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after a period of training four boats were sent to Dunkirk where contact with the enemy was soon established. The coastal motor boat at once justified its existence by torpedoing a large German destroyer. On several occasions in this attack the boats came under heavy machine gun-fire and, although they were frequently hit, the little craft succeeded in regaining port.
They carried one 18-inch torpedo in a rack let into the deck at the stern, the after end of the rack extending well beyond the stern and thus serving the same purpose as the “ spoon" of a torpedo tube.
The method of attacking was simple and proved to be effective. When the enemy was sighted the coastal motor boat headed for it at full speed, the torpedo being launched tail first over the stern by means of a launching ram, as soon as the target was in range. Immediately after letting go the torpedo, the helm was thrown hard over and the boat turned off, as shown in the insert sketch on our drawing, the torpedo racing past on the original course toward the target.
Later, the firm built for the Admiralty large numbers of a larger type, 55 feet in length. This is the boat shown in our drawings. The dimensions were: Length, 55 feet; beam, feet; extreme draft, 3 feet. Provision was made for two torpedoes, and for defense against aircraft and small surface vessels four machine guns were carried. It should be noted that some of the 55-footers were armed with one torpedo and four depth charges. They were driven by 375-horsepower motors, which at 1250 revolutions gave a speed of 38 knots. When fully opened out they made 41 knots and over.
The work of the C. M. B.'s during the war was not confined to torpedo attack. All these little fellows—" scooters' as they came to be termed in the navy-were gradually called upon to perform multifarious duties. They were very active off the Belgian coast and Belgians who lived through the German occupation stated that the enemy had conceived a wholesome respect for them. Frequently they came under fire from the German batteries, and more than one was lost as the result of a direct hit with a shell. They had no fear of destroyers and frequently intercepted the German boats when they were returning from raids on the Dover barrage. Their very high speed enabled them to get away from the destroyers after delivering an attack. Enemy airplanes, however, were a more serious matter, for these attacked them with bombs and machine-gun fire.
Some of the best work of the C. M. B.'s was done in the blocking operations at Zeebrugge and Ostend. Their work was to create smoke screens (which they did by moving ahead of the other vessels at full speed and sending out smoke clouds from the exhaust by means of a special smokeproducing device), and to lay down flares, to show where the block ships were to turn. At Zeebrugge two of them entered the harbor to torpedo a vessel alongside the Mole; others, temporarily armed with Stokes mortars, attacked the airplane hangars. Also, when the Vindictive was sent in to block Ostend, two coastal motor boats were given the work of torpedoing the ends of the piers, so as to put the guns which were mounted thereon out of action.-Scientific American, 7/12.
Novel Salvage FLEET.—The first of a new type of " mystery ship" for the British Admiralty has been completed at Southwich, near Brighton. Unlike the “mystery ships” built during the war, the new vessels are not intended for destruction, but for salvaging merchant vessels sunk by German submarines around the coast of the United Kingdom. Six ships of the new type are to be built, each at a cost of nearly £1,000,000.
The position of the sunken merchantmen has been ascertained by divers of the Admiralty salvage department, who have reported that in many cases the ships can be raised and refitted for service.
The salvage ships present the appearance of a series of towers, with a broad foundation shaped like a ship. The towers rest on one another like
widening tracks, and each diminishes in size to the top one, which is more than 100 feet above the base.
Each tower is made up of numerous hollow blocks of concrete curved to withstand internal pressure. They have water-tight doors by which the blocks can be filled with water, and pumps to replace the water with air.
.Having no motive power of their own, the ships are to be towed in pairs to where a sunken merchantman has been located. On a calm day the hollow concrete blocks will be filled with water and the ships will be sunk on either side of the wreck. Divers will fasten them tightly to the wreck. The water then will be pumped from the blocks, and the ships, it is expected, will rise, bringing the wreck to the surface.- Nautical Gazette, 6/21.
