebiozen, the author briefly reviews the biozen. The physician simply did not have and named Keith Thompson, principal of history of the American Medical Asso- the heart to refuse a desperate person's rethe Northeastern Maine Vocational Institute, ciation politicians' long campaign to pre- quest. However, the physician must rememas educational administrator for the provent such a test. He concludes:
ber the consequences of this act. In the gram.
case of Krebiozen, he unwittingly gave supHaving cut down the initial group of 450
So we learn that the greatest fraud of the
port to one of the greatest frauds of the 20th applications through a series of tests, 20th century is a drug which the AMA op
century. MESC's Presque Isle force referred 120 to
posed at its inception on the basis of ques- Since Krebiozen stands so obviously as the
tionable test results, and which the Federal principal example of quackery to both Govthe training program. Students were phased into training over the first 3 days of the
Government never has tested scientifically. ernment and AMA, it is worth going into its program, were oriented on the production I suggest that the general public history briefly. The controversy began in line and within a week the first complete should read and study this report in or preliminary results of a study of 22 advanced
1951 when Dr. Andrew C. Ivy announced the pair of shoes rolled off the 400-foot-long line.
der that it may form a more considered In spite of apparent ease of effort in putjudgment on whether or not a test Krebiozen. In 20 of these there had been
cancer patients who had been treated with ting through such a complicated project,
. the training was a success from all points should be made of Krebiozen. For that
beneficial results, he said, and claimed only of view. “We had exceptional luck," Viner is the issue involved.
that “the substance merits a thorough clinboasted, claiming that daily production I ask unanimous consent that this ical study.” Ivy certainly would not then would be up to 1,500 pairs of shoes within article by James Ridgeway, “The AMA, have been considered a quack. He was vice the year. “We're very confident about the
the FDA, and Quacks,” from the New Re- president of the University of Illinois, a disproduction of these people.” public of November 9, 1963, be printed in
tinguished professor of physiology, a former The manager of the new Presque Isle in
executive director of the National Advisory the RECORD. dustry, John Trask, said that employees
Cancer Council of the Public Health Service, trained under the ARA project would "prob
There being no objection, the article
and representative of allied governments on ably be better than some experienced work- was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, the subject of medical ethics at Nuremberg. ers. These people have been taught the as follows:
Ivy had been working with Krebiozen since right methods and they know more than
THE AMA, THE FDA, AND QUACKS
1949 when he had first met Stevan Durovic, just one skill.”
& Yugoslav who had been conducting re
Anthony J. Celebrezze has joined together "We are happy with the program if the
search on it in Argentina. The theory of employers are,” NMVI's Thompson explained. the forces of the Federal Government with
Krebiozen was that the body itself contains those of the American Medical Association in "Basically ARA is designed to stimulate the
an anticancer agent that explains the occaeconomy of a depressed area, either through a holy war against medical quacks. This
sional spontaneous disappearance of the distechnical aid, financial grants for commerwas accomplished at the Second National
ease, and that this agent can be stimulated, cial, industrial or public construction projConference on Medical Quackery conducted
extracted from tissues and used in treatects, or for vocational training. during October 1963, in the vulgar pomp of
ment. Durovic got his extracts from the the Sheraton Park Hotel's Cotillion Room "In this case, the employee training seems
blood serum of horses. to have satisfied the requirements of ARA
in Washington, D.C., in an
Not long after Ivy announced the results and the needs of the employer very well reminiscent of the naming of Miss Rhein
of his study, the Journal of the American * * * while providing workers in this area gold. Slender brunettes wandered about
Medical Association in a report on Krebiozen with a means of gainful employment," with klieg lights to aid photographers who
reviewed the case histories of 100 patients Thompson added. might wish to take pictures of contraband
treated with the substance and found that According to DED statistics, over $1.8 milmerchandise including various sorts of sex
98 of them failed to show real improvement. lion worth of ARA funds have been spent in rejuvenation equipment, electronic machines
The AMA report disdainfully described KreAroostook County for different projects, sold for diagnosis and cure of differing dis
biozen as a "secret remedy.” Its findings, while more than $600,000 worth of ARA
eases, displays showing why calories do count, grants are now pending.
