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Mr. President, the time is at hand to game, I know that we must expect some been the case. He has shown extreme restudy and reexamine the entire East- degree of criticism from time to time, tact, fairness, and, I must add after the West trade program.
whether such be justified or not. That events of the past fortnight, exemplary I believe the time is at hand for us to seems to be the nature of the political forbearance. These are the gifts of a be working with our NATO allies to find process in this and any other country
process in this and any other country leader of men, but not of mobs. out what policy we will pursue. It is with so proud a history of freedom of But these are the gifts of a leader of ludicrous, it is ridiculous for us to pur- expression.
free men which are being criticized. sue one policy while our NATO allies are But the nature of the political process, These are the qualities which are being taking over all the business opportuni- which places a premium on freedom of called dilatory. But tact, fairness, and ties. This is a kind of self-imposed un- expression, has also been characterized forbearance are necessary to free and employment program for the United by a proportionate emphasis on personal open discussion. And free and open disStates.
responsibility. This is the hallmark of cussion is indispensable in the demo
. I believe the time is at hand for the the open society. It seems that some of cratic process. United States of America to reexamine us have failed to realize this in the in- Question these qualities, and we actuwhat goods we can sell to our benefit, temperate criticism directed against the ally question the integrity and sincerity which will in no way increase the danger Senate leadership.
of those of us who have debated this to our security, or increase in any way As freedom of expression and personal issue and proposed various amendments. the strength of the Communist bloc responsibility have been symptomatic of
responsibility have been symptomatic of Criticize these qualities, and we criticize countries.
the open society, an examination of the not only the right but the responsibility We ought to tighten up on strategic pathology of the closed society in our of those Senators who believe their course goods and insist that our allies do the time discloses an unquenchable thirst is correct. After all, not a single one of same, that we set some limitations or
for a scapegoat whenever there appears us is the sole depository of all wisdom. controls. We ought to ease up on con- to be no rational solution to perplexing Many of the proposals of the past sumer goods, however. I believe that the and continuing problems. This malaise
and continuing problems. This malaise month or two have been controversial. more consumer goods we can take into has lately shown how it can begin to The almost interminable discussions on Eastern Europe, the more they are going make inroads as we face the seemingly the foreign aid bill have sometimes reto see the difference between their world insoluble problems confronting us during sulted in an injudicious choice of words. and ours, between freedom and collec- the closing weeks of this session of Con- The net result has been the unsettling tivism, between freedom and commu
gress. We cannot afford this ennui be- o heretofore amicable relations on the nism.
cause we cannot be deterred from the floor. Senator MANSFIELD, in my opinion, Mr. President, I have just been in- tasks facing us and the Nation.
has been very effective in salving nerve formed by a member of my staff that
I do not believe that I need to defend ends being irritated by the inexorable there seems to be some misunderstand. Senator MANSFIELD. Neither do I think
Senator MANSFIELD. Neither do I think passage of precious time toward the end ing about the effect of the bill introduced that he needs to defend himself. If he
that he needs to defend himself. If he of the year. And as the new year and today by the senior Senator from South had wished to do so, I have no doubt that the new session face us, we tend to forDakota (Mr. MUNDT).
the Senate would have been privileged to get the scholarly brilliance of a man who The senior Senator from South Dakota hear rare eloquence and logic.
has been successful in shepherding many was very clear, when he introduced the
However, as a Member of the Senate, bills through the Senate and pay increasbill, about the purpose involved and its I feel compelled to speak because the ing attention to the daily reams of newseffect and its application.
criticism presently being directed at the paper print calling Congress to task. Therefore, let me say that the bill is Senate leadership also reflects upon the To some, what is past in the Senate is not not retroactive in any respect. As the Senate as a whole. There is no single
Senate as a whole. There is no single necessarily prolog but grist for the senior Senator from South Dakota made person entrusted with all the duties and columnist. Even the severest of his clear in his colloquy, it does not apply to reponsibilities of leadership. If any- critics must agree that Senator MANSthe Hungarian credit guarantees which thing, ours is a collective leadership with FIELD is an honorable man and a truly have been approved or committed by the the assistant majority leader, the various good man in the best sense. He is a kind, Export-Import Bank; nor does it apply chairmen of Senate committees-all who
generous, and understanding human beto credits that are guaranteed by private share in the responsibilities of leadership. ing.
ing. In my eyes these are the sources banks.
