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three hundred miles away. Where the balloon cable enters the fog might indicate the approximate position in which a machine of normal glide should make the plunge, while the balloon observer would signal the direction he should take. A weighted wire let down about 20 feet below the level of the machine, and arranged to light a flash lamp in front of the pilot's .eye when the weight touches the ground, would tell him the moment to flatten out.” Given a level aerodrome and a machine of really low gliding and landing speed, this idea should prove a success.
For night fog-flying the same idea could be arranged, balloon and cable being strongly illuminated and searchlights brought into use either pointing along the landing ground or vertically at its corners to mark its extent.
The hanging wire connected with a flashlamp was used by seaplane pilots landing on unlit water after night patrols or raids, and proved quite successful.
Absolute reliability and schedule running is not to be expected at first. Did any form of transport make such progress in its early days as aviation has done since 1914? When Bleriot flew the Channel it was regarded as a freak performance, and now the Atlantic flight is being described as such It is a step-a significant stage in aviation, just as was the first steamship crossing in the thirties.
The fact is, that design and construction of aircraft are ahead of engines and meteorology: " Performance" was our shibboleth during the warspeed, climb, and contortional ability. As a result the qualities that make for reliability and success in civil aviation were left behind to some extent. It is surely the first duty of civil aerial organizers to prove that in these qualities we can gain and keep the same supremacy as we held in the more warlike attributes on November II, 1918.—United Service Magazine, July, 1919.
MISCELLANEOUS PROPOSED SCIENTIFIC ESTABLISHMENTS FOR THE FUTURE.—With a view to developing and extending the scientific results which were obtained under stress of war, the British Admiralty has recently put forward proposals for the permanent establishment of a Department of Research and Experiment within the navy.
Plans have been formulated for the erection of a Central Research Institution for the investigation of first principles and for carrying on researches of a fundamental and pioneer character. Steps have already been taken to organize a sea experimental station and to provide buildings and equipment for an engineering laboratory, a wireless and signal school, and a torpedo and mining school in place of Vernon.
It is believed that these institutions will prove of great value in developing not only means of increasing the efficiency of the navy, but in providing aids to navigation for our mercantile marine.
The initial expenditure for buildings and equipment will be large, but it seems evident that an ample financial return will in a short time be obtained for the nation from profits accruing from a lowering of the rates of insurance and from a reduction in the cost of transportation. If we could by the use of such aids to navigation as have been referred to above prevent two or three wrecks per year, or lower the time of passage between Great Britain and Canada on the average by one day per voyage per ship through the fog-covered areas in the neighborhood of Newfoundland, sufficient funds would be saved in a year or two to cover the whole cost of the expenditure on scientific and experimental establishments and on the prosecution of the researches and investigations foreshadowed.—The Engineer, 7/25.
Navy Sets NEW RECORD.Former German liners, converted merchantmen and warships operated by the Cruiser and Transport Force of the Atlantic fleet transported from Europe to the United States during June
a total of 315,067 troops, which is 9000 more than were transported to Europe by all vessels of the allied nations during any one month of the war, it was announced yesterday by Vice Admiral Albert Gleaves. This, it was stated, was in addition to troops carried by other agencies.
To handle these troops 136 ships were employed, all manned by navy officers and crews, included among them being the giant transports Leviathan, Imperator, Kaiserin Auguste Victoria, and other large ships taken over from the Central Powers. Leading all others in the handling of troops during June was the Leviathan, which has carried on the return voyage since the signing of the armistice a total of 76,422 men.
Some exceptional records in rapid “turn arounds" at Brest have been recorded. The record probably is held, however, by the transport Great Northern, which made a round trip in a trifle more than twelve days, Included in this time was the discharging at Brest of 5000 dozen eggs and 7000 tons of fruit and the taking on board for the return trip of 3130 passengers and troops, four lighters of baggage, 350 sacks of mail, 4000 barrels of oil, and 500 tons of sugar. The time spent at anchorage at Brest was five hours and ten minutes.--N. Y. Times, 7/17.
Military History PRIZE.—The American Historical Association offers a prize of $250 for the best unpublished essay in American military history submitted to the Military History Prize Committee before July 1, 1920.
The essay may treat of any event of American military history,-a war, a campaign, a battle; the influence of a diplomatic or political situation upon military operations; an arm of the service; the fortunes of a particular command; a method of warfare historically treated; the career of a distinguished soldier. It should not be highly technical in character for the object of the contest is to extend the interest in American military history; but it must be a positive contribution to historical knowledge and the fruit of original research.