however, were questioned because of the enlarged photographs of a once ugly woman, "There's no question about it,” remarked now horribly maimed because she partici; represented because administering physi
100 cases, 24 were said to have been misWendell Phillips, president of the Presque pated in a beauty restoration which turned
cians reported different conclusions than Isle Industrial Council. "What the ARA has out to be carbolic acid. There were speeches,
those of the report. Fifty-eight other padone is going to mean a great deal for the one by a man who felt TV had helped put
tients were said to have been so near death economy of Presque Isle for a long time to down quackery because it had forbidden ad
that they never received the fourth injection vertisers to demonstrate remedies for piles, of Krebiozen, and none of the patients had come * not only for Presque Isle but for all of Aroostook County and, in the long an exhibition sure to distress the family;
been on the drug for long. In early Novemrun, the whole State of Maine.” another by a woman who felt education was
ber of 1951, Ivy was suspended from the Phillips, also president of a local bank, the answer (indeed, several speakers felt the
Chicago Medical Society because of his insaid already the economic pulse of the county one real hope lay with an educated and
volvement with the "secret remedy." In has quickened because of ARA. “The im- therefore outraged youth) and she was sug
1952 a University of Illinois study urged pact of just the steady, nonseasonable, 100- gesting that every college student should re
further trial of the substance in both ani. person payroll (of Aroostook Shoe Co.) is ceive training in spotting quacks at work.
mals and people. In 1961, after extensive very hard to calculate in dollars and cents, You left this 2-day convention with the
experimental work, Ivy and Durovic presentbut it will be considerable. Merely at the feeling you had been at a training camp for ed results of treatment of 4,000 patients to minimum wage level this means more than a finks who on their return home could make the National Cancer Institute, hoping that quarter of a million dollars annually," he a collect telephone call any time to the these studies would provide enough inforestimated.
Food and Drug Administration to rat on any mation for the Institute to design clinical doctor not a member of the American Medi
tests. But the Institute felt Ivy's results cal Association, the one credential agreed by THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSO
were inadequate, and the proposed tests were all to be as authentic as an FBI badge. tabled until further scientific evidence could CIATION, THE FOOD AND DRUG Dr. Edward R. Annis, president of the be provided. Cancer Institute officials, howADMINISTRATION, AND QUACKS
American Medical Association, said at the ever, made statements in private that cast
onset that the American people were giving doubt on the validity of their objections. Mr. DOUGLAS. Mr. President, in a $1 billion to the false purveyors of mystic In June of 1963, Durovic filed an applicarecent issue of the New Republic there healing. Not only had they lost their money tion for continued distribution of Krebiozen is a brief article which is well worth to the siren songs of modern charlatans, as an experimental drug under the new drug reading concerning the Conference on others had lost their lives. Physicians had laws. The FDA, however, made no secret of Medical Quackery held in Washington a grave responsibility for battling this evil,
its determination to stop sale of the prodlast month under the sponsorship of the and, indeed, the AMA had been at it since
uct, and before the application could be reAmerican Medical Association and the 1847. Unfortunately in a few instances
fused, Durovic withdrew it. This effectively Food and Drug Administration.
physicians actually had been aiding and banned the sale of Krebiozen from interstate
abetting medical quackery by the use of The article is worth noting first for
commerce. In August of this year, 24 exworthless, secret remedies. A classic exam- perts appointed by National Cancer Instithe observer's impressions of the confer
ple was Krebiozen, found to be ineffective in tute, met secretly to review 504 of Ivy's best ence itself which he describes as a carni- the treatment of cancer by the Department cases, that is the cases where Krebiozen was val sideshow of sorts with a school for of Health, Education, and Welfare. Twelve said to have had marked effect. The 24 specialists unanimously urged that a clinical There being no objection, the address But it should be obvious that crime, blight, test of the drug not be undertaken since was ordered to be printed in the RECORD, unsanitary conditions, and delinquency canthey claimed Krebiozen was worthless. Beas follows:
not be contained by boundary lines. These cause of the great secrecy in which this in.
conditions generally flourish in blighted quiry was conducted, Senator DOUGLAS has [From the Chicago Sun-Times, Nov, 10, 1963]
areas. felt it necessary to make his own independ- COMMUNICATION: POLITICAL DILEMMA Let us look at another example of the ent examination of Ivy's cases.
