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corrections of form are subsidiary to rhetorical criticism, that the former will be reduced to a minimum, and that the marks assigned will be based almost entirely upon the proficiency with which the students apply the larger principles.

The three textbooks upon which the lesson assignments are based are used mainly as material for exercises and examples, both in preparation, and during the recitation hour. They are very different in purpose, and are combined to give the class a broader point of view than any one textbook could offer. Of the three books, the one most frequently used, because it consists mainly of examples of Exposition, is Fulton's Expository Writing, (the MacMillan Company, 1912). The others are Stevens and Alden's Composition for Naval Officers (the Lord Baltimore Press, 1919), and Woolley's The Mechanics of Writing (D. C. Heath & Company, 1916).

Although lack of space forbids a description of the lessons, lectures, and tests in detail, a list of the lecture subjects and of the authors whose writings are studied in Fulton's text-book will give a general idea of the methods used.

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TITLES OF LECTURES 1. Unity: Limitation and Convergence; the Conclusion. 2. Coherence: Order and Sequence ; Transitions. 3. Clearness: Proportion and Emphasis; Subheadings. 4. Interest: Concreteness: Comparison ; Illustration. 5. What Is a Paragraph? 6. Similarities in Structure between the Whole Composition and

the Paragraph. - 7. The Paragraph as a Mechanism. 8. Deductive and Inductive Paragraphs. 9. The Pre-Determination of Sentences: Parallel Construction

and Transition. 10. Similarities in Structure between the Paragraph and the

Sentence. 11. The Sentence as the Focus of Structural Principles. 12. The Principles of Word Choice. 13. Accuracy in Words: The Bearing of Etymology on Accuracy. 14. Good Use and Vocabulary: The Habit of Word Criticism and

Word Observation.

Of the examples of Exposition studied and analyzed, the following are characteristic:

A selected article in the NAVAL INSTITUTE PROCEEDINGS.
What Is Education? Huxley.
Refining Crude Petroleum. Tower. (The Story of Oil.)
The Importance of Dust. Wallace. (The Wonderful Cen-

On Yeast. Huxley.
Americanism: An Attempt at a a Definition. Brander

Matthews. (Parts of Speech.)
The Relativity of All Knowledge. Spencer. (First

The Ideal Historian. Macaulay. (Essay on History.)
Literature. Cardinal Newman. (The Idea of a University.)
The Chemist in the Industries. Richardson.
The Web-foot Engineer. Brooks.
Two kinds of Education for Engineers. Johnson.
Racial Elements of English Character. Matthew Arnold.

(On the Study of Celtic Literature.)
The Value of Education in Science. Mill. (Discussions and

Equality. James Bryce.
The Rhythm of Motion. Spencer. (First Principles.)
Modern Chemistry and Medicine. Richards.
The Problems of Astronomy. Newcomb.
Stephen B. Luce: An Appreciation. Rear Admiral Bradley

A. Fiske, U. S. Navy, (reprinted by permission from the

Naval Institute).
The British Navy at the Time of the American Revolution.

Rear Admiral French Ensor Chadwick, U. S. Navy,
(abridged from the Introduction to The Graves Papers,
and Other Documents Relating to the Naval Operations
of the Yorktown Campaign. Reprinted by permission

of the Naval History Society). For variety, and more informal illustration of principles, certain reference books are in addition placed at the disposal of the class. Among these are:

Sea Warfare. Rudyard Kipling.
Elements of the Great War: The Battle of the Marne. Hilaire


The Grand Fleet, 1914-1916, Its Creation, Development, and

Work. Admiral Viscount Jellicoe of Scapa.
Copies of recent numbers of The World's Work.
The Ship That Found Herself, Steam Tactics, A Fleet in

Being, etc. Kipling. In conclusion, the following reproduction of the folded mimeograph sheet used for the test during the first hour of the course will indicate the nature of the tests assigned :



TOPIC CARD Test 1. Each student is given a shuffled pack of cards. The pack contains 20 cards, and each card contains a topic sentence taken from an article in the NAVAL INSTITUTE PROCEEDINGS for March, 1919, entitled : “SOME IDEAS ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF INCREASING THE SIZE OF BATTLESHIPS ”

2. The article in question contains 79 paragraphs. These paragraphs are grouped under six main divisions or main headings, including the Foreword and the Conclusion. There are thus six main topics and seventy-nine sub-topics, or eighty-five topics in all. As the majority of the paragraphs are very short, and deal with minor details, the selection of twenty topics for this test is sufficient to give a clear idea of the outline of the article. The topic sentences representing the six main divisions are included in the pack of cards.

3. Problem.-(1) Arrange the cards in logical order. Time allowed : fifteen minutes. (2) Select the six cards which you think represent the six main topics of the article (1. Foreword; 2. First Main Topic; 3. Second Main Topic; 4. Third Main Topic; 5. Fourth Main Topic; 6. Conclusion). Write these six main topics down in outline form on theme paper. Time allowed: ten minutes. (3) Compare your outline with the key on the folded side of this paper.

...(Fold on this line)..

Full Outline for Cards
I. Foreword: Shipbuilding .... is a matter of continuous progress.
II. The Qualities of Naval Ships . .
1. Useful displacement is apportioned according to intended


2. The total displacement is made up of the following ... III. Battleships Considered Singly

I. Armament.
2. Protection.
3. Mobility .... (Of all the qualities which a battleship should

have, none is more disputed than that part of mobility

which speed supplies.) 4. Endurance.

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IV. Probable Limits of the Size of Battleships.

1. The locks of the Panama Canal .... should take a ship

980 feet long and 110-foot beam.
V. Numerous Battleships Considered Together.
1. Coördination of available forces is employed in two principal

ways, i. e., strategy and tactics.
2. The tactical considerations involved ....
3. Considerations of strategy :...

4. Certain economic considerations .
VI. Conclusion:

1. Summary: The battleship of increased size, considered singly,

can carry more fighting power, be protected for more effective resistance, have higher speed under all conditions, greater radius of action, and greater cruising life.

Battleships of increased size, considered together, are of greater tactical value, of greater strategic value, and of

greater economic value. 2. The decision is definitely in favor of the battleship of in

creased size.

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By Captain ARMISTEAD Rust, U. S. Navy


1. An unknown star may be readily identified by means of the Star Identification Tables (H. O. Publication No. 127) when its altitude and azimuth have been observed. In cloudy weather, however, at night, when there is much motion on the ship and particularly when the altitude of the star is high, it is not convenient to obtain a compass bearing of the star.

For the purpose of star identification the azimuth may be obtained, without the use of the compass, from two observed altitudes as shown below.

From formula 285 of Chauvenet's Trigonometry (10th edition), we have:

Ah=cos ZAL+cos Mad- cos L sin Zat.
Let L and d be constant, then:
Ah= -cos L sin Zat.

(2) If Atri minute of time=15' of arc, we have: Rate of change of altitude in i minute,

Ah,=Rm= -cos L sin Z, hence,

R sin Z=


15 Rm

m may be found from the difference between two altitudes, observed in quick succession, expressed in minutes and decimals, divided by the interval between the observations in minutes and decimals of time. To be exact, unless the ship be on a course at right angles to the bearing of the body, the rate of change of altitude in one minute, Rm, found by observation must be corrected for the run of the ship; that is, if K minutes is the speed of the ship per hour, then K seconds is the speed per minute and the correction=K" cos (C~2), where C=course and 2=azimuth of the body, which is found by using the observed rate of change per minute and Plate I. Enter the Traverse Tables with K" as

(3) (4)



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