The essay is not expected to be less than ten thousand or more than one hundred thousand words in length.
It should be submitted in typewritten form, unsigned; and should be accompanied by a sealed envelope marked with its title and containing the name and address of the author; and a short biographical sketch.
Maps, diagrams or other illustrative materials accompanying a manuscript should bear the title of the essay.
The Committee, in reaching a decision, will consider not only research, accuracy and originality, but also clearness of expression and literary form. It reserves the right to withhold the award if :10 essay is submitted attaining the required degree of excellence.
For further information address the Chairman of the Military History Prize Committee, Milledge L. Bonham, Jr., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
CURRENT NAVAL AND PROFESSIONAL PAPERS The Future of American Shipping. By Edwin N. Hurley. Universal Engineer, April, 1919.
Peace-or Truce? 1. The Peace According to Versailles-1919. By George A. B. Dewar. 2. The Peace According to Herr Erzberger-1914. By George Saunders. 3. After the Signature. By Harold F. Wyatt. 4. War and Peace, Limited or Unlimited. By Major R. M. Johnston, U. S. A. The Nineteenth Century and After, July, 1919.
The Great Peace. By the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Compton-Rickett, M. P. The Contemporary Review, July, 1919.
The Liabilities of the Treaty. By Wm. Harbutt Dawson. The Fortnightly Review, July, 1919.
Japan, Yesterday, To-day and To-morrow? By Prof. Joseph H. Longford (late H. M. Consul, Nagasaki). The Nineteenth Century and After, July, 1919.
ALLAN WESTCOTT, Associate Professor, U. S. Naval Academy
TREATY RATIFICATION DELAYED No APPOINTMENT ON REPARATION COMMISSION.—On July 18, President Wilson wrote to Senator Lodge, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, requesting approval of the temporary appointment of an American member to the Reparation Commission in Paris, pending ratification of the treaty. On the following day the Senate Committee passed a resolution to the effect that until the treaty was ratified no power existed to make the appointment.
PROPOSED ALTERATIONS OF LEAGUE COVENANT.—Consideration of the Peace Treaty in the Senate and the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations was directed almost entirely to the Covenant for a League of Nations. Objection centered chiefly upon the Shantung settlement, Articles X and XI, guaranteeing the territorial integrity of signatory states, and the clauses relating to withdrawal from the League and control of domestic affairs. Two general methods of conditional ratification were considered: (1) that of inserting “interpretations " giving a precise and acceptable meaning to clauses in dispute, but not requiring the approval of other powers; (2) that, favored by the more radical opponents of the League plan, of inserting reservations or amendments that would require acceptance by other nations.
President Taft, in a letter to the Chairman of the Republican National Committee made public on July 22, offered the following six “interpretations":
1. That upon two years' notice the United States could cease to be a member of the League without having the League pass upon whether she had fulfilled all her obligations under the covenant.
2. That self-governed colonies and dominions could not be represented on the League Council at the same time with the mother government, or be included in any of those clauses where the parties to the dispute are excluded from its settlement.
3. That the functioning of the Council under Article X shall be advisory only, and that each member shall be left free to determine questions of war in its own way, the decision of the United States resting with Congress.
4. That differences between the nations regarding immigration, the tariff, and other domestic questions shall not be left to the League for settlement.
5: That the Monroe Doctrine is to be reserved for administration by the United States.
6. That the United States reserves the right to withdraw unconditionally at the end of ten years, or at least to terminate then her obligations under Article X.
The Lodge RESERVATIONS.—In a speech before the Senate on Aug. 12, Senator Lodge offered five reservations to be added to the League Covenant, and to have the practical effect of amendments. Senator Lodge suggested that these should be accepted by at least the four other great powers in the Council of the League. The proposals follow:
1. On Article 10, touching upon the guarantee of territorial integrity of nations in the League, so as to provide that Congress retain definitely the right to say when and where American soldiers are to fight. Under this reservation it would be impossible for the League to compel America to send forces into any conflict anywhere without the consent of Congress.
2. On Article 11, relating to the right of the Council to pass upon any emergency of “
war or threat of war and to recommend any action it deems “ wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of the world." Under this Lodge reservation proposal any decision of the Council involving the use of American forces would be subject to the consent of Congress, as in / the case of Article 10.
3. As to the Monroe Doctrine, stating plainly that it is not to be subject to interpretation or construction by the League Council.
4. On purely domestic questions, such as immigration, the tariff and racial matters, these all being reserved entirely for American determination.
5. On the two years' withdrawal clause, the United States Government, and not the League Council, to determine if America's obligations under the covenant have been fulfilled.-N. Y. Times, 13/7.