(By Mayor Richard J. Daley)
difficulty of communication. In Illinois So we learn that the greatest fraud of the
I am happy to be here at Madison as the there is a State law that prohibits the es20th century is a drug which the AMA op- “politician in residence.” I do not feel that tablishment of a garbage dump within 1 posed at its inception
on the basis of ques. I am a stranger here. As one of your neigh- mile of any municipality without that mutionable test results, and which the Federal
bors, I have frequently visited your State nicipality's consent. Government never has tested scientifically. and I know that many students who attend
of course, communities will not consent. this institution come from Chicago.
As a result, municipalities which formerly In my discussion of communication I am
had been able to find areas for landfill dis
posal can no longer do so. MAYOR RICHARD J. DALEY, OF CHI
concerning myself primarily with the effec-
In the meantime, the existing refuse disCAGO, HONORED BY UNIVERSITY achieving the objective of an informed, en
posal facilities are reaching the limit of OF WISCONSIN lightened citizenry. Although there is con
their capacities. The only alternative is the siderable criticism of our national press, and
use of the incinerator, which also has the Mr. DOUGLAS. Mr. President, the on occasion I have been one of the critics,
added inducement of being more sanitary. University of Wisconsin recently honored newspapers do publish a great amount of
But no neighborhood relishes the idea of the distinguished mayor of the city of factual information, stories in depth, and having an incinerator either in its commuChicago, Richard J. Daley. The univer- expert articles. The same can be said of nity or nearby. sity appointed Mayor Daley "politician radio and television.
The municipal executive is faced with the in residence for 1 day in recognition of
It is, however, one of the most frustrating possibility that he will have to let the garhis outstanding public leadership and
experiences for men in public life to find bage collect in the backyard or find a locapolitical craftsmanship.
that although the medium of communication tion for an incinerator.
When he does, the neighbors rise up in The honor is well deserved. Chicago's
issue there is still so much misconception arms and charge: "dictatorship,” "bossreputation suffered greatly in the 1920's about the issue. For example, all four Chi
ism," "refusal to recognize the rights of the because of the wide attention given the cago daily newspapers have written many fair community,” and promise to vote him out corruption and disorder of that period articles and given editorial support for the of office. which certain sections of Chicago dis- program of rebuilding the city. The Chi- This is to be expected, but what is really played to the world. But under the hon- cago press has contributed much to the difficult to take is the sympathy and the
progress of urban renewal. est and progressive leadership of Mayor
support for their position given by many Despite this excellent coverage, however, groups in other communities.
This is agDaley this city's reputation has been
there are still many misconceptions about gravated by the space given to their comlifted. Under essentially the same type this vital field. One of the most frequent plaints by the newspapers and the broadof political system; namely, a niayor and complaints concerning the program is that it casters. city council or aldermanic board elected increases taxes, particularly property or real As a result, instead of emphasizing the from the wards, Mayor Daley has estate taxes. Yet it should be common contribution that the site will make to the brought the city's ratings in law enforce
knowledge that the costs of services in slum well-being of all the people of Chicago, its ment, safety of citizens, mass transit and and blighted communities are substantially focus is on the hardship of a few.
higher than required in other communities The failure of communication has become freeways, other public works, level of tax(police, fire, health and sanitation).