British WAGES DOUBLED.-In accordance with Admiralty decisions arising out of recommendations of a committee over which Admiral Sir Martyn Jerram presided, the pay of petty officers, non-commissioned officers and men in the Royal Navy and Royal Marines will be more than doubled by an order just issued. The question of officers' pay is still under consideration by a committee under Rear Admiral Sir Lionel Halsey. The increase in substantive pay will be antedated to February í for all men still in the service on May I and not discharged before that date. The increase in the pay of the navy, as one English newspaper puts it, “makes it an occupation in which a man can hope to be as well paid for his services as he would be ashore."
The total cost of the increase will be annually 6,148,000 pounds, approximately $28,280,800 at the existing relative value of the pound sterling. Of that sum 2,839,000 pounds will go in increase of pay, 656,000 pounds in increased allowances and 2,653,000 pounds in increased pensions.
How Increases Apply.—The increase, according to rating, is shown in the following table :
1.61 Chief P. O..
.97 1.94 Yeoman of signals
.85 1.71 Chief sailmaker
.95 2.07 Engine-room artificer, first class.
1.62 2.53 Chief E. R. A., first class..
1.85 2.86 Stoker, first class
-51 1.04 Stoker P. O.
.51 1.71 Chief stoker
2.07 Third writer
.49 Chief writer
The Royal Marines will in future be paid on the same basis as the navy, and in this corps the increases given vary from is. 7d. to a private in the R. M. L. I. (making his pay 25. od. a day) to 55. 3d. a day for the company sergeant-major (making his pay 1os. a day). The new rates are to date, as in the navy, from February 1, so there will be a nice little accumulation of back pay to come on the next pay day. Increases are also made in allowances for good conduct and other things. These are thus summarized: Good conduct badges 3d. a day instead of id.; working suit allowances merged in kit upkeep allowance, which is increased by ios. a year for all ratings, and 125. a year for engine room, electrical and ordnance artificer ratings; national health insurance contributions will be paid by the Admiralty; grog money taken in lieu of runi ration 78. a month instead of 12d. a day; subsistence allowance increased by 50 per cent; free transfer of discharged or invalided men and their families and effects to be sent to the future place of employment within a month of discharge
Pension Rate Higher.-There is also a considerable increase in the pension rate. Hereafter the basic rate will be 1/2d. per day for each year of service instead of 12d. per day. This will mean, with the various additions for long service and good conduct, that the average pension will be 78 pounds a year instead of 40 pounds, with a possible maximum of 100 pounds. In addition to this, the Admiralty has undertaken to supplement the Greenwich Hospital funds when necessary, in order that all men may receive an extra 5d. a day at the age of 55 and 9d. a day at 65. Separation allowances will be paid until December 31, 1919, and the future of this question is to be the subject of further consideration, having regard to the cost of living.
Some interesting figures are given by the Admiralty to show what a man's weekly earnings will be in the navy under the new scales. Thus an able seaman (gunner), with less than three years' service and unmarried, who formerly received 198. 3d. a week, will receive 2 pounds, 4s. 11/2d. a week. A petty officer, (leading torpedo man), two good conduct badges, married with two children, will receive 4 pounds, 175. 81/2d. instead of I pound, uis. 6d. A chief petty officer (gunner's man), over six years' service, three good conduct badges, single, will receive 5 pounds, is. 12d. instead of 2 pounds, 8s. 5d.
Thus the common British seaman who has been too long neglected is at last coming into his own.-Baltimore Sun, 7/6.
As from February 1, 1919, the following amounts will be added to substantive pay as a bonus to all officers of the Royal Navy, both permanent and entered for “ hostilities only,” to the Reserves, and the Royal Marines, and will be continued until the permanent rates can be settled : Per day
d. Warrant officers, R. N... 3 6 Warrant officer, class 2...... 6 Commissioned warrant offi
Warrant officer, class I.. 3 cers and mates. 4 0 Second lieutenant
3 6 Sub-lieutenants and acting
Lieutenant sub-lieutenants 3 6 Captain
4 6 Lieutenants 4 6 Major
5 Lieutenant commanders 5 Lieutenant colonel
5 6 Commanders 5 6 Higher ranks
0 Captains and above..
6 0 - Journal of the Royal United Service Institution, May, 1919.
aurent Aww N
JAPAN PLAN FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF THE JAPANESE Navy.-Relating to our Imperial Navy and army matters, according to the eighth term of the International League Regulations, our authorities have made a general outline of the scope of our naval and military plans after scrupulous consideration.