As a matter of fact, every Senator is a from whence flows the strength necesAs I indicated in my colloquy with the leader in his own right and rightfully so. sary for effective leadership. senior Senator from South Dakota, the Because of this, if Senator MANSFIELD I am sure that when the last page bill applies only to those transactions deserves the recent spate of criticism, we of the record of the 88th Congress is which the Export-Import Bank has not equally deserve it and should share it. completed, it will undoubtedly show that approved or committed itself to approval, If we do not deserve it ourselves, then
If we do not deserve it ourselves, then it was a successful legislative session coneither orally or in writing, of export I firmly believe that he certainly does not.
ducted during a most trying period in credit guarantees. It is my understand- After the last few days of reflection, our Nation's history and led by a Senaing that the Export-Import Bank has I am convinced that precipitate criticism tor deeply committed and sensitive to the made such commitments with regard to of the Senate leadership has increased traditional safeguards of a society desales to Hungary under export licenses because of prolonged and often frustrat- signed to enable majority rule while preissued through last night.
ing discussion on the foreign aid bill. serving minority rights. That is the understanding we had. If This ordeal by debate has tested, and at It has been my privilege and honor to the business community needs to exam- times bested, our known capacity for such follow the Senate leadership for the past ine this question once again, I suggest it indulgence.
11 months. It is my hope that I have the call the Export-Import Bank, or the ma- Although my record on votes will in- opportunity of continuing to do so for jority leader, or the minority leader, or dicate that I have consistently supported many more years to come. I have the Senator from South Dakota, or read the position of the administration and searched the annals of the Senate and the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD.
the Senate Foreign Relations Committee have come up with very few other leadon this matter, I wish to go on record as ers equal to our most distinguished Sen
opposing any attempt to resort to pres- ator from Montana. THE SENATE LEADERSHIP
sure and "steamroll" the foreign aid bill Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, will Mr. INOUYE. Mr. President, it is through the Senate. It is in this connec- the Senator from Hawaii yield? with great distress, and at times with tion that I believe the Senate leadership Mr. INOUYE. I yield. extreme sadness, that I have noted the has shown its true mettle. Senator Mr. HUMPHREY. I thank the Senarecent outpourings of the press and MANSFIELD has done an irreproachable
MANSFIELD has done an irreproachable tor from Hawaii for what he has said in professional commentators criticizing
criticizing job in assuring a hearing to every Sena- this message. I knew this was in his the majority leadership of our Senate. tor's views. If he had done otherwise heart. I knew this was his personal conSpeaking as one who has been involved and dictatorially forced through the bill, viction. I am confident the majority in political activity long enough to then I would have had to agree with his leader will be most grateful for the words realize that politicians always seem fair detractors. But such, thank God, has not of support, of respect, and of admiration which the Senator has expressed today. become effective January 1 if we had
. become effective January 1 if we had do not do, he ought to get the credit for The Senator has not spoken mere words; passed it in October. But if we pass it what we do. as the Senator from Hawaii demonstrates in March or in April, it will become ef- Mr. INOUYE. That is only fair. by his actions, here and everywhere else, fective as of January 1.
Mr. HUMPHREY. If one has to take he means what he says.
We will pass civil rights legislation. the blame for error, he ought to be given While we have heard much criticism We should have passed it sooner. But credit for the truth. about the work of the 88th Congress, there are 537 Members of Congress, and The majority leader has a fine record. some persons forget that this Congress all of them do not agree.
It is an honor and a privilege to work has been faced with some of the toughest We will pass wilderness preservation alongside him. Perhaps I have an opdecisions any Congress has had. If the legislation, area redevelopment legisla-portunity to know him a little better than Senate had done nothing else but ratify tion, youth employment legislation, and many men do. His loyalty as a Member the nuclear test ban treaty, that was a extended Peace Corps legislation.
of this body, his loyalty to his convicsingular achievement, because it dealt Consider what we have done in the tions, to his Nation, and to the processes with the very security of this country. field of defense, military construction, of our Government, is such that every one We spent 6 weeks in hearings on that and Securities and Exchange Commis- of us could well emulate him. treaty, and then many days of debate. sion reforms. I become a little tired of He does not use the sledge-hammer We have averted a railroad strike that reading in the newspapers that we do
reading in the newspapers that we do technique; but he does use the techcould have tied up the Nation and cost not do anything. I do not think that nique of persuasion, encouragement, adthe country billions of dollars. The sen- is the way to get people to do construc- monition, and, when he needs to, the ior Senator from Minnesota can speak of tive things. People should not be told shillelagh—for I wish to testify that this this. Dozens of times I attended meet- that they are failures.