particularly evident to me in the public ation, per capita debt, attractiveness of
Much has been written about the public understanding of the relationship between city bonds, financial management and housing program. Many people believe that the mayor, the board of education and the other civic services and qualities to the real estate taxes support public housing. The superintendent. The Illinois State law highest levels among large American fact is that not 1 penny of the real estate provides that in the city of Chicago the cities.
tax supports the Chicago Housing Authority. mayor has the power to select the members The choice of the University of Wis
Furthermore, the authority pays in lieu of the board of education. The members of consin was excellent also with respect
of taxes 10 percent of every dollar of rent the board have the power to establish the
collected. These payments are 242 times the policies and to employ a general superinto the author of the paper which the
amount paid by private owners in real es- tendent to administer the schools. honored guests customarily deliver on
tate taxes before the authority bought the It has been adopted policy in the city of such occasions. Mayor Daley delivered properties and redeveloped them.
Chicago for the mayor to select the members an excellent address on "Communica- It is also contended that urban renewal of the board from recommendations made by tion: Political Dilemma.” Not only did projects in the city increase the Federal taxes. a school board nominating committee comthe mayor properly point out the prog- Actually, the appropriation for rebuilding posed of 19 civic organizations, including the ress made by Chicago in recent years, communities by the Congress is not made to presidents of 6 universities. he dealt thoughtfully and convincingly in one lump sum. When a city does not use a region or to a city, but is appropriated In 1955, when I ran for my first term as
mayor, it was charged and carried repeatedly with current problems he faces including urban renewal funds, the Federal taxes that in the press that if I were elected I would public housing programs, urban renewal, residents pay for that purpose are used
in ignore this method of selection. It was said racial segregation, education and eco- another city or section of the country.
that politics would run rampant in the adnomic opportunity. It was appropriate Another aspect of urban renewal deals with ministration of our school system. that the mayor discuss these matters in the complaint that land clearance programs In the 9 years that I have been mayor, the context of the problems of communi- reduce revenues by taking existing property I have never violated that pledge. Despite
the fact that my position has been carried cations, for he is, himself, the major force off the tax roll. working for effective communication
The city of Chicago has underway 27 proj, by the press, radio, and television, I have
ects in which slum and blighted land is been asked innumerable times in every among citizens and between groups and being cleared with the assistance of Federal single year, by an interested individual or the city government. He asks, in the funds and then sold to private developers. group, to interfere with the board of eduwords of Thomas Jefferson, that institu- Six projects have been completed. The to- cation. And in the recent difficulties, which tions advance to keep pace with the tal assessed value of these projects after re- not only face the Chicago school system, but times. Mayor Daley has lived up to the development has increased so that they now the school systems in many cities, I have principle by making Chicago's city gov- produce a tax yield that is 147 percent high- been charged with neglecting my duty by ernment a modern and progressive in
er than before development. For all 27 re- people representing opposing viewpoints, be
development projects, which includes con- cause I am honoring my pledge. stitution of public service.
struction of universities, hospitals, and other The areas where communication has Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- nontaxpaying institutions, the annual tax failed to guide the actions of people are sent that Mayor Daley's address, which yield is expected to more than double.
many. For example, such common misunis relevant to many of the issues now Many people complain about the social derstanding as: before us, as it was published in the who live in neighborhoods where there is no
implications of urban renewal. Taxpayers "The only reason for the unemployment Chicago Sun-Times for November 10, need for urban renewal see no physical
of Negroes is their color."
"Only Negroes are on relief." 1963, be printed in the body of the evidence in their communities that could “People who are on relief are there because RECORD. Justify such expenditures.
they want to be."
“All we need is more expressways to solve (I have not included the caption which Recently television has been utilizing more the transportation problem.”
appears over the daily feature "Today's
“Today's of its prime time for important, informative "The answer to juvenile delinquency is Chuckle.")
programs, and I congratulate them. jail."