Accordingly, it was debated previously by the Cabinet Council and also on the 17th instant at the Extraordinary Diplomatic Investigation Meeting, when Tanaka, the Minister of War, and Kato, the Minister of the Navy, gave minute explanation about our military and naval plans. Although there was a little controversy over the opinion of Count Mujoji Ito, in general we have reached a decision on the scope of our Imperial naval preparations. Owing to further investigations on that subject, our authorities will submit a report at the proper time, after making several investigations and after receiving the Imperial sanction.
According to a reliable source, our naval plans would be reported at the meeting of the International League. Our fleet organization will include three squadrons of eight war ships. This was decided at the meeting of admirals last year, and was given the Imperial sanction. That is, the main body will consist of 24 ships consisting of eight battleships, which belong
to the first period of the ship's age (i. e. within eight years after completing), eight battle cruisers, and eight battleships. According to previously decided plan of the organization of the Imperial Navy, our authorities expected as a first step the completion of the so-called 8:6 fleet before the 12th year of Taisho (1923). The main body is organized with two battle cruisers which re appended at the time of the Terauchi Ministry, two battleships of the first period of ship's age (reckoning in temporarily the Fuso which should be entered in the second period of ship's age in the 12th year of Taisho, 1923), and six battle cruisers (by including the Haruna and the Kirishima which should be put in the second period ship's age). Then they planned for the accomplishment of the complete 8:8 feet which is organized of eight battleships of the first period and eight battle cruisers. However, from the standpoint of our Imperial geographical condition and world position, we can hardly expect to feel satisfied with the previously decided plan.
Judging from the statement by Mr. Daniels, Secretary of the American Navy, which he made before the House Committee on Naval Affairs on January 4 of this year, the American Navy will be divided between the Pacific and Atlantic fleets this coming summer. It is clear that half of the American Navy will be stationed in the Pacific Ocean. As for England, according to a foreign telegram, it is reported that she has decided to send a new formation of the oriental feet which will be larger than that of the hitherto existing fleet which has been sent to China in the past. Our empire should pay attention to those nations.
For the sake of our Imperial position, that is, to certify our superior position in the Far East, to keep the perpetual peace of the Orient and furthermore for the protection of our newly-authorized dominions, as well as for the protection of our foreign trade, we must enlarge our previously decided plan and our military force. In short, under the present Imperial Navy, it is necessary for Japan to possess a fleet of three squadrons of eight warships, and it is said that our authorities have decided to report this as a plan concerning the Japanese Naval Organization. In fact, the above plan is simply a positive necessity for our national defence at present. To commence its practice is another matter. It lies in the far future on account of our financial condition and the possibility of constructing ships. At the 41st Diet, that adjourned March 27, 1919, the plan, of three squadrons of eight ships, of Kato, Minister of the Navy, is simply the aim which our Imperial Navy should adopt in the future. Its practice is entirely a different matter. Judging from his declaration regarding the difficulty of its practice, it seems impossible to enter into its practice within about ten years.- Translation from “ Yamato," a Japanese newspaper, 5/28.
JAPANESE AEROPLANE POLICE IN FORMOSA.—An aeroplane police force is to be organized by the Formosan Government. After passing a bill for the estimated cost of the machines, about yen 200,000, during the Twentyfirst Diet, the government sent a request to the War Department for the construction of the flying machines. There are to be two aeroplanes of Maurice Farman style, two Renault style motors of 70 horsepower, and three machines for preliminary tests.—“ Yoruso," a Japanese newspaper, 5/29.