morning about 14 Senators were in the ings dealing with these crucial matters. I am a family man. If I kept telling majority leader's woodshed, and he had
Every once in a while I read in the my youngsters every day, youngsters out the shillelagh; and let me tell the press that we have not been doing any- who are growing up to young manhood Senate that he knows how to use it when thing. Perhaps 16 hours a day of hard and young womanhood, “You are a fail- it is needed, and it worked. work is not doing anything; but it seems ure. You are no good. You do not do Mr. INOUYE. I thank the Senator to me that it is a rather heavy load. I anything,” they would soon lose their
anything,” they would soon lose their from Minnesota for his valuable contrimight add that the duties of a Senator love and respect for me; and perhaps, butions and his gracious words. are not merely in committee or on the unfortunately, they might well believe Senate floor. The distinguished junior what they had been told—that they were
RECESS TO MONDAY, AT NOON Senator from South Dakota [Mr. Mc- failures. GOVERN) mentioned to me a moment ago Frankly, since we are talking about
Mr. HUMPHREY. Mr. President, I that he had been called out to a very improvements, I think journalism could
have consulted with the acting minority important meeting in the Dakotas to ex- be improved. Radio and television could leader, the Senator from New Jersey plain legislation. He was asked to go to be improved. The moral and ethical [Mr. CASE], as to whether there is any Nebraska to explain his wheat bill and tones of those facilities could be im
further business for today for Senators other procedures relating to wheat legis- proved. Many areas of life could be im- on his side of the aisle. We understand lation to the wheat growers of that State. proved.
that there is not. All this is a part of the legislative proc- Congress needs to be improved, of
Therefore, Mr. President, I now move ess. It is a part of our duty-not neces- course. I am one who believes it needs that, in accordance with the previous sarily the most relaxing part-to stand new rules and some reform in terms of order, the Senate stand in recess until before an audience and explain bills. its institutions. We need not go into Monday next, at noon. I am convinced that when the 88th that subject here.
The motion was agreed to; and (at 5 Congress closes its book, the record in What the Senator from Hawaii has o'clock and 2 minutes p.m.) the Senate that book will be outstanding. I com- said surely needs to be said. I saw the took a recess, under the order previously pare it now, and will compare it when majority leader lead today. I was in entered, to Monday, November 18, 1963, we complete our work, with the record of room S-208 for more than an hour and at 12 o'clock meridian). the 63d Congress, the first Congress of a half this morning-almost 2 hours. I Woodrow Wilson's administration, a saw the majority leader come into that
Executive nominations confirmed by System, to mention merely two im- tience—and he is the most patient man
the Senate November 15 (legislative day portant pieces of legislation. I have ever met or have ever known.
of October 22), 1963: The 88th Congress has already passed He said, “We are going to act.” He
U.S. ARMY important legislation. This Congress did not get it into the newspapers. He
Lt. Gen. Robert William Porter, Jr., 018048, will have done more for education than did not call a news conference and say,
Army of the United States (major general, any other Congress in the history of the "I told them we are going to act." He
U.S. Army), for appointment as indicated, United States. This Congress passed the simply came to the floor of the Senate
under the provisions of title 10, United States
Code, section 711; to be senior U.S. Army greatest mental health program ever and resolved a difficult problem in the
member of the Military Staff Committee of sponsored or enacted by any nation, any foreign aid bill, the debate on which ap- the United Nations. time, anywhere in the world. We have peared last night as though it might The following-named officers for tempopassed a bill providing aid to medical last for days.
rary appointment in the Army of the United education.
I am delighted that the Senator from States to the grades indicated, under the I I have a complete report of the work Hawaii [Mr. INOUYE], whom I consider Hawaii [Mr. INOUYE], whom I consider provisions of title 10, United States Code,
sections 3442 and 3447: which this Congress has accomplished to be one of the outstanding Members of thus far. We are now approaching the this body and one of the truly outstand
To be major generals end of only the 1st session of the 88th ing citizens of our country, has spoken
Brig. Gen. Robert Howard York, 021341, Congress. as he has today. I consider it a rare
Army of the United States (colonel, U.S.
Army). One would think when he read the privilege to be included in his circle of
Brig. Gen. Harry William Osborn Kinnard, newspapers that when December 31 friends.
021990, Army of the United States (lieucame, the world would stop; that all the Mr. INOUYE. The Senator from Mon- tenant colonel, U.S. Army). reporters would say, “Stop, world; we tana [Mr. MANSFIELD], has to his credit Brig. Gen. Charles Edward Johnson 3d, want to get off.”
an imposing list of accomplishments at 019534, U.S. Army. We will be here in January—the Lord this session. Does not the Senator from
Brig. Gen. George Paul Sampson, 042926, willing and some of the same bills will Minnesota believe that he can take some
U.S. Army. be before us, bearing the same numbers, glory and credit for those accomplish- U.S. Army.
Brig. Gen. William Carl Garrison, 030144, and we will take action on them. We ments?
Brig. Gen. John Graham Zierdt, 020632, will pass a tax bill. It will be made Mr. HUMPHREY. If the majority Army of the United States (colonel, U.S. effective as of January 1. It would have leader has to take the blame for what we Army).