Let us look at the front pages of news- I sometimes wonder if all the media have “There is no such thing as an honest papers of October 5—actually you can take been so concerned with conflict, drama, expolitician.”
any date. Of 13 headlines in the St. Louis citement, and vicarious experiences-if, in This inability for communication to Post-Dispatch, 6 contain these words: fact, they have not set up a conditional rechange concepts or to mold opinions based
“Warning * Burns Himself * * * Ar- sponse from the public which actually dison fact can be costly and provide tremendous
rested * *
* Contempt * * * Protest * * courages the public from reading, looking, or barrier to progress. For more than 50 years
and Jam.” And this is one of the best news- listening to informative and positive comthere have been many attempts to bring the papers in the Nation.
munication. educational resources of the University of Il
Another excellent newspaper, the Milwau- There is perhaps no greater example of a linois to Chicago. As a member of the legis
kee Journal, on the same day had these words communication gap than between scientific lature in 1939, I joined with many others in
in 10 headlines: "Threat * * Killed * * * progress and social progress. It was felt that an effort to bring this about.
Dispute * * * Dies * * * Raid * * * Kills * * * science would not only make new discoveries Each year the need for a State university
Injury * * * Delay * * * Quit * * * Burned,” in the physical world, but would make an became more urgent. A college degree is no
and the picture on the front page is an equal contribution to our social world. longer a luxury or a privilege for the sons of
excellent photograph of an automobile acci- There is no question of the contributions people who can afford higher education. It
dent in which one can see clearly the victims that have been made to our material comfort has become as necessary and as requisite lying on the ground.
by the use of newly developed scientific as a high school diploma used to be.
The Washington Post had the following on chemicals and processes. But these same In seeking a location for this university
the same day: "Beaten * * * Breaks * * * Dis- chemicals and processes emit byproducts
unity * * * Strike * * * Morals Case * which pollute the air. we ran into unpredictable circumstances. After much consideration and searching, a Police Question * * * Bandit * * * Seige
The further development of nuclear reBeaten To Death."
search promises to be one of the wonders of site was selected on the near West Side, in a
I could go on and on. I am sure that you the world. But fallout and radiation location which is probably the most acces
will find it interesting to note the constant threaten the welfare of every human being. sible, not only for the students of our city,
use of these attention-getting words on the Let us understand—that the gap between but for the entire metropolitan area. It then became necessary that residents of that site
front pages of the national press, wherever the progress of science and social control is
you may live, words that are of conflict, not only of local concern, but, indeed, rebe relocated.
negative, and are sensational. If this is the gionalwide and worldwide. Air pollution It is indeed unfortunate that in the selec
method by which you can get people to buy concerns vast urban areas, fallout is worldtion of sites for public improvements, some
your newspaper and to read your front page, wide, pesticides threaten the health of every people must be moved and may experience
is the converse not true? * * * that headlines person, automation is as much of a threat hardship. But in a democracy the principle
which are factual, informative and nonsen- as a promise. has been, and must be, that government
sational will discourage the purchase of a Making a choice between the benefits and should promote the good of the community newspaper ?
hazards of scientific achievement or breakas a whole, and certainly a State university
Apparently, this is why a great many in
through is a value judgment, a judgment would not only serve the immediate needs formative, factual stories are carried on the
based on the ideas of social good, on moralof the young people of our area, but would inside pages.
ity, on religion, not on science. supply a vital service for generations and
Let us turn our attention to television.
The scientist and the specialist must progenerations of young people yet to come.
There is little need for me to point out to you vide the information, the guidelines, the All of our daily newspapers editorially sup- the eternal themes of violence, cruelty and principles that can bring about an informed ported the university site, as did, for the misery which dominate television.
public judgment. most part, television and radio Yet, the However, I would like to read to you the
This communication to the elected official resistance by a small group, accompanied by television highlights as published in one
is essential, for it is in the world of politics active demonstrations and sit-ins and with newspaper on October 17. These programs that the social judgment will be made. whom many sympathized, including myself, represent the best offered for that evening.