JAPAN MAKES APOLOGY FOR TIENTSIN ATTACK.-Now that Japan has made a formal apology to the United Stated for the unprovoked attack by Japanese on men of the 15th U. S. Infantry at Tientsin, China, March 12, and for the affronts to P. Stewart Heintzlemann, the American Consul General, which occurred at the same time, the unhappy incident can be considered closed. The formal apology, accompanied by expressions of regret, places the Japanese in the position of being in the wrong and admitting it, and it serves as a notice that the United States Government will expect Japan to prevent incidents of this character in the future. The apology of the Japanese Government has been made all the more unre
served and complete by frank admission of Japan's blame and no counter charges against the Americans. Apologies were tendered to Paul S. Reinsch, the American Minister at_Pekin, and to Mr. Heintzlemann, and were addressed to Col. William T. Wilder, who commanded the 15th Infantry, but had been transferred.-Army and Navy Journal, 7/5.
Navy DEPARTMENT-BUREAU OF CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR VESSELS UNDER CONSTRUCTION, UNITED STATES NAVY-DEGREE OF COMPLETION,
AND PROBABLE DATES OF COMPLETION, AS REPORTED JUNE 30, 1919
2/ - /20 Indeterminate
Battleships? 43 Tennessee.. New York Navy Yard
79.1 44 California...
Mare Island Navy Yard... 65.6 56.6 45 Colorado New York S. B. Co....
26.8 46 Maryland...
Newport News S. B & D. D. Co. 49.7 39.9 47 Washington.. New York S. B. Co....
26.2 5.3 18 West Virginia
Newport News S. B. & D. D. Co. 23.4 2.2 49 South Dakota.
New York Navy Yard.. 50 Indiana
New York Navy Yard. 51 Montana...
Mare Island Navy Yard.. 52 North Carolina
Norfolk Navy Yard.... Battle Cruisers 1 Lexington..
Fore River S. B. Co..... 2 Constellation
Newport News S. B. & D.D. Co. 3 Saratoga
New York S. B. Co... Ranger...
Newport News S. B. & D. D. Co. 5 Constitution
Phila. Navy Yard
Phila. Navy Yard.. Scout Cruisers 4.
Todd D. D. & Const. Co........ 28.2 6.1 5. Todd D. D. & Const. Co......
Todd D. D. & Const. Co.... 21.7 1.2 7. Beth. S. B. Co. (Fore River).
0. 8. Beth. S. B, Co. (Fore River).
0. 9.. Wm. Cramp & Sons Co...
Wm. Cramp & Sons Co..... 12. II.
Wm. Cramp & Sons Co.... 12...
Wm. Cramp & Sons Co.... 13...
Wm. Cramp & Sons Co..
96.5 Fuel Ship No. 17, Neches.... Boston Navy Yard..
10. Fuel Ship No. 18, Pecos.... Boston Navy Yard..
.4 .3 Hospital Ship No. 1, Relief. Phila. Navy Yard.......
29.4 Amn. Ship No. 1, Pyro...... Puget Sound Navy Yard.. 92. 86. Amn. Ship No. 2, Nitro..... Puget Sound Navy Yard. 52. 36. Rep. Ship No. 1, Medusa..... Puget Sound Navy Yard
2. 2. 2.
8/1/21 9/15/21 11/15/21 12/15/21 2/15/22
11/1/19 12/30/20 9/1/20 1/1/20 5/1/20
1 Battleships authorized but not under construction or contract (2) Nos. 53 and 54.
I submarine tender No. 3.
I transport No. 2. There are 166 destroyers, 65 submarines, 9 mine sweepers, 18 sea-going tugs, 26 harbor tugs. 12 oil tankers and 45 Ford eagles in various stages of completion. About 81 destroyers will probably be completed this year and the remainder in 1920. Twelve destroyers were completed and delivered to the Navy Department during the month of June.
There are 12 additional destroyers and 10 submarines authorized but not under con. struction or contract.