FRENCH TREATY SUBMITTED TO SENATE.—Complying with a request expressed in a Senate Resolution, President Wilson, on July 29, submitted to the Senate the text of the Proposed Treaty with France, and on August II the informal draft of a League of Nations covenant which was prepared by the American Peace Commission. The draft was found to conform closely to the actual Covenant, Article X on territorial integrity being practically identical.
OTHER Nations Ratify PEACE TREATY.--The Peace Treaty, including the League of Nations Covenant and the Anglo-French defensive agreement were passed by the British Hcuse of Commons on July 21, and by the House of Lords on July 24. In the course of the debate in the House of Lords, Earl Curzon stated that it had not been finally decided that the trial of the ex-Kaiser would be held in England.
The Peace Treaty was ratified by the Belgian Chamber of Deputies on August 8, and by the Polish Parliament on July 31. Ratification was also recommended by the Peace Treaty Committee of the French Chamber of Deputies by a vote of 34 to 1. According to a Paris dispatch discussion of the Treaty in the French Chamber was scheduled to begin about August 26.
AUSTRIAN PEACE TERMS Paris, July 20.—The full peace conditions of the Allied and Associated Powers are now in the hands of the Austrians.
In addition to the published summary of the terms of June 2, the new clauses provide for the reparation arrangements very similar to those in the treaty with Germany, including the establishment of an Austrian subsection of the Reparations Commission, the payment of a reasonable sum in cash, the issuing of bonds, and the delivery of livestock and certain historical and art documents.
The financial terms provide that the Austrian pre-war debt shall be apportioned among the former parts of Austria, and that the Austrian coinage and war bonds circulating iri the separated territory shall be taken up by the new Governments and redeemed as they see fit.
Under the military terms the Austrian army is henceforth reduced to 30,000 men on a purely voluntary basis.-N. Y. Times, 21/6.
BULGARIAN PEACE SETTLEMENT Paris dispatches of July 25 announced that the Bulgarian Peace Commissioners would arrive in Paris on the following day, that the Bulgarian Treaty was nearly completed, and that the reparation demanded of Bulgaria would be from $2,000,000,000 to $3,000,000,000.
The chief difficulty of the Balkan settlement lay in the disposition of Thrace, a name applied to the rich tobacco country lying east of Macedonia and south of Bulgaria on the Ægean Sea, inhabited by a mixed population, and claimed by both Bulgaria and Greece.
Paris, Aug. 8.—The solution arrived at, the Intransigeant says, provides for dividing Thrace into Eastern and Western Thrace. Eastern Thrace will be divided into three parts, Greece getting two of them and a third being designated as a part of the future free State of Constantinople.
Of Western Thrace, a quarter is to be given to Greece and the other three-quarters are to constitute a free State to be set up under the League of Nations.
A commission of technical experts will be sent to Thrace to put the solution into practical form, it is said.
According to the probable designation of Thrace and its projected partition, Bulgaria will be completely shut out from the Ægean Sea, on which she secured a coast line from the Mesta to the town of Enos, (about 80 miles,) in 1913, while Greece will secure the rich tobacco lands of the Kavala region already given her, however, by the Buchanan treaty. The future free State of Constantinople, on the east, will secure the Dedeaghatch railway and Maritza River system leading north to the junction with the Belgrade-Constantinople-Orient Railway at Adrianople.-N. Y. Times, 17/7.
JAPAN AND CHINA JAPAN EXPLAINS POLICY.—Prompted by opposition in the United States and elsewhere to the terms of the Shantung settlement, Viscount Uchida, Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs, issued on August 3 a statement to the effect that Japan was ready to hand back the Shantung Peninsula to China, retaining only the economic privileges formerly held by Germany, and to begin negotiations to that end as soon as possible after the ratification of the Peace Treaty by Japan.” He further stated that Tsingtao would be made a general foreign instead of an exclusively Japanese settlement, and that the Kiao-Chau-Tsinan-Fu Railway would be operated as a "joint Japanese-Chinese enterprise without any discrimination in treatment against the people of any nation.” The statement reads:
It appears that, in spite of the official statement which the Japanese Delegation at Paris issued on May 5 last, and which I fully stated in an interview with the representatives of the press on May 17, Japan's policy respecting the Shantung question is little understood or appreciated abroad.
It will be remembered that in the ultimatum which the Japanese Government addressed to the German Government on Aug. 15, 1914, they demanded of Germany to deliver, on a date not later than Sept. 15, 1914, to the