This communication to the citizen is vital, was so great, so continuous, and so harassing
6:30 p.m.--A fight over a pretty waitress
for it is he who must provide the consensus that the construction of this university was ends in death and a murder conviction. which guides the administrative decision of threatened and delayed for more than a year. 7:00 p.m.-A man wearing leg irons is the government official. For many improvements of this type, there found half dead in a river.
It has been suggested that there is so is a great deal of support from the commu- 7:30 p.m.-A doctor, obsessed with devel- much information and so many facts, so nity when the plans are announced, but they oping a mechanism to take over in a heart many problems, and so many alternatives, disappear when the plans must be carried operation is accused of neglect by his ailing that it is beyond the capability of any person out in the face of an organized yet small wife.
to keep fully abreast, to be fully informed. opposition.
9:00 p.m.-A man attempts suicide when But we cannot accept the overabundance The question could be fairly asked, if the he finds himself unable to manage the family of knowledge as a ground to abdicate social media of communication agree with the fair- business he has inherited.
judgment. There are many reactions to the ness and logic of your position, and printed And, mind you, these are the highlights. dilemma. Some people are turning away the facts, why does this communication fail Now the percentage of violence shown on a from today's realities because they have lost to clear up misconception? Why does it fail television news program is not this high, but
their faith in the ability of the communicato bring the public official the support he news shows have a greater responsibility and
tion media to help guide their decisions, beneeds? they are faced with even a greater problem.
cause they have lost faith in the abiilty of The answer to that is found, to some ex- Most news programs are 15 minutes in
science to help solve their social problems. tent, by examining the media, and, may I length. Three minutes, an exact minimum
The enormity of facing the results of say, that my remarks for the most part apply of 3 minutes, are devoted to the commer
changing times and scientific progress, and to the daily newspapers throughout our nacials. Of the remaining 12 minutes, de
the inability to exercise effective social judgtion and not particularly to the Chicago
pending on the importance or interest of the ment has caused people to look backward press.
news, 4 or 5 are given to international or when the needs for such decisions were not The front page of every newspaper is supnational news; 3 or 4 to State or local news;
so overwhelmingly urgent. posed to contain the news of greatest imporand 3 or 4 to sports and the weather.
It leads to such attitudes as: tance and of greatest interest. Let us ex
Now, if we examine the segment given to
Let's blast Russia off the map. amine 11 headlines of a morning newspaper local news and we presume that two stories
Let's eliminate the income tax. dated October 23. Let us see how many of are covered, we would find that they must be
Let's take away the powers granted to the these headlines contain a word which is necovered in 2 or 3 minutes. Now television
Federal Constitution and restore them to and radio are proud of their objectivity and
the States. gative, dramatic, of conflict, sensational, or emotional.
Let's withdraw from the United Nations. their fairness, but I say, regardless of their Here are the words which appeared in
intentions and their wishes they cannot pre- And, as somebody has so well put it in deeight of these headlines: “Pickets *
sent both sides of an important issue fairly scribing the leaders of these proposals, they Attack * * * Spurns * * * Protest * * * Theft
in 2 or 3 minutes. And they, too, are equally have all the answers, but none of the solu* * * Bars * ** Appeals * * * and Boycott."
concerned in getting the widest circulation tions. Now here is an afternoon paper of October
and using that which is most dramatic, most I know that many of our people are dissensational, and most entertaining.
turbed by our inability to make a better 22, not owned by the same publisher-and
Of course radio and television carry many world, but I personally believe that the mahere are the words which appeared in eight
informative programs, particularly in those jority of Americans want to meet the headlines: "Boycott * * * Protest * * * Sub- hours where there are the fewest listeners. challenges of our age. dued * * * Crashes * * * Disorder * * Die It is something like the use made of the I hope that I have not given the impression * * * Killed * * * Bomb." inside pages of a newspaper.
that I believe this is a world where we have
made no progress, nor that I am a grim ows, Prairie Shores, to name a few which moved by forces so great that it is only fupessimist who sees no forward movement. weren't here when I left, and to discover a tility to try to change their direction? I am an optimist, and my optimism is found- new dignity that Chicago Negroes now feel. Will you adopt the defeatist viewpoint ed on the progress that has been made in They may live in the second largest city in which some people call conservatism, that my own field of activity, municipal govern- America, but it's just about the most fasci- the way forward is to look backward? ment.
nating and unquestionably the most excit- That cannot be the attitude at this cenIt is unfortunate that the progress of ing.
ter of learning, for it is to you that society many cities has not been fully communi- "They've begun to awaken to their power must look. cated to the people by the press, radio and and its attending responsibilities. As they The Chicago editor, Walter Howey, was the television.
quicken to their roles as businessmen, politi- first to organize the staff of the New York Let us take the city of Chicago and the cians, civil leaders, and heads of families, Mirror. Howey's announced policy was: progress that city government has made there's going to be that critical balance “90 percent entertainment and 10 percent with the support of the people of Chicago. which will make Chicago probably a truer information." Earlier this year, the National Safety Coun- American city than any other."
It was explained in a number of articles cil announced that Chicago was the safest I would like to give you some vital statis- that the New York newspaper strike and big city in the Nation. tics from the U.S. census:
rising costs were responsible for its failure. There is not a big city in the world which Chicago Negro families have the second Not a single account blamed his policy. has street lighting that can compare with highest median family income in America. An outstanding television network execuChicago's. Nearly every residential and bus. Chicago Negroes have the highest median tive recently stated to a television class: iness street has new, modern lights.
value of owner-occupied homes in America. “Television is not an art form. Our priEarly in 1963, Chicago was given a na- While the median education level of all Chi- mary purpose is to make a profit. Our busitional award for being the cleanest big city cago is 10.3, it is 9.3 for Negroes.
ness is entertainment. But social convenin the Nation. This continued a proud rec- These statistics are quoted from the Chi- tion requires efforts to 'uplift the communiord achieved in 1959 and again in 1961. cago Defender, the large Negro daily.
ty as a secondary consideration.” In the past 6 months there has been a Furthermore, the Human Relations Com- And in the field of science, for the most steady reduction of crime in Chicago, while mission's report, based on the census, re- part, social judgments, social controls are crime rates in other cities have been going veals that between 1950 and 1960 the num- secondary considerations. up. Since he has taken command, Super- ber of nonwhite families in Chicago earning I would be the first to admit I have disintendent o. W. Wilson has created a new $6,000 or more increased by 1,137 percent. cussed the problem of first magnitude. I ask image of the police department.
Between 1950 and 1960, for nonwhites 20 you to be tolerant of generalization and Our expressway system is nearly completed, years and over, there was a 66-percent in- oversimplification in discussing the dilemand the use of a mass transit facility in the crease for those completing 4 years of high ma of the ages, social communication. Congress Expressway has become a model school, a 79-percent increase for 1 or more Let me reiterate: of future transportation.
years of college, and a 70-percent increase of There are many newspapers, radio, and The U.S. Census Bureau of Housing re- 4 or more years of college.
television stations that make great efforts ported that in the period between 1950 and Chicago is one of the few major cities in to inform and elucidate. 1960 the number of dilapidated dwellings the United States where not a single stu- There are many scientists who are aware in Chicago was reduced by more than 50 per- dent is on a double shift at school.
of their social responsibility, who are parcent and in the past 242 years the number I could go on at great length concerning ticipating as citizens as well as researchers. of such dwellings has been further reduced the progress that has taken place in my city But, if we are to close the communication by 6,000 or 7,000.
and which could not have taken place with- gap involving the social issues of our changChicago has one of the most farflung ur- out the support and the understanding of ing world, they must do a better job. ban renewal programs in the Nation, and I the people of Chicago. However, I am not The dilemma of communication I have disam sure that those of you who have visited taking the position that I am satisfied or cussed faces all elected officials, not only the Chicago have been impressed by the new pri- that the people of Chicago are satisfied.
mayor of Chicago. We desperately need the vate construction in the Loop and in the There is room for improvement in every help of all the communication media if we neighborhoods, which totals more than $1.5 activity. Certainly in the field of human are to do a better job. Their power for good billion since 1957.
relations there is much to be done in Chi- is immeasurable. Chicago has carried on a tremendous pub- cago, and in many of the cities throughout As Thomas Jefferson said: lic works and community improvement pro- the Nation. Throughout the country, mu- “The basis of our Government being the gram, while at the same time it has con- nicipal government has improved in provid- opinion of the people, the very first object tinued its top ranging financial position. ing the basic, direct service to their citizens should be to keep that right; and were it
Chicago's overall debt per capita is the such as police, fire and health. Municipal left to me to decide whether we should have lowest of the five cities with more than a mil- government today has adopted all of the a government without newspapers, or newslion population, and the fourth lowest of modern methods and techniques of private papers without a government, I should not the Nation's 42 largest cities.
Industry to provide services with greater hesitate a moment to prefer the latter." Chicago is one of the three major cities in economy and efficiency.
Jefferson did not look backward but althe Nation whose bonds received a Dun & We can build bridges, design safer streets, ways forward. He said: "Some men look at Bradstreet prime rating. Just last July the
construct expressways, filter water, and build constitutions with sanctimonious reverence, city of Chicago was awarded a certificate of schools better than ever before.
and deem them like the Ark of the Covenant, conformance for distinguished financial re- In this narrow sense there has been no too sacred to be touched. They ascribe to porting by the Municipal Finance Officers
failure in communication. From this great the preceding age a wisdom more than hu. Association, and is the largest city in North university, from the centers of higher learn- man, and suppose what they did to be beyond America to be so recognized. ing throughout our Nation, will come the
amendment. * * * I am certainly not an Throughout the Nation there has been
doctors, lawyers, engineers, architects, sci- advocate for frequent and untried changes much printed about racial relations, and I entists, and agronomists.
in laws and institutions. * * * But I know urge the Congress to pass President Ken
As doctors, what is your viewpoint con
that laws and institutions must go hand in nedy's civil rights bill.
cerning our increasing population of elderly hand with the progress of the human mind. A good deal of public attention in this people and their need for medical insurance
As that becomes more developed and manfield has been directed to Chicago. Here are which is not based on an oath of pauperism?
ners and opinions change with the change of some of the facts:
circumstances, institutions must advance There is a significant and important mes
As lawyers, what is your approach to the lack of representation of our urban popula
also, and keep pace with the times." sage in the growth of the Negro middle class tions in most of the State legislatures of our
These words need constant repetition. Toin Chicago. The Chicago Commission on Nation?
day, when the world has become smaller, Human Relations, in a report based on the
As economists, what is the answer to au
when the powers of destruction have becensus, points out that at least 35 to 40 tomation, an invention which will eliminate
come total, when we are economically interpercent of Chicago's Negro families belong in the middle class on the basis of their more jobs than it will create?
dependent, when changes are so quick, sciAnd what judgments have all of you made, for communication has become the most
entific breakthroughs so frequent, the need college education, occupational status, income, and homeownership. regardless of your professional training, con
urgent and pressing need in the history of I would like to refer to a column in the cerning the great international issues that
mankind. face us? Chicago Defender written October 26. The
As we face the future, it is apparent that column contains some extremely critical re
These are only some of the issues in which
the challenge of today and tomorrow must marks, with some of which I do not agree, there is a desperate need for communica
be met by leadership working with people but I would like to quote the conclusion tion, for the presentation of alternatives
rather than by electronic brains, the drawing of the columnist:
based on the latest knowledge, the best board, and the laboratory. "But coming back 10 years later is to come thinking,
Whatever progress is made will be accomback and find a city on the move, the Dan Will you resign yourself to the modern plished through the decisions of those elected Ryan Expressway, Marina City, Lake Mead- rationalization that people are but objects by ballot. It is through